Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (OSF1-V5.1-alpha)
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field

make(1)								      make(1)


  make - Maintains up-to-date versions of target files and performs shell


  make [-bemNqrtUuxy] [-c  | -C] [-F  |	-i  | -k  | -S]	[-n  | -p  | -s] [-f
  makefile] [macro_definition...] target...

  The make command updates one or more target names by executing commands in
  a description	file.


  Interfaces documented	on this	reference page conform to industry standards
  as follows:

  make:	 XCU5.0

  Refer	to the standards(5) reference page for more information	about indus-
  try standards	and associated tags.


  -b  Has no effect; exists so that older-version make dependency files	con-
      tinue to work.  This option is on	by default.

  -c  Does not try to find a corresponding Revision Control System (RCS) file
      and check	it out if the file does	not exist.

  -C  Tries to find a corresponding RCS	file and check it out if the file
      does not exist.  This option is on by default.

  -e  Does not reassign	environment variable values within the makefile.

  -f makefile
      Reads makefile for a description of how to build the target file.	 If
      you give only a -	(dash) for makefile, make reads	standard input.	If
      you do not use the -f option, make looks in the current directory	for a
      description file named makefile, Makefile, makefile,v, Makefile,v,
      RCS/makefile,v, or RCS/Makefile,v. You can specify more than one
      description file by entering the -f option more than once	(with its
      associated makefile argument).

  -F  Causes a fatal error to occur if the description file is not present.

  -i  Ignores error codes returned by commands and continues to	execute	until
      finished.	This is	analogous to the pseudotarget command .IGNORE:,	which
      would be specified in the	description file.  The make command normally
      stops if a command returns a nonzero code.  Note that make does not
      link the resulting modules when you use this option.

  -k  Stops processing the current target if an	error occurs, but continues
      with other branches that do not depend on	the target that	failed.

  -m  Searches for machine-specific subdirectories automatically.  This	is
      used in conjunction with the MACHINE macro. This subdirectory is
      searched first, then the current directory, and then the directories
      from VPATH, if defined.

  -n  Echoes commands, but does	not execute them.  Commands prefaced by	@ (at
      sign) are	also echoed.

  -N  Disables all Makeconf processing.

  -p  Echoes all of the	environment variables, macro definitions, and target
      descriptions before executing any	commands.

  -q  Does not execute the commands in the makefile.  Returns a	status code
      of zero if the object files are up-to-date; otherwise, returns a
      nonzero value.

  -r  Causes the default rules to be ignored. This is analogous	to the pseu-
      dotarget command .SUFFIXES:, which would be specified in the descrip-
      tion file.  Using	this option produces the additional warning message:
      No suffix	list.

  -s  Does not echo the	commands being executed. This is analogous to the
      pseudotarget command .SILENT:, which would be specified in the descrip-
      tion file.

  -S  Stops processing the current target if an	error occurs and does not
      continue to any other branch. This is the	default.

  -t  Updates the last-modified	date of	the target file	to the current date.

  -U  Unlinks files that were previously checked out by	RCS. This option is
      set as the default. If the .PRECIOUS: pseudotarget is defined in the
      dependency file, the target files	are not	removed.

  -u  Does not unlink files that were previously checked out by	RCS. This is
      the opposite of the -U option, which is the default.

  -x  Does not execute any commands.  Performs RCS checkout on target files
      if the -C	option is also specified, which	is the default.	The files
      will not be unlinked if the -u option is also specified. This option is
      useful for creating working copies of source files. When used with
      another option, the -x option performs only the action specified by
      that option without performing any actions specified in the current

  -y  Checks target files for dependencies.  Use this option to	ensure that
      the target files are the latest revision of the source.


  This make command is one of several versions available.  See the SEE ALSO
  section for references to information	about other versions of	the command.
  By default, the make(1) command described in this reference page is invoked
  if you type the command name with no path.

  The make command updates the target based on whether the target's dependen-
  cies have been modified relative to the time of last modification to the
  target, or if	the target itself does not exist.

  When the -f option is	present, a description file, makefile, must be speci-
  fied or, if a	- (dash) follows this option, standard input is	used as	the
  description file.  If	the -f option is not present, make looks for the file
  makefile in the current directory to be used as the description file.	 If
  no target is specified, make makes the first target found in the descrip-
  tion file.

