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man(1)								       man(1)



NAME

  man -	Displays reference pages

SYNOPSIS

  man [-] [-M  | -P search_path] [-l] {[section[suffix]] title...}...

  man [-M  | -P	search_path] -f	title...

  man [-M  | -P	search_path] -k	keyword...

STANDARDS

  Interfaces documented	on this	reference page conform to industry standards
  as follows:

  man: POSIX.2,	XCU5.0

  Refer	to the standards(5) reference page for more information	about indus-
  try standards	and associated tags.

OPTIONS

  -   [Tru64 UNIX]  Does not pipe output through more for display

  -f title ...
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Describes the specified command, call, function, or	file
      name if the whatis keyword database exists.  Performs the	same function
      as the whatis command.  You can specify more than	one title.

  -k keyword ...
      Locates reference	pages whose NAME section contains the specified	key-
      word if the whatis database exists.  Performs the	same function as the
      apropos command. You can specify more than one keyword.

  -l  [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies that the reference page resides in a section
      directory	subordinate to the /usr/local/man area rather than one subor-
      dinate to	the /usr/share/man or /usr/dt/share/man	area.

  -M search_path
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies an alternative search path. The search_path
      argument contains	one or more pathnames for directories that contain
      section directories (directories named man1, man2, man3, and so forth)
      where reference pages reside.  Use a colon (:) to	separate multiple
      pathnames. By default, the man command searches for section directories
      in /usr/share/locale_name/man (if	it exists), /usr/share/man,
      /usr/dt/share/man, and /usr/local/man (if	it exists) in that order.
      The /usr/share/locale_name/man directory is created when reference page
      translations for a particular locale are installed. The man command
      determines locale_name from the setting of the LC_MESSAGES environment
      variable.

  -P search_path
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies an alternative search path.  (Performs the same
      function as -M search_path and is	provided for compatibility with	other
      systems.)



OPERANDS

  [section[suffix]]
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies the optional section and suffix identifiers for
      the reference page.

      [Tru64 UNIX]  The	section	parameter is either a number (0-9), the
      number/letter combination	1m, or one of the letters C, L,	F, n, l, p,
      or o. The	numbers	1 to 8 and the number/letter combination 1m are	most
      appropriate to use with reference	pages installed	for the	Tru64 UNIX
      product. (The number 9 is	also appropriate if reference pages are
      available	for the	device-driver programming kit, which is	separately
      installed.) You usually specify section to identify a reference page
      that has the same	title as another reference page	in a different sec-
      tion.

      [Tru64 UNIX]  The	suffix parameter is a string of	one or more charac-
      ters, starting with a letter. You	usually	specify	suffix in addition to
      section to identify a reference page that	has the	same title as another
      reference	page in	the same section.

  title
      Specifies	the name of the	reference page.

DESCRIPTION

  The man command provides online access to the	system's reference pages. For
  example, if reference	pages are available on your system, the	following
  command displays the first screenful of reference information	for the	ls
  command:

       % man ls

  You can press	the space bar to see the next screen or	press other keys to
  control or search the	display. For more information, see the subsection
  entitled Controlling the Pager Used by the man Command.

  The industry standards listed	in the STANDARDS section specify the man
  command's exit values	and require the	command	to support the -k option, one
  or more title	parameters, and	certain	environment variables. Much of the
  command's behavior is	implementation defined,	as indicated by	the [Compaq]
  tag that precedes most of the	information on this reference page.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	Most reference pages reside in section directories subordi-
  nate to /usr/share/man. Your system manager can optionally create the
  /usr/local/man area as a location for	site-specific reference	pages.	In
  addition, the	area for reference pages provided for the Common Desktop
  Environment (CDE) is /usr/dt/share/man. When all three areas exist on	a
  system, the default behavior of the man command is to	search for reference
  pages	first in /usr/share/man, then in /usr/dt/share/man, and	finally	in
  /usr/local/man.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	Within a given reference page area, multiple reference pages
  can have the same title. Duplicate titles can	be encountered across section
  directories, within section directories, or both. When two reference pages
  have the same	title within a section directory, one or both reference	pages
  include a suffix in the section identifier.


