MAN(1) General Commands Manual MAN(1)
man - display reference manual pages; find reference pages by keyword
man [-] [-t] [-M path] [-T macro-package] [[section] title ...] ...
man [-M path] -k keyword ...
man [-M path] -f filename ...
man displays information from the reference manuals. It can display
complete manual pages that you select by title, or one-line summaries
selected either by keyword (-k), or by the name of an associated file
A section, when given, applies to the titles that follow it on the com-
mand line (up to the next section, if any). man looks in the indicated
section of the manual for those titles. section is either a digit
(perhaps followed by a single letter indicating the type of manual
page), or one of the words new, local, old, or public. The abbrevia-
tions n, l, o and p are also allowed. If section is omitted, man
searches all reference sections (giving preference to commands over
functions) and prints the first manual page it finds. If no manual
page is located, man prints an error message.
The reference page sources are typically located in the /usr/man/man?
directories. Since these directories are optionally installed, they
may not reside on your host; you may have to mount /usr/man from a host
on which they do reside. If there are preformatted, up-to-date ver-
sions in corresponding cat? or fmt? directories, man simply displays
or prints those versions. If the preformatted version of interest is
out of date or missing, man reformats it prior to display. If directo-
ries for the preformatted versions are not provided, man reformats a
page whenever it is requested; it uses a temporary file to store the
formatted text during display.
If the standard output is not a terminal, or if the `-' flag is given,
man pipes its output through cat(1V). Otherwise, man pipes its output
through more(1) to handle paging and underlining on the screen.
-t man arranges for the specified manual pages to be troffed to a
suitable raster output device (see troff(1) or vtroff(1)). If
both the - and -t flags are given, man updates the troffed ver-
sions of each named title (if necessary), but does not display
Change the search path for manual pages. path is a colon-sepa-
rated list of directories that contain manual page directory
subtrees. For example, /usr/man/u_man:/usr/man/a_man makes man
search in the standard System V locations. When used with the
-k or -f options, the -M option must appear first. Each direc-
tory in the path is assumed to contain subdirectories of the
man uses macro-package rather than the standard -man macros
defined in /usr/lib/tmac/tmac.an for formatting manual pages.
-k keyword ...
man prints out one-line summaries from the whatis database (ta-
ble of contents) that contain any of the given keywords. The
whatis database is created using the catman(8) command with the
-f filename ...
man attempts to locate manual pages related to any of the given
filenames. It strips the leading pathname components from each
filename, and then prints one-line summaries containing the
resulting basename or names. This option also uses the whatis
Manual pages are troff(1)/nroff(1) source files prepared with the -man
macro package. Refer to man(7), or for more information.
When formatting a manual page, man examines the first line to determine
whether it requires special processing.
Referring to Other Manual Pages
If the first line of the manual page is a reference to another manual
page entry fitting the pattern:
.so man?*/ sourcefile
man processes the indicated file in place of the current one. The ref-
erence must be expressed as a pathname relative to the root of the man-
ual page directory subtree.
When the second or any subsequent line starts with .so, man ignores it;
troff(1) or nroff(1) processes the request in the usual manner.
Preprocessing Manual Pages
If the first line is a string of the form:
where X is separated from the `"' by a single SPACE and consists of any
combination of characters in the following list, man pipes its input to
troff(1) or nroff(1) through the corresponding preprocessors.
e eqn(1), or neqn for nroff
If eqn or neqn is invoked, it will automatically read the file
/usr/pub/eqnchar (see eqnchar(7)). If nroff(1) is invoked, col(1V) is
MANPATH If set, its value overrides /usr/man as the default
search path. (The -M flag, in turn, overrides this
PAGER A program to use for interactively delivering man's out-
put to the screen. If not set, `more -s' (see more(1))
TCAT The name of the program to use to display troffed manual
pages. If not set, `lpr -t' (see lpr(1)) is used.
TROFF The name of the formatter to use when the -t flag is
given. If not set, troff is used.
/usr/[share]/man root of the standard manual page direc-
/usr/[share]/man/man?/* unformatted manual entries
/usr/[share]/man/cat?/* nroffed manual entries
/usr/[share]/man/fmt?/* troffed manual entries
/usr/[share]/man/whatis table of contents and keyword database
/usr/[share]/lib/tmac/tmac.an standard -man macro package
apropos(1), cat(1V), col(1V), eqn(1), lpr(1), more(1), nroff(1),
refer(1), tbl(1), troff(1), vgrind(1), vtroff(1), whatis(1), eqn-
char(7), man(7), catman(8)
Because troff is not 8-bit clean, man has not been made 8-bit clean.
The -f and -k options use the /usr/man/whatis database, which is cre-
ated by catman(8).
The manual is supposed to be reproducible either on a phototypesetter
or on an ASCII terminal. However, on a terminal some information
(indicated by font changes, for instance) is necessarily lost.
Some dumb terminals cannot process the vertical motions produced by the
e (eqn(1)) preprocessing flag. To prevent garbled output on these ter-
minals, when you use e also use t, to invoke col(1V) implicitly. This
workaround has the disadvantage of eliminating superscripts and sub-
scripts -- even on those terminals that can display them. CTRL-Q will
clear a terminal that gets confused by eqn(1) output.
12 January 1988 MAN(1)