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mailx(1)                         User Commands                        mailx(1)



NAME
       mailx - interactive message processing system

SYNOPSIS
       mailx [-BdeHiInNURvV~] [ -f
        [file | +folder] ] [-T file] [-u user]

       mailx  [-BdFintUv~]  [-b bcc] [-c cc] [-h number] [-r address] [-s sub-
       ject] recipient...

       /usr/ucb/mail ...

       /usr/ucb/Mail ...

DESCRIPTION
       The mail utilities listed above provide a comfortable,  flexible  envi-
       ronment for sending and receiving mail messages electronically.

       When  reading  mail,  the mail utilities provide commands to facilitate
       saving, deleting, and responding to messages. When  sending  mail,  the
       mail  utilities  allow editing, reviewing and other modification of the
       message as it is entered.

       Incoming mail is stored in a standard file for each  user,  called  the
       mailbox  for that user. When the mail utilities are called to read mes-
       sages, the mailbox is the default place to find them. As  messages  are
       read,  they  are  marked  to  be moved to a secondary file for storage,
       unless specific action is taken, so that the messages need not be  seen
       again.This secondary file is called the mbox and is normally located in
       the user's HOME directory (see MBOX  in  ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES  for  a
       description  of  this  file).  Messages can be saved in other secondary
       files named by the user. Messages remain  in  a  secondary  file  until
       forcibly removed.

       The  user  can access a secondary file by using the -f option. Messages
       in the secondary file can then be read or otherwise processed using the
       same  Commands  as in the primary mailbox. This gives rise within these
       pages to the notion of a current mailbox.

OPTIONS
       On the command line options start with a dash (-). Any other  arguments
       are  taken to be destinations (recipients). If no recipients are speci-
       fied, mailx attempts to read messages from the mailbox.

       -B              Do not buffer standard input or standard output.



       -b bcc          Set the blind carbon copy list to bcc.  bcc  should  be
                       enclosed in quotes if it contains more than one name.



       -c cc           Set  the  carbon copy list to cc. cc should be enclosed
                       in quotes if it contains more than one name.



       -d              Turn on debugging output. (Neither particularly  inter-
                       esting nor recommended.)



       -e              Test for the presence of mail. mailx prints nothing and
                       exits with a successful return code if there is mail to
                       read.



       -F              Record  the  message  in  a  file named after the first
                       recipient. Overrides the record variable, if  set  (see
                       Internal Variables).



       -f [file]       Read  messages from file instead of mailbox. If no file
                       is specified, the mbox is used.



       -f [ +folder]   Use the file folder in the folder  directory  (same  as
                       the  folder  command).  The  name  of this directory is
                       listed in the folder variable.



       -H              Print header summary only.



       -h number       The number of network "hops" made so far. This is  pro-
                       vided  for  network software to avoid infinite delivery
                       loops. This option and its argument are passed  to  the
                       delivery program.



       -I              Include  the newsgroup and article-id header lines when
                       printing mail messages.  This option  requires  the  -f
                       option to be specified.



       -i              Ignore  interrupts.  See  also ignore in Internal Vari-
                       ables.



       -N              Do not print initial header summary.



       -n              Do not initialize from the system default  mailx.rc  or
                       Mail.rc file.  See USAGE.



       -r address      Use  address  as  the  return address when invoking the
                       delivery program. All tilde commands are disabled. This
                       option  and its argument is passed to the delivery pro-
                       gram.



       -s subject      Set the Subject header field to subject. subject should
                       be  enclosed  in  quotes  if it contains embedded white
                       space.



       -T file         Message-id and article-id header lines are recorded  in
                       file  after  the message is read. This option also sets
                       the -I option.



       -t              Scan the input for  To:,  Cc:,  and  Bcc:  fields.  Any
                       recipients on the command line will be ignored.



       -U              Convert  UUCP-style  addresses  to  internet standards.
                       Overrides the conv environment variable.



       -u user         Read user's mailbox. This is only effective  if  user's
                       mailbox is not read protected.