  [Tru64 UNIX]	If you specify only title in the man command, it displays the
  first	title encountered in the section order 1, 8, 6,	2, 3, 4, 5, 7, C, L,
  F, n,	l, p, o, 1m, 9.	 If there is more than one title in the	same section,
  the reference	page without a section suffix has precedence over reference
  pages	that have section suffixes. When duplicate titles are encountered
  with the same	section	and different suffixes,	suffixes are ordered
  alphabetically.  In this case, the reference page whose suffix occurs	ear-
  liest	in alphabetical	order has precedence. The section and suffix operands
  are available	to specify which reference page	you want to see	when more
  than one instance of titles is available.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	If you specify section,	the man	command	looks for the speci-
  fied titles only in the directories for the specified	sections. For all
  number sections and all but one of the letter	section	identifiers, the com-
  mand must find the title in a	directory that corresponds to the specified
  section. For example,	when you enter the command man 3 printf, the command
  looks	for the	printf title only in a man3 directory. The exception to	this
  rule is that if you specify the section as the number	1 or letter C, the
  man command searches sections	C, n, l, p, o, and 1 in	that order.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	A section identifier corresponds to a particular category of
  information and, with	the exception of C, to only one	corresponding direc-
  tory.	 In the	following list,	an asterisk (*)	follows	the section descrip-
  tion when it applies to reference pages installed for	the Tru64 UNIX pro-
  duct:

  0   Not used.

  1   Reference	pages for commands that	all users can enter (*).

  1m  Reference	pages for commands related to system maintenance and opera-
      tion (*, for Common Desktop Environment only).

  2   Reference	pages for system calls,	or program interfaces to the operat-
      ing system kernel	(*).

  3   Reference	pages for program interfaces found in various libraries	(*).

  4   Reference	pages for include files, program output	files, and some	sys-
      tem files	(*).

  5   Reference	pages on miscellaneous topics, such as text-processing macro
      packages (*).

  6   Reference	pages for games.

  7   Reference	pages for device special files,	related	driver functions, and
      networking support (*).

  8   Reference	pages for commands related to system maintenance and opera-
      tion (*).

  9   Reference	pages used for writing device drivers.

  C   Reference	pages for commands.

  F   Reference	pages for files.

  L   Reference	pages for libraries.

  l   Reference	pages with local (site-specific) information.

  n   New reference pages.

  o   Old reference pages.

  p   Public reference pages.






				       Note

	 Almost	all implementations of a UNIX operating	system use reference
	 page sections 4, 5, and 7 to describe different types of files.
	 However, the type of file described in	each section varies from one
	 implementation	to another. For	example, on ULTRIX and some other
	 UNIX implementations, Section 4 describes device special files
	 rather	than include files, Section 5 describes	include	files rather
	 than macro packages, and Section 7 describes macro packages rather
	 than device special files.



  [Tru64 UNIX]	You need to specify section only if either of the following
  conditions is	true:

    +  The reference page is in	section	0.

    +  There are two reference pages with the same name	(title)	in different
       sections, and the reference page	you want to see	is not the one that
       the man command displays	by default.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	If you specify suffix along with section, the man command
  looks	only for the reference page that has both the specified	section	and
  the specified	suffix.	 You need to specify suffix in addition	to section
  only when both of the	following conditions are true:

    +  There is	more than one reference	page with the same title in the	same
       section

    +  The reference page you want to see is not the one that the man command
       displays	by default.

       For example, if both abort(3) and abort(3f) exist in a man3 directory,
       the command man 3 abort displays	abort(3). In this case,	you would
       need to enter the command man 3f	abort to display abort(3f).

  [Tru64 UNIX]	In the man command's default search path are two locations
  intended for site-specific reference pages:

    +  A section directory named manl (l for local) in the /usr/share/man
       area

    +  Section directories subordinate to the /usr/local/man area

  [Tru64 UNIX]	One, both, or neither of these locations may exist on your
  system.  They	are created by the system administrator.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	If you include the -l option in	the man	command, you specify
  reference pages in the /usr/local/man	area. If you include the l section
  identifier, you specify reference pages in a manl section directory. For
  example, the command man -l 5	print specifies	print(5), whose	file resides
  in /usr/local/man/man5. The command man l print specifies print(1), whose
  file resides in /usr/share/man/manl.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The man	command's section and title arguments can be paired
  so that a series of titles can be searched for in a section, or multiple
  sections can be searched for one or more titles.