  Description Files

  The description file,	whether	it is the makefile or some other file, can
  contain a sequence of	entries	that define dependencies.  These entries are
  referred to as dependency lines. A dependency	line is	defined	as follows:

       target1 [target2...]:[:]	[dependency1...] [; command...]

  The dependency line, starting	at the leftmost	margin,	begins with the	tar-
  get.	Specify	a single target	or multiple targets on the dependency line,
  separated by single spaces.  A target	can appear on multiple dependency
  lines.  The target is	separated from its dependencies	by a : (colon).	 Use
  a single : when the target is	listed on a single dependency line; use	a
  double : when	the target appears on multiple dependency lines. The depen-
  dencies are listed sequentially separated by a single	space.

  The use of dependencies is not mandatory, but	if they	are not	used, the
  command line is always executed when the target is made. It is also possi-
  ble to place a command line after the	dependency list, as long as it is
  prefaced by a	; (semicolon). Delimit each command with a ; (semicolon).

  The dependency line can be followed by a command line. The command line
  begins at the	first tab indentation and can contain any shell	command.
  There	is no specific limit to	the number of command lines that follow	the
  dependency line. By default, the command line	is echoed to standard output.
  You can alter	this default behavior by specifying one	of the following
  character sequences before the command line:

  -   Ignores any error	returned by the	command	line.

  @   Does not display the command line.

  -@  Does not display the command line	and ignores error returned by command

  To indicate to make that the current line continues to the next line,	place
  a \ (backslash) as the last character	in the line.  Comment lines begin
  with # (number sign) and all text following this symbol up to	the end	of
  the line is considered part of the comment.


  The make facility uses /bin/sh to execute commands.

  Macro	Definitions

  Macros can be	defined	in several ways.  Some macros are defined by default
  by make internally.  All environment variables are assumed to	be macro
  definitions.	Macros can be defined in the makefiles,	on the make command
  line,	in a description file, or in a separate	file and then included into
  the makefile.	 By default, the internal macros are overridden	by environ-
  ment variables, macros defined in the	makefile override environment vari-
  ables, and macros defined on the command line	override macros	defined	in
  the makefile.	 The -e	option changes this such that environment variables
  override macros defined in the makefile.

  Macro	definitions on the command line	use the	same syntax as required
  within the description file except that command-line definitions cannot
  contain white	space on either	side of	the equal sign.	 If the	macro is a
  string, enclose it in	quotes,	either single or double	as necessary to	con-
  trol file name expansion and variable	substitution.

  A macro definition begins at the leftmost margin of the description file
  but does not have to begin in	column one.  Spaces and	tabs to	the right of
  the assignment operator are not ignored.  They are recognized	as separators
  in a multiple	listing.  Comments are permitted on the	definition line.  Two
  forms	of macro definitions can be used in the	description file.

  The syntax for a simple macro	definition is specified	as follows:

  MACRO	= string

  Conditional macro definitions	are also available, their syntax is as fol-

  target:= MACRO = string

  In the simple	macro definition, the assignment to the	macro name always
  occurs. In the conditional macro definition, the assignment occurs only if
  target is the	current	target name.

  Macro	definitions are	referenced in the description as follows:




  If the macro name is a single	byte, the ( ) (parentheses) or { } (braces)
  can be omitted, but the $ (dollar sign) must remain.

  Macro	nesting	is also	permissible to a maximum of two	levels.	The syntax
  for macro definitions	is as follows:




  There	is a facility to substitute portions of	a predefined macro definition
  during macro evaluation. The syntax of this is as follows:


  When MACRO is	evaluated, every occurrence of string1 defined in MACRO	is
  substituted with string2.  A macro is	considered to be made up of a string
  of characters	separated by spaces or tabs.  The variable string1 is delim-
  ited by either spaces	or tabs.

  A more generalized form of macro substitution	has the	following syntax:


  In this syntax, macro	is considered to be made up of a series	of words, or
  substrings, separated	by spaces or tabs. The left parameter can only have
  the following	values:

  ^ (circumflex)
      The right	parameter is inserted at the beginning of each word.

  $ (dollar sign)
      The right	parameter is inserted at the end of each word.

  * (asterisk)
      Each word	is replaced with the right parameter, and then the original
      word is substituted for each occurrence of && (ampersand) in the right

  For instance,	if the macro is: MACRO = a b c,	then

    +  macro substitution $(MACRO/*/x&&y) would yield xay xby xcy.