       -V              Print the mailx version number and exit.



       -v              Pass the -v flag to sendmail(1M).



       -~              Interpret  tilde escapes in the input even if not read-
                       ing from a tty.



OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       recipient       Addressee of message.



USAGE
   Starting Mail
       At   startup   time,   mailx   executes   the   system   startup   file
       /etc/mail/mailx.rc. If invoked as mail or Mail, the system startup file
       /etc/mail/Mail.rc is used instead.

       The system startup file sets  up  initial  display  options  and  alias
       lists  and  assigns  values to some internal variables. These variables
       are flags and valued parameters which are set and cleared using the set
       and unset commands. See Internal Variables.

       With  the  following  exceptions,  regular  commands  are  legal inside
       startup files: !, Copy, edit, followup, Followup, hold, mail, preserve,
       reply,  Reply,  shell,  and visual. An error in the startup file causes
       the remaining lines in the file to be ignored.

       After executing the system startup file,  the  mail  utilities  execute
       the  optional personal startup file $HOME/.mailrc, wherein the user can
       override the values of the internal variables  as  set  by  the  system
       startup file.

       If  the -n option is specified, however, the mail utilities do not exe-
       cute the system startup file.

       Many system administrators include the commands

       set appenddeadletter
       unset replyall
       unset pipeignore

       in the system startup files (to be compatible with past Solaris  behav-
       ior),  but  this does not meet standards requirements for mailx. To get
       standard behavior for mailx, users should use the -n option or  include
       the following commands in a personal startup file:

       unset appenddeadletter
       set replyall
       set pipeignore

       When  reading  mail,  the  mail utilities are in command mode. A header
       summary of the first several  messages  is  displayed,  followed  by  a
       prompt  indicating  the mail utilities can accept regular commands (see
       Commands below). When sending mail, the mail  utilities  are  in  input
       mode.  If  no  subject is specified on the command line, and the asksub
       variable is set, a prompt for the subject is printed.

       As the message is typed, the mail utilities read the message and  store
       it  in  a  temporary  file. Commands may be entered by beginning a line
       with the tilde (~) escape character followed by a single command letter
       and  optional  arguments. See Tilde Escapes for a summary of these com-
       mands.

   Reading Mail
       Each message is assigned a sequential number, and there is at any  time
       the notion of a current message, marked by a right angle bracket (>) in
       the header summary. Many commands take an  optional  list  of  messages
       (message-list)  to  operate  on.  In most cases, the current message is
       set to the highest-numbered message in the list after  the  command  is
       finished executing.

       The  default for message-list is the current message. A message-list is
       a list of message identifiers separated by spaces, which may include:

       n               Message number n.



       .               The current message.



       ^               The first undeleted message.



       $               The last message.



       *               All messages.



       +               The next undeleted message.



       -               The previous undeleted message.



       n-m             An inclusive range of message numbers.



       user            All messages from user.



       /string         All messages with string  in  the  Subject  line  (case
                       ignored).



       :c              All messages of type c, where c is one of:

                       d        deleted messages




                       n        new messages



                       o        old messages



                       r        read messages



                       u        unread messages



                       Notice  that  the  context  of  the  command determines
                       whether this type of message specification makes sense.


       Other arguments are usually arbitrary strings whose  usage  depends  on
       the command involved. Filenames, where expected, are expanded using the
       normal shell conventions (see sh(1)). Special characters are recognized
       by certain commands and are documented with the commands below.

   Sending Mail
       Recipients  listed  on  the  command  line may be of three types: login
       names, shell commands, or alias groups. Login names may be any  network
       address,  including  mixed  network  addressing. If mail is found to be
       undeliverable, an attempt is made to return it to the sender's mailbox.
       If  the recipient name begins with a pipe symbol ( | ), the rest of the
       name is taken to be a shell command to pipe the message  through.  This
       provides  an  automatic interface with any program that reads the stan-
       dard input, such as lp(1) for recording outgoing mail on  paper.  Alias
       groups are set by the alias command (see Commands below) or in a system
       startup file (for example, $HOME/.mailrc). Aliases are lists of recipi-
       ents of any type.