  Changing the man Command's Search Path


  [Tru64 UNIX]	By default, the	man command checks for reference pages first
  in the /usr/share/man	area, then in the /usr/dt/share/man area, and finally
  in the /usr/local/man	area. You can change this behavior by supplying	a
  search path with the -M or -P	option or by defining the MANPATH variable.
  You can define the MANPATH variable on the command line or in	a file,	such
  as your .profile file	or .login file (if you want the	path change to always
  apply	to your	process). The search path is a colon-separated list of direc-
  tories in which man expects to find the section subdirectories. The string
  /usr/share/%L/man:/usr/dt/share/man:/usr/local/man represents	the default
  search path.	The default path includes %L, which is one of the following
  locale directives that can be	included in pathnames:

  %L  The current locale name (for example, zh_CN.dechanzi@radical) that is
      the value	of the LC_MESSAGES environment variable

  %P  The same as %L except that the @ suffix is removed if the	locale name
      has such a suffix	(for example, zh_CN.dechanzi)

      A	few locales have one or	more variants to support different collating
      orders and these variants	include	an @ suffix. Users may assign a
      locale variant name to the LANG or LC_ALL	variable rather	than specifi-
      cally to the LC_COLLATE variable.	In this	case, the LC_MESSAGES vari-
      able would inherit its value from	the LANG or LC_ALL variable.  The %P
      ensures that the man command does	not expect to find a reference page
      directory	whose name includes the	@ suffix.

  %l  The language element of the locale name currently	assigned to the
      LC_MESSAGES variable (for	example, zh)

  %t  The territory element of the locale name currently assigned to the
      LC_MESSAGES variable (for	example, CN)

  %c  The codeset element of the locale	name currently assigned	to the
      LC_MESSAGES variable (for	example, dechanzi)

  %%  A	single percent sign (%)	character

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The following search path example changes the order in which
  reference page areas are searched. It	also adds support for installations
  of reference page translations within	the CDE	and site-specific areas:

       % setenv	MANPATH	/usr/local/%L/man:/usr/dt/share/%L/man:/usr/share/%L/man

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The following search path example adds the directory
  /usr/share/doclib/annex/man:

       % setenv	MANPATH	\
       /usr/share/%L/man:/usr/dt/share/%L/man:/usr/share/doclib/annex/man

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The /usr/share/doclib/annex/man	area is	the location of	sup-
  plementary reference pages for certain components, such as perl, which have
  been obtained	from the public	domain or the Free Software Foundation.
  Files	installed under	/usr/share/doclib/annex/man are	not checked for
  technical accuracy and coding	by Compaq, nor are they	maintained by Compaq.
  These	files are included for the convenience of customers without Internet
  access. (In all cases, the same files	can be downloaded over the Internet
  from the contributing	third-party site without charge.)

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The /usr/share/doclib/annex/man	directory is not part of the
  default search path for the man and catman commands because of the higher
  probability of processing problems, particularly for catman when producing
  the whatis database. However,	it is easy to adjust MANPATH on	a user-
  specific basis so that the installed reference pages are automatically
  found	by the man command.




				     Note

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Some users	indirectly use the webman script, also con-
       trolled by the MANPATH setting, to dynamically convert reference	page
       source files to HTML format for viewing in a web	browser. These users
       should be aware that the	webman script may not convert to HTML all of
       the man coding constructs that can be found in third-party reference
       pages.

  Enabling Codeset Conversion of Translated Reference Pages


  [Tru64 UNIX]	The man	command	can automatically invoke the iconv utility to
  perform codeset conversion of	reference page files. This capability allows
  you to install one set of reference pages to support locales that have the
  same language	and territory but different codesets, thereby reducing file
  redundancy on	the system. To enable codeset conversion, the following	con-
  ditions must be met:

    +  The LC_MESSAGES locale category of the process running the man command
       must be set to the locale name to which the reference pages will	be
       converted.