    +  macro substitution $(MACRO/^/x) would yield xa xb xc.

    +  macro substitution $(MACRO/$/y) would yield ay by cy.

    +  macro substitution $(MACRO/*/x&&y&&z) would yield xayaz xbybz xcycz.

  Another form of macro	substitution has the following syntax:


  In this macro	substitution, if MACRO is defined, string1 is assigned to
  MACRO; otherwise, the	value of string2 is assigned to	MACRO.

  The following	is a list of macros defined when make is invoked.  These
  definitions can be overridden	by reassigning a new value to the macro	of

       AR=ar	       MAKE=make
       AS=as	       MAKEFILE=makefile
       CC=cc	       MV=mv
       CO=co	       PC=pc
       COFLAG=-q       RANLIB=ranlib
       CP=cp	       RC=f77
       EC=efl	       RM=rm
       FC=f77	       RMFLAGS=-f
       LD=ld	       YACC=yacc
       LEX=lex	       YACCE=yacc -e
       LINT=lint       YACCR=yacc -r

  Internal Macros

  The internal macros, set as each successive dependency is processed, are
  defined as follows:

  $*  Represents the filename segment of the component.	Used only in conjunc-
      tion with	suffix rules.

  $<&lt;  Represents the name of the component that	is being used to make the
      target. Used only	in conjunction with suffix rules.

  $?  Evaluates	to the list of components that are out of last-modified-date
      alignment	with the current target.

  $@  Refers to	the current target name	in a shorthand notation.

  $$@ Refers to	the current target name	in a shorthand notation	and can	be
      used only	on the dependency line.

  Special Macros

  The following	are predefined macros used by the default inference rules to
  the specified	compiler:

      For cc flags. Default is null.

      For f77 flags. Default is	null.

      For pc flags.  The default is null.

      For lex flags. Default is	null.

      For yacc flags. Default is null.

      For ld flags. Default is null.

      Contains the initial command line	options	to this	invocation of make,
      including	the - (dash) that prefaces the flag character. Default is

      Contains the initial command line	options, not including the - (dash)
      that prefaces the	flag character.	 The macro is exported and therefore
      available	to other invocations of	make.  As recursive calls to make are
      executed,	the flags are collected	and passed to the next invocation.
      The -f, -p, and -r options are not assigned in this macro. All command
      line macro definitions are assigned to this macro	and cannot be
      changed. Default is null.

      Set with a list of directory pathnames separated by a : (colon). This
      is used when searching for a dependency-related file. If this macro is
      defined, then those directories are searched. If this macro is not
      defined or is just defined with a	.\ (dot	backslash), only the current
      directory	is searched. Default is	null.  VPATH can be used to search
      for implicit prerequisites, internal include files, description files,
      and description file command line	words.

  Pseudotarget Names

  You can place	pseudotarget names anywhere in the description file.  You can
  also redefine	them at	any point in the description file.

      Is executed if no	dependency line	or suffix definition exists for	a

      Causes make to continue executing	commands even if an error was
      returned by the command. This is analogous to the	-i option and to the
      -	(dash) placed at the beginning of the command line.

      Specifies	the names of target files that are not to be destroyed.	 Note
      the use of the -U	option with this pseudotarget name. The	default
      behavior of make is to delete the	target on return of an error or	an

      Prevents echoing of the command line to standard output. This is analo-
      gous to the -s option and	to the @ (at sign) placed at the beginning of
      the command line.

      Defines the standard suffixes utilized by	the system tools to identify
      specific types of	files.

      The following is the default list: .out .o .s .c .F .f .e	.r .y .yr .ye
      .l .p .sh	.csh .h

  Special Targets

  Special targets are used to accomplish narrow	tasks. The special target
  .INOBJECTDIR is used to specify that only certain targets be built in
  OBJECTDIR. The syntax	for this target	is as follows:

  .INOBJECTDIR:	dependency1....

  To repetitively have a target	executed before	or after some previous target
  without having to repeat its name many times,	use the	special	targets	.INIT
  or .EXIT.

  Default Rules

  The make facility infers prerequisites for files on the dependency line for
  which	no explicit dependency is stated. In other words, if a .o file is the
  target, then make infers that	a .c file is the dependency.