   Forwarding Mail
       To  forward  a specific message, include it in a message to the desired
       recipients with the ~f or ~m tilde escapes. See Tilde Escapes below. To
       forward mail automatically, add a comma-separated list of addresses for
       additional recipients to the .forward file in your home directory. This
       is different from the format of the alias command, which takes a space-
       separated list instead. Note: Forwarding addresses must  be  valid,  or
       the messages will "bounce." You cannot, for instance, reroute your mail
       to a new host by forwarding it to your new address if  it  is  not  yet
       listed in the NIS aliases domain.

   Commands
       Regular commands are of the form


       [ command ] [ message-list ] [ arguments ]


       In  input  mode,  commands  are  recognized  by  the  escape character,
       tilde(~), and lines not treated as commands are taken as input for  the
       message.  If  no command is specified in command mode, next is assumed.
       The following is a complete list of mailx commands:

       !shell-command

           Escape to the shell. See SHELL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.



       # comment

           NULL command (comment). Useful in mailrc files.



       =

           Print the current message number.



       ?

           Prints a summary of commands.



       alias alias name ...
       group alias name ...

           Declare an alias for the given names.  The  names  are  substituted
           when  alias is used as a recipient. Useful in the mailrc file. With
           no arguments, the command displays the list of defined aliases.




       alternates name ...

           Declare a list of alternate names for your login.  When  responding
           to  a  message, these names are removed from the list of recipients
           for the response. With no arguments,  print  the  current  list  of
           alternate names. See also allnet in Internal Variables.



       cd [directory]
       chdir [directory]

           Change directory. If directory is not specified, $HOME is used.




       copy [file]
       copy [message-list] file

           Copy  messages  to  the file without marking the messages as saved.
           Otherwise equivalent to the save command.




       Copy [message-list]

           Save the specified messages in a file whose name  is  derived  from
           the author of the message to be saved, without marking the messages
           as saved. Otherwise equivalent to the Save command.



       delete [message-list]

           Delete messages from the mailbox. If autoprint  is  set,  the  next
           message  after  the last one deleted is printed (see Internal Vari-
           ables).



       discard [header-field...]
       ignore [header-field...]

           Suppress printing of the specified header  fields  when  displaying
           messages  on  the  screen.  Examples of header fields to ignore are
           Status and Received. The fields are included when  the  message  is
           saved,  unless  the  alwaysignore  variable is set. The More, Page,
           Print, and Type commands override this command.  If  no  header  is
           specified,  the  current  list  of  header  fields being ignored is
           printed. See also the undiscard and unignore commands.




       dp [message-list]
       dt [message-list]

           Delete the specified messages from the mailbox and print  the  next
           message  after the last one deleted. Roughly equivalent to a delete
           command followed by a print command.




       echo string ...

           Echo the given strings (like echo(1)).



       edit [message-list]

           Edit the given messages. Each message is placed in a temporary file
           and  the program named by the EDITOR variable is invoked to edit it
           (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES). Default editor is ed(1).



       exit
       xit

           Exit from mailx, without changing  the  mailbox.  No  messages  are
           saved in the mbox (see also quit).




       field [message-list] header-file

           Display the value of the header field in the specified message.



       file [file]
       folder [file]

           Quit  from  the  current file of messages and read in the specified
           file. Several special characters are recognized when used  as  file
           names:

           %        the current mailbox.





           %user    the mailbox for user.



           #        the previous mail file.



           &&        the current mbox.



           +file    The  named  file  in  the  folder directory (listed in the
                    folder variable).



           With no arguments, print the name of the current mail file, and the
           number of messages and characters it contains.


       folders

           Print  the  names  of  the files in the directory set by the folder
           variable (see Internal Variables).