    +  The underlying iconv utility must have a	converter available for	the
       source and destination codesets.	Refer to the iconv(1) reference	page
       for more	information about codeset converters.

    +  An appropriate locale mapping file must exist in	the /usr/share direc-
       tory.

       A locale	mapping	file is	a hidden file whose name has the format
       .man_conv-locale_name, where locale_name	is a complete locale name
       that includes the name of the destination codeset.  The content of the
       locale mapping file is the locale with the source codeset for which
       translated manpages are available.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	For example, after installing Tru64 UNIX subsets of software
  and translated reference pages for Japanese, the eucJP_SJIS codeset con-
  verter is installed in the /usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv directory, manpages	for
  the ja_JP.eucJP locale are installed in the /usr/share/ja_JP.eucJP/man
  directory, and the .man_conv-ja_JP.SJIS file,	which contains the
  ja_JP.eucJP locale name, is moved to the /usr/share directory.  When users
  set locale to	ja_JP.SJIS and run the man command, it accesses	the reference
  pages	in the /usr/share/ja_JP.eucJP/man directory and	converts them to the
  SJIS codeset for display.

  Controlling the Pager	Used by	the man	Command


  [Tru64 UNIX]	By default, you	can use	the following keys to control and
  navigate the reference page display:

  Return or Enter
      Advances the display by one line.

  Space	Bar
      Advances the display by one screen.

  u   Backs up the display by one half screen.

  /string
      Searches for the first instance of the specified string.

  n   Searches for the next instance of	the string specified by	a preceding
      /string directive.

  q   Stops the	display.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	Refer to the more(1) reference page for	a complete discussion
  of pager subcommands.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	By default, if the standard output is a	teletype and the -
  (single minus	sign) option is	not provided, man uses the more	-svf command
  to display formatted output. The -vf options are present in case the lp
  nroff	device driver generates	special	device control codes.

  The following	conditions also	affect how the man command displays output:

    +  If the MORE environment variable	is defined, the	man command uses the
       defined command line in place of	more -svf. If the -v and -f options
       are missing, reference pages may	not display properly.

    +  If another pager	is defined for the PAGER environment variable, the
       man command uses	that pager in place of the more	command.

  Formatted Reference Pages


  [Tru64 UNIX]	A reference page area may or may not contain cat? directories
  with formatted reference pages. Your system administrator can	create these
  directories and preformat reference page source files	by using the catman
  command (see catman(8)).  The	man command checks to see if a preformatted
  version of a reference page exists and, if it	does and has a more recent
  date than the	corresponding source file, the command simply displays the
  preformatted file using the more command or the defined pager.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	If the specified reference page	exists only as a source	file,
  the man command processes the	file through a pipeline	of commands.  This
  pipeline includes:

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  If	the file is compressed,	the gunzip command to
       uncompress the file

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  The tbl and neqn commands to preprocess source markup
       for tables and equations

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  The nroff command to create formatted output

    +  The more	command	or an alternative pager	command	(if defined) to
       display the file

       [Tru64 UNIX]  This last step does not occur if you specify the -
       option on the man command line or if standard output is not a teletype
       device (for example, if you pipe	man command output to another command
       or redirect it to a file).

  [Tru64 UNIX]	When processing	the reference page through nroff, the man
  command specifies the	-m option with the name	of the macro package
  described in man(5). Most Tru64 UNIX reference pages require not only	this
  macro	package	but also those described in rsml(5). The additional macro
  packages are applied using .so entries in the	reference page source files
  and not through the nroff command line invoked by the	man command.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The nroff command invoked by man also includes the -Tdevice
  option. The value for	device differs,	depending on whether cat? directories
  are present when the source file is formatted. When the appropriate cat?
  directory is present and does	not contain a formatted	version	of the refer-
  ence page, the man command formats source by creating	output for the nroff
  lp device.  It also saves the	formatted output in the	cat? directory.	If
  the cat? directory is	absent,	the man	command	formats	a reference page by
  creating output for the nroff	lpr device and does not	save the formatted
  output.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	If a preformatted version of the reference page	exists,	but
  the source version is	more recent than the preformatted one, the man com-
  mand does not	use the	preformatted file. The command formats the source
  file and replaces the	preformatted file with a new version.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	When a specified reference page	is not formatted or is being
  formatted again, the man command displays an appropriate status message,
  unless the standard output is	not a teletype device. For example, the
  status message is not	displayed when output from the man command is
  redirected to	a file or piped	to another command.