  For example:

       program:	foo.o bar.o
	      cc -o program foo.o bar.o

	      cc -c foo.c

	      cc -c bar.c

  can be reduced to the	following:

       program:	foo.o bar.o
	      cc -o program

       foo.o bar.o:

  Configuration	File Support

  The configuration file Makeconf is used to alter the default rules. This
  file can contain the definitions of several macros.  When make is invoked,
  it searches for this configuration file. This	file can contain rules that
  override the default rules make uses.	 The make facility searches for	this
  file,	starting in the	current	directory and continuing through the build
  tree to its root.

  Due to the increased use of shared file systems, it is desirable to have a
  facility to direct make to the location of object directories. If macro
  OBJECTDIR is defined in the Makeconf file, its value is used as the object
  root.	It is formed by	appending the value assigned to	OBJECTDIR in the
  Makeconf file	to the pathname	where the Makeconf file	was found.  The	make
  command does a chdir() to the	OBJECTDIR.  VPATH is modified so that make
  can find the target source files.

  If the macro SOURCEDIR is defined, it	is interpreted as the source root for
  make.	It operates under the same rules as OBJECTDIR and updates VPATH

  Other	configuration file macros available are	as follows:

      The relative path	from the starting directory to the Makeconf direc-

      The path from the	Makeconf directory to the starting directory.

      The current directory for	make.

      The path from the	current	directory for make to the starting directory.

  Recursive Makefiles

  Recursive invocations	of makefiles are possible from a command line. Use of
  the macro MAKE has a special effect on the other invocations of make.	 The
  line is executed even	if the -n option was specified.	The -n option is
  passed to the	other invocations of make through the MAKEFLAGS	macro. Use
  the macro MAKE when using a hierarchy	of makefiles.

  The following	environment variables are exported to invocations of make:

  RCS Files

  If a file is specified on the	dependency line	and is not present in the
  current directory, make searches for it. The search path starts in the
  current directory, then the VPATH macro components are searched, then	both
  the ./RCS and	current	directory with the extension ,v	are searched.  If an
  RCS file is found, it	is checked out using the -q option, used for whatever
  purpose is required, and then	deleted.  The -c option	suppresses the
  checkout, while the -u suppresses the	deletion of the	file.

  By default, the update time of an RCS	file is	taken from its last modifica-
  tion.	 However, by specifying	a rule for the special target .RCSTIME,	the
  real modification time of a particular revision can be determined.  $<&lt; sets
  to the name of the ,v	file before invoking the command, which	is expected
  to print the time (in	decimal	time_t format) on standard output. The
  appropriate .RCSTIME definition would	be as follows:

	      @rcstime $(COFLAGS) $<

  Include Conventions

  A facility is	provided to read the contents of another file while within a
  description file.  The syntax	of this	is as follows:

  include file

  include $(file)

  When make encounters a line beginning	with the word "include"	followed by
  another word that is the name	of a makefile, it attempts to open that	file
  and process its contents as if the contents appeared where the include line
  occurs. The path of the file is calculated relative to the makefile that
  calls	the include. This is a departure of posix and other makes which	cal-
  culate all include directives	relative to the	directory from which the make
  command is issued. Thus if there were	several	includes invoked by different
  makefiles, the file path for these includes would be relative	to the
  makefiles that call the include. For example:

       $make PATH/Makefile

  will prepend PATH to all includes in PATH/Makefile. Likewise if Makefile
  includes PATH2/makeinclude and makeinclude includes makeinclude2, then
  PATH2	will be	prepended to makeinclude2.

  The behaviour	of the system default make is to effectively change the	work-
  ing directory	of make	to the Makefile	path or	include	path prior to reading
  the Makefile or the include file.


   1.  Some commands return a nonzero status when, in fact, they should	have
       returned	a zero status. Use the -i option to overcome this.

   2.  Commands	that are directly executed by the shell	(specifically cd),
       are ineffective across newlines in make.


   1.  To make the file	specified by the first entry in	the description	file,

   2.  To display, but not run,	the commands that make would use to make a
       file, enter:
	    make -n search.o

       You might want to do this to verify that	a new description file is
       correct before using it.

   3.  To display the internal rules, enter:
	    make -p -f /dev/null

       This lists the internal rules and macros	(and error messages from
       make).  All exported shell environment variables	are included in	the
       list of macro definitions.


      make commands file.

      make commands file.

      Configuration file.


  Commands:  sh(1), touch(1), make(1u),	make(1p)

  Programming Support Tools