       Followup [message]

           Respond to a message, recording the response in a file  whose  name
           is  derived  from  the  author of the message. Overrides the record
           variable, if set. If the replyall variable is set, the  actions  of
           Followup  and  followup  are reversed. See also the followup, Save,
           and Copy commands and outfolder  in  Internal  Variables,  and  the
           Starting Mail section in USAGE above.



       followup [message-list]

           Respond  to the first message in the message-list, sending the mes-
           sage to the author of each message in the message-list. The subject
           line  is  taken from the first message and the response is recorded
           in a file whose name is derived from the author of the  first  mes-
           sage.  If the replyall variable is set, the actions of followup and
           Followup are reversed. See also the Followup, Save, and  Copy  com-
           mands  and  outfolder  in Internal Variables, and the Starting Mail
           section in USAGE above.



       from [message-list]

           Print the header summary for the specified messages. If no messages
           are specified, print the header summary for the current message.



       group alias name ...
       alias alias name ...

           Declare  an  alias  for  the given names. The names are substituted
           when alias is used as a recipient. Useful in the mailrc file.




       headers [message]

           Print the page of headers which includes the message specified. The
           screen  variable  sets the number of headers per page (see Internal
           Variables). See also the z command.



       help

           Print a summary of commands.



       hold [message-list]
       preserve [message-list]

           Hold the specified messages in the mailbox.




       if s | r | t
       mail-commands

       else
       mail-commands

       endif

           Conditional execution, where s executes following mail-commands, up
           to  an  else or endif, if the program is in send mode, r causes the
           mail-commands to be executed only in receive mode, and t causes the
           mail-commands to be executed only if mailx is being run from a ter-
           minal. Useful in the mailrc file.









       inc

           Incorporate messages that arrive while you are reading  the  system
           mailbox. The new messages are added to the message list in the cur-
           rent mail session. This command does not commit changes made during
           the session, and prior messages are not renumbered.



       ignore [header-field ...]
       discard [header-field ...]

           Suppress  printing  of  the specified header fields when displaying
           messages on the screen. Examples of header  fields  to  ignore  are
           Status  and  Cc. All fields are included when the message is saved.
           The More, Page, Print and Type commands override this  command.  If
           no  header  is  specified,  the current list of header fields being
           ignored is printed. See also the undiscard and unignore commands.




       list

           Print all commands available. No explanation is given.



       load

           [message] file The specified message is replaced by the message  in
           the named file. file should contain a single mail message including
           mail headers (as saved by the save command).



       mail recipient ...

           Mail a message to the specified recipients.



       Mail recipient

           Mail a message to the specified recipients, and record it in a file
           whose name is derived from the author of the message. Overrides the
           record variable, if set. See also the Save and  Copy  commands  and
           outfolder in Internal Variables.



       mbox [message-list]

           Arrange  for the given messages to end up in the standard mbox save
           file when mailx terminates normally. See MBOX in ENVIRONMENT  VARI-
           ABLES  for  a  description of this file. See also the exit and quit
           commands.



       more [message-list]
       page [message-list]

           Print the specified messages. If crt is set,  the  messages  longer
           than  the  number  of lines specified by the crt variable are paged
           through the command specified by the PAGER  variable.  The  default
           command  is  pg(1) or if the bsdcompat variable is set, the default
           is more(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES. Same as the print  and  type
           commands.




       More [message-list]
       Page [message-list]

           Print  the  specified  messages on the screen, including all header
           fields. Overrides suppression of fields by the ignore command. Same
           as the Print and Type commands.




       new [message-list]
       New [message-list]
       unread [message-list]
       Unread

           [message-list]  Take  a  message  list and mark each message as not
           having been read.






       next [message]

           Go to the next message matching message. If  message  is  not  sup-
           plied,  this command finds the next message that was not deleted or
           saved. A message-list may be specified, but in this case the  first
           valid  message in the list is the only one used. This is useful for
           jumping to the next message from a specific user,  since  the  name
           would  be  taken as a command in the absence of a real command. See
           the discussion of message-list above for a description of  possible
           message specifications.



       pipe [message-list] [shell-command]
       | [message-list] [shell-command]