  Reference Pages in Compressed	Format


  [Tru64 UNIX]	The man	command	supports reference page	files in either
  compressed or	uncompressed format.  Compressed files can save	a significant
  amount of disk space in the file system where	reference page subsets are
  installed.  The reference page files for the operating system	product	are
  installed as .gz files, which	are compressed files created by	the gzip com-
  mand.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	To display a compressed	reference page,	the man	command	tem-
  porarily uncompresses	the file by invoking the gunzip	utility	with the -c
  option before	invoking other commands	to format (if necessary) and display
  the reference	page.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	There are a number of requirements and restrictions that
  apply	to reference pages in compressed format. For more information, refer
  to both the Reference	Page Pointers section in this DESCRIPTION and the
  RESTRICTIONS section.

  Reference Page Pointers


  [Tru64 UNIX]	Reference page directories can contain cross-reference
  (pointer) reference pages.  Pointers,	which invoke another reference page,
  support those	reference page files that contain multiple names in the	NAME
  section. The pointers	allow users to invoke a	reference page by specifying
  any of the names in the NAME section,	not only the name of the reference
  page itself.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The man	command	supports different kinds of pointers, depend-
  ing on whether reference page	files are compressed or	uncompressed, source
  files, or preformatted files.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	When reference page files are compressed (either source	files
  in man? directories or preformatted files in cat? directories), their	asso-
  ciated pointers must be implemented as hard links. Furthermore, each
  pointer file name must end with the same compression extension as the	file
  that the pointer invokes. For	example, if a reference	page was compressed
  by the gzip command, both the	reference page file name and those of its
  pointers, must end in	.gz.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	When uncompressed reference pages reside in cat? directories,
  pointers are symbolic	links to the files that	the command displays.  When
  uncompressed reference pages reside in man? directories, pointers are	one-
  line files.  The one line is an nroff	include	directive that has one of the
  following formats:

  .so man?/title2.section

  .soman?/title2.section

  [Tru64 UNIX]	In this	case, the man command will reformat the	title2 refer-
  ence page, if	necessary, and save the	output in the file title2.section in
  the appropriate cat? directory, assuming the cat? directory exists.

RESTRICTIONS

  This section contains	restrictions that apply	to the man command and the
  files	that it	processes.

  Pathnames in Uncompressed Pointer Files Must Start With man?


  [Tru64 UNIX]	The man	command	changes	directory to /usr/share/man,
  /usr/dt/share/man, /usr/local/man, or	to those directories specified with
  the MANPATH variable,	the -M option, or -P option.  Some reference pages
  assume this change of	directory.  Therefore, an attempt to format
  uncompressed reference pages can fail	if any .so directives specifying par-
  tial pathnames do not	start with man?/. For example, a cross-reference file
  that includes	the cat(1) reference page must specify man1 in the pathname:

       .so man1/cat.1

  Pointers Must	Reside in Same Area as Related Files


  [Tru64 UNIX]	The man	command	does not support cross-references to files
  outside the current reference	page area.  For	example, a pointer that
  resides in the /usr/local/man	area cannot include or invoke a	file that
  resides in the /usr/share/man	area.

  Compressed Pointers Cannot Be	Copied Across File Systems


  [Tru64 UNIX]	A pointer associated with a compressed reference page is a
  hard link, which is not a file but an	alternative entry in a file system
  table	for a particular file. Hard links cannot be transferred	from one file
  system to another by using commands, such as cp, rcp,	or mv. These commands
  cannot determine which entries in a file system table	point to the same
  file,	and so copy the	file that is pointed to	into the destination area
  each time a hard link	is encountered.	 Reference pages can have many asso-
  ciated pointers. Therefore, an operation that	moves directories of
  compressed reference pages from one file system to another consumes far
  more disk space in the destination area than was required in the source
  area.

