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MAN(1)                      General Commands Manual                     MAN(1)



NAME
       man - display reference manual pages; find reference pages by keyword

SYNOPSIS
       man [-] [-t] [-M path] [-T macro-package] [[section] title ...] ...
       man [-M path] -k keyword ...
       man [-M path] -f filename ...

DESCRIPTION
       man  displays  information  from the reference manuals.  It can display
       complete manual pages that you select by title, or  one-line  summaries
       selected  either  by keyword (-k), or by the name of an associated file
       (-f).

       A section, when given, applies to the titles that follow it on the com-
       mand line (up to the next section, if any).  man looks in the indicated
       section of the manual for those titles.   section  is  either  a  digit
       (perhaps  followed  by  a  single  letter indicating the type of manual
       page), or one of the words new, local, old, or public.   The  abbrevia-
       tions  n,  l,  o  and  p  are also allowed.  If section is omitted, man
       searches all reference sections (giving  preference  to  commands  over
       functions)  and  prints  the  first manual page it finds.  If no manual
       page is located, man prints an error message.

       The reference page sources are typically located in  the  /usr/man/man?
       directories.   Since  these  directories are optionally installed, they
       may not reside on your host; you may have to mount /usr/man from a host
       on  which  they  do reside.  If there are preformatted, up-to-date ver-
       sions in corresponding cat?  or fmt?  directories, man simply  displays
       or  prints  those versions.  If the preformatted version of interest is
       out of date or missing, man reformats it prior to display.  If directo-
       ries  for  the  preformatted versions are not provided, man reformats a
       page whenever it is requested; it uses a temporary file  to  store  the
       formatted text during display.

       If  the standard output is not a terminal, or if the `-' flag is given,
       man pipes its output through cat(1V).  Otherwise, man pipes its  output
       through more(1) to handle paging and underlining on the screen.

OPTIONS
       -t     man  arranges  for the specified manual pages to be troffed to a
              suitable raster output device (see troff(1) or  vtroff(1)).   If
              both  the - and -t flags are given, man updates the troffed ver-
              sions of each named title (if necessary), but does  not  display
              them.

       -M path
              Change  the search path for manual pages.  path is a colon-sepa-
              rated list of directories that  contain  manual  page  directory
              subtrees.   For example, /usr/man/u_man:/usr/man/a_man makes man
              search in the standard System V locations.  When used  with  the
              -k  or -f options, the -M option must appear first.  Each direc-
              tory in the path is assumed to  contain  subdirectories  of  the
              form man[1-8l-p].

       -T macro-package
              man  uses  macro-package  rather  than  the standard -man macros
              defined in /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.an for formatting manual pages.

       -k keyword ...
              man prints out one-line summaries from the whatis database  (ta-
              ble  of  contents)  that contain any of the given keywords.  The
              whatis database is created using the catman(8) command with  the
              -w option.

       -f filename ...
              man  attempts to locate manual pages related to any of the given
              filenames.  It strips the leading pathname components from  each
              filename,  and  then  prints  one-line  summaries containing the
              resulting basename or names.  This option also uses  the  whatis
              database.

MANUAL PAGES
       Manual  pages are troff(1)/nroff(1) source files prepared with the -man
       macro package.  Refer to man(7), or for more information.

       When formatting a manual page, man examines the first line to determine
       whether it requires special processing.

   Referring to Other Manual Pages
       If  the  first line of the manual page is a reference to another manual
       page entry fitting the pattern:
              .so man?*/ sourcefile

       man processes the indicated file in place of the current one.  The ref-
       erence must be expressed as a pathname relative to the root of the man-
       ual page directory subtree.

       When the second or any subsequent line starts with .so, man ignores it;
       troff(1) or nroff(1) processes the request in the usual manner.

   Preprocessing Manual Pages
       If the first line is a string of the form:

              '\"  X

       where X is separated from the `"' by a single SPACE and consists of any
       combination of characters in the following list, man pipes its input to
       troff(1) or nroff(1) through the corresponding preprocessors.
              e      eqn(1), or neqn for nroff
              r      refer(1)
              t      tbl(1)
              v      vgrind(1)

       If  eqn  or  neqn  is  invoked,  it  will  automatically  read the file
       /usr/pub/eqnchar (see eqnchar(7)).  If nroff(1) is invoked, col(1V)  is
       automatically used.

ENVIRONMENT
       MANPATH        If  set,  its  value  overrides  /usr/man as the default
                      search path.  (The -M  flag,  in  turn,  overrides  this
                      value.)

       PAGER          A program to use for interactively delivering man's out-
                      put to the screen.  If not set, `more -s' (see  more(1))
                      is used.

       TCAT           The name of the program to use to display troffed manual
                      pages.  If not set, `lpr -t' (see lpr(1)) is used.

       TROFF          The name of the formatter to use when  the  -t  flag  is
                      given.  If not set, troff is used.

FILES
       /usr/[share]/man              root  of  the standard manual page direc-
                                     tory subtree
       /usr/[share]/man/man?/*       unformatted manual entries
       /usr/[share]/man/cat?/*       nroffed manual entries
       /usr/[share]/man/fmt?/*       troffed manual entries
       /usr/[share]/man/whatis       table of contents and keyword database
       /usr/[share]/lib/tmac/tmac.an standard -man macro package
       /usr/pub/eqnchar

SEE ALSO
       apropos(1),  cat(1V),  col(1V),  eqn(1),  lpr(1),  more(1),   nroff(1),
       refer(1),  tbl(1),  troff(1),  vgrind(1),  vtroff(1),  whatis(1),  eqn-
       char(7), man(7), catman(8)

NOTES
       Because troff is not 8-bit clean, man has not been made 8-bit clean.

       The -f and -k options use the /usr/man/whatis database, which  is  cre-
       ated by catman(8).

BUGS
       The  manual  is supposed to be reproducible either on a phototypesetter
       or on an ASCII terminal.   However,  on  a  terminal  some  information
       (indicated by font changes, for instance) is necessarily lost.

       Some dumb terminals cannot process the vertical motions produced by the
       e (eqn(1)) preprocessing flag.  To prevent garbled output on these ter-
       minals,  when you use e also use t, to invoke col(1V) implicitly.  This
       workaround has the disadvantage of eliminating  superscripts  and  sub-
       scripts  -- even on those terminals that can display them.  CTRL-Q will
       clear a terminal that gets confused by eqn(1) output.



                                12 January 1988                         MAN(1)