           Pipe  the  message  through the given shell-command. The message is
           treated as if it were read. If no arguments are given, the  current
           message  is piped through the command specified by the value of the
           cmd variable. If the page variable is set, a form feed character is
           inserted after each message (see Internal Variables).




       preserve [message-list]
       hold [message-list]

           Preserve the specified messages in the mailbox.




       print [message-list]
       type [message-list]

           Print  the  specified  messages. If crt is set, the messages longer
           than the number of lines specified by the crt  variable  are  paged
           through  the  command  specified by the PAGER variable. The default
           command is pg(1) or if the bsdcompat variable is set,  the  default
           is  more(1).  See  ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES. Same as the more and page
           commands.




       Print [message-list]
       Type [message-list]

           Print the specified messages on the screen,  including  all  header
           fields.  Overrides  suppression  of  fields  by the ignore command.
           Same as the More and Page commands.




       put [file]
       put [message-list] file

           Save the specified message in the given file. Use the same  conven-
           tions as the print command for which header fields are ignored.




       Put [file]
       Put [message-list] file

           Save the specified message in the given file. Overrides suppression
           of fields by the ignore command.




       quit

           Exit from mailx, storing messages that were read in mbox and unread
           messages  in  the mailbox. Messages that have been explicitly saved
           in a file are deleted unless the keepsave variable is set.



       reply [message-list]
       respond [message-list]
       replysender [message-list]

           Send a response to the author of each message in the  message-list.
           The subject line is taken from the first message.  If record is set
           to a file, a copy of the reply  is  added  to  that  file.  If  the
           replyall   variable  is  set,  the  actions  of  Reply/Respond  and
           reply/respond are reversed. The replysender command is not affected
           by  the  replyall variable, but sends each reply only to the sender
           of each message. See the Starting Mail section in USAGE above.





       Reply [message]
       Respond [message]
       replyall [message]

           Reply to the specified message, including all other  recipients  of
           that  message.   If the variable record is set to a file, a copy of
           the reply added to that file. If the replyall variable is set,  the
           actions  of  Reply/Respond  and  reply/respond  are  reversed.  The
           replyall command is not affected  by  the  replyall  variable,  but
           always  sends  the  reply to all recipients of the message. See the
           Starting Mail section in USAGE above.





       retain

           Add the list of header fields named to the retained list. Only  the
           header  fields  in  the retain list are shown on your terminal when
           you print a message. All other header fields are  suppressed.   The
           set  of  retained  fields specified by the retain command overrides
           any list of ignored fields specified by  the  ignore  command.  The
           Type  and  Print  commands  can  be  used to print a message in its
           entirety. If retain is executed with no  arguments,  it  lists  the
           current set of retained fields.



       Save [message-list]

           Save  the  specified  messages in a file whose name is derived from
           the author of the first message. The name of the file is  taken  to
           be  the author's name with all network addressing stripped off. See
           also the Copy, followup, and Followup  commands  and  outfolder  in
           Internal Variables.



       save [file]
       save [message-list] file

           Save  the specified messages in the given file. The file is created
           if it does not exist. The file defaults to  mbox.  The  message  is
           deleted  from  the mailbox when mailx terminates unless keepsave is
           set (see also Internal Variables and the exit and quit commands).




       set
       set variable
       set variable=string
       set variable=number

           Define a variable. To assign a  value  to  variable,  separate  the
           variable  name  from  the  value  by an `=' (there must be no space
           before or after the `='). A variable may be given a  null,  string,
           or numeric value. To embed SPACE characters within a value, enclose
           it in quotes.

           With no arguments, set displays all defined variables and any  val-
           ues  they  might  have. See Internal Variables for a description of
           all predefined mail variables.






       shell

           Invoke an interactive shell. See also SHELL  in  ENVIRONMENT  VARI-
           ABLES.



       size [message-list]

           Print the size in characters of the specified messages.



       source file

           Read commands from the given file and return to command mode.



       top [message-list]

           Print  the top few lines of the specified messages. If the toplines
           variable is set, it is taken as the number of lines to  print  (see
           Internal Variables). The default is 5.



       touch [message-list]

           Touch the specified messages. If any message in message-list is not
           specifically saved in a file, it is placed in the mbox, or the file
           specified  in  the  MBOX environment variable, upon normal termina-
           tion. See exit and quit.