  The cat? Directories May Not Exist


  [Tru64 UNIX]	The .../man/cat? directories are not required. It is the
  option of the	system administrator to	create these directories and prefor-
  mat reference	page source files using	the catman command. If you are creat-
  ing reference	pages to be installed on multiple systems, be sure to supply
  the files in source file format so they can reside in	the man? directories.

  Most Commands	Cannot Work Directly on	Compressed Files


  [Tru64 UNIX]	Most reference page files are installed	in compressed format,
  which	means that they	cannot be processed directly by	most commands. How-
  ever,	you can	use the	gunzip -c (or gzip -u -c) command to uncompress	the
  files	and direct the result to standard output for additional	processing.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The following examples search the man8 directory to find
  reference pages that contain the string "install".

  For POSIX (including Korn) and Bourne	shells:


       $ cd /usr/share/man/man8
       $ for i in *.gz;	do
       >> gunzip	-c $i |	grep 'install' >>&&- &&&& echo "***	$i"
       >> gunzip	-c $i |	grep 'install'
       >> done

  For C	shell:

       % cd /usr/share/man/man8
       % foreach i (*.gz)
       >> gunzip	-c $i |	grep 'install' >>/dev/null &&&& echo "*** $i"
       >> gunzip	-c $i |	grep 'install'
       >> end

  The whatis Database Is Required for Some Commands


  [Tru64 UNIX]	The man	-f (whatis) and	man -k (apropos) commands fail unless
  a whatis keyword database exists in one or more of the reference page	areas
  in the man command search path. A default whatis database is included	in
  the Tru64 UNIX product and can be optionally installed by your system
  administrator.  This database	is copied to the /usr/share/man	directory and
  includes entries for all the Tru64 UNIX reference page subsets that are
  installed on the system.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The whatis database is not updated automatically when refer-
  ence pages for layered products and other kinds of optional software are
  installed.  Therefore, your system administrator should rebuild the whatis
  database after installation of reference pages for optional products by
  invoking catman with the -w option.

  Changing Setting for lp Device Affects Preformatted Reference	Pages


  [Tru64 UNIX]	When cat? directories are present, source reference pages are
  formatted for	the nroff lp device rather than	the nroff lpr device. The
  nroff	lp device driver supplied with Tru64 UNIX is set to generate output
  for Compaq Equipment Corporation devices as specified	in term(4).  If	your
  system administrator changes the supplied setting for	the nroff lp device,
  all preformatted reference page files	created	by man or catman should	be
  deleted and reformatted for the new setting.

  Preformatted Reference Pages May Not Be Suitable for Printing


  [Tru64 UNIX]	Preformatted reference pages may not be	in a format suitable
  for printing on your hardcopy	printers because of embedded control charac-
  ters that the	printers do not	recognize. To format a reference page for a
  specific printer, move to the	reference page directory and issue commands
  such as the following:

       % cd /usr/share/man
       % gunzip	-c man1/ls.1.gz	|tbl |neqn |nroff -Tdevice -man	| \
       lpr -Pmyprinter

  [Tru64 UNIX]	Replace	the device argument with
  /usr/share/lib/term/tabdevice, where device is the name of a device listed
  in term(4). Specify lpr for device when producing output suitable for	a
  lineprinter. For example:

       % cd /usr/share/man
       % gunzip	-c man1/ls.1.gz	|tbl |neqn |nroff -Tlpr	-man | \
       lpr -Pmyprinter

  [Tru64 UNIX]	When cat? directories are absent, the man command invokes
  nroff	by specifying the lpr device. In this case, you	can usually pipe man
  command output directly to a printer or redirect the output to a file	that
  you can print. For example:

       % man 1 ls | lpr	-Pmyprinter
       % man 1 ls >> ~harry/ls.1.txt

  [Tru64 UNIX]	If the reference page has tables and the hardcopy device is
  not capable of reverse line movements, the reference page may	not print
  properly.  There is no workaround for	this problem.

  Non-Compaq Terminals May Not Display Preformatted Files Correctly


  [Tru64 UNIX]	Preformatted reference pages may not be	in a format suitable
  for display on non-Compaq terminals.	To format a reference page for a
  specific terminal, move to the reference page	directory and issue commands
  such as the following:

       % cd /usr/share/man
       % gunzip	-c man1/ls.1.gz	|tbl |neqn |nroff -Tdevice -man	-h | more -svf

  [Tru64 UNIX]	Replace	the device argument with
  /usr/share/lib/term/tabdevice, where device is the name of a device listed
  in term(4) and is one	appropriate for	your terminal.

  Nondefault Tab Settings Can Corrupt man Command Displays


  [Tru64 UNIX]	You can	view reference pages only on devices for which
  default tab boundaries are in	effect.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	To format reference page source	files, the man and catman
  commands invoke nroff	with the -h option. This option	causes nroff to	sub-
  stitute a a tab character for	each string of one or more spaces that ends
  on a default tab boundary. This operation reduces the	number of characters
  sent to devices for printing or display and also reduces the size of files
  saved	in the cat? directories.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	Default	tab boundaries are set after every eight character
  positions. If	nondefault tab boundaries have been set	on the device or sys-
  tem on which reference pages are displayed, the tab characters embedded by
  nroff	corrupt	reference page displays	with inappropriate sequences of
  spaces. If you encounter this	problem	after using the	man command, enter
  the command tabs (to restore default tab boundaries on your display device)
  and then enter the man command again.

EXIT STATUS

  The man command returns the following	exit values:

  0 (zero)
      Success.

  >>0 (greater than zero)
      Failure.






EXAMPLES

   1.  Display the printf(1) reference page:
	    % man printf

   2.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Display the printf(3) reference page:
	    % man 3 printf

   3.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Display the mgr_helper(8) reference page that you
       created in a man8 section directory under $HOME/mgr:
	    % man -M $HOME/mgr mgr_helper

   4.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Display reference pages with the title locale in sec-
       tions 1 and 4:
	    % man 1 locale 4 locale

   5.  Query the whatis	database for reference pages whose NAME	sections
       include the string "core":
	    % man -k core



ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

  The following	environment variables affect the behavior of the man command:

  LANG
      Provides a default value for other locale	variables when these are
      unset or null.

  LC_ALL
      If set to	a non-empty string, overrides the values of all	other locale
      variables, including LANG.

  LC_CTYPE
      Determines the locale for	the interpretation of byte sequences as	char-
      acters in	text data.

  LC_MESSAGES
      Determines the locale used for text written to standard error or stan-
      dard output.

  NLSPATH
      Determines the root directory for	message	catalogs containing informa-
      tional, diagnostic, and other messages returned by the command. The
      NLSPATH value, in	combination with the setting of	LC_MESSAGES, speci-
      fies the directory in which a locale-specific message catalog is found.

  PAGER
      Determines the command (pager) that man invokes to filter	output when
      writing output to	a terminal.

      A	default	pager must exist and is	implementation defined.	On Tru64 UNIX
      systems, the default pager used by man is	the more command.

FILES

  /usr/share/man
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Standard location for reference page section directories

  /usr/share/man/man?
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Section directories	containing nroff source	files for
      reference	pages

  /usr/share/man/cat?
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Section directories	containing formatted files for refer-
      ence pages

  /usr/dt/share/man
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Standard location for CDE reference	page section direc-
      tories

  /usr/dt/share/man/man?
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Section directories	containing nroff source	files for CDE
      reference	pages

  /usr/dt/share/man/cat?
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Section directories	containing formatted files for CDE
      reference	pages

  /usr/local/man
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Location of	section	directories for	site-specific, or
      local, reference pages

  /usr/local/man/man?
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Section directories	containing nroff source	files for
      local reference pages

  /usr/local/man/cat?
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Section directories	containing formatted files for local
      reference	pages

  /usr/share/man/whatis
      [Tru64 UNIX]  The	default	whatis keyword database	maintained by using
      catman

SEE ALSO

  Commands: apropos(1),	gzip(1), iconv(1), locale(1), more(1), neqn(1),
  nroff(1), pcat(1), tbl(1), whatis(1),	catman(8)

  Files: man(5), rsml(5)