       Type [message-list]
       Print [message-list]

           Print the specified messages on the screen,  including  all  header
           fields. Overrides suppression of fields by the ignore command.




       type [message-list]
       print [message-list]

           Print  the  specified  messages. If crt is set, the messages longer
           than the number of lines specified by the crt  variable  are  paged
           through  the  command  specified by the PAGER variable. The default
           command is pg(1). See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.




       unalias [alias] ...
       ungroup [alias] ...

           Remove the definitions of the specified aliases.




       undelete [message-list]

           Restore the specified deleted messages. Will only restore  messages
           deleted  in the current mail session. If autoprint is set, the last
           message of those restored is printed (see Internal Variables).



       undiscard [header-field...]
       unignore [header-field...]

           Remove the specified header fields from the list being ignored.  If
           no  header fields are specified, all header fields are removed from
           the list being ignored.




       unretain [header-field...]

           Remove the specified header fields from the list being retained. If
           no  header fields are specified, all header fields are removed from
           the list being retained.



       unread [message-list]
       Unread [message-list] Same as the new command.





       unset variable...

           Erase the specified variables. If the variable  was  imported  from
           the environment (that is, an environment variable or exported shell
           variable), it cannot be unset from within mailx.



       version

           Print the current version and release date of the mailx utility.



       visual [message-list]

           Edit the given messages with a  screen  editor.  Each  messages  is
           placed  in  a  temporary  file  and the program named by the VISUAL
           variable is invoked to edit it (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).  Notice
           that the default visual editor is vi.



       write [message-list] file

           Write  the  given  messages on the specified file, minus the header
           and trailing blank line. Otherwise equivalent to the save command.



       xit
       exit

           Exit from mailx, without changing  the  mailbox.  No  messages  are
           saved in the mbox (see also quit).




       z[+|-]

           Scroll  the header display forward or backward one screen-full. The
           number of headers displayed is set  by  the  screen  variable  (see
           Internal Variables).



   Tilde Escapes
       The  following tilde escape commands can be used when composing mail to
       send. These may be entered only from input mode, by  beginning  a  line
       with  the  tilde escape character (~). See escape in Internal Variables
       for changing this  special  character.  The  escape  character  can  be
       entered as text by typing it twice.

       ~!shell-command         Escape to the shell. If present, run shell-com-
                               mand.



       ~.                      Simulate end of file (terminate message input).



       ~:mail-command          Perform the command-level request.  Valid  only
       ~_mail-command          when sending a message while reading mail.




       ~?                      Print a summary of tilde escapes.



       ~A                      Insert  the autograph string Sign into the mes-
                               sage (see Internal Variables).



       ~a                      Insert the autograph string sign into the  mes-
                               sage (see Internal Variables).



       ~b name ...             Add  the  names  to the blind carbon copy (Bcc)
                               list. This is like the carbon copy  (Cc)  list,
                               except  that  the names in the Bcc list are not
                               shown in the header of the mail message.



       ~c name ...             Add the names to the carbon copy (Cc) list.



       ~d                      Read in the dead-letter file. See DEAD in ENVI-
                               RONMENT  VARIABLES  for  a  description of this
                               file.



       ~e                      Invoke the editor on the partial  message.  See
                               also EDITOR in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.



       ~f [message-list]       Forward  the  specified message, or the current
                               message being read. Valid only when  sending  a
                               message  while  reading  mail. The messages are
                               inserted into the  message  without  alteration
                               (as opposed to the ~m escape).



       ~F [message-list]       Forward  the  specified message, or the current
                               message  being  read,  including   all   header
                               fields.  Overrides the suppression of fields by
                               the ignore command.



       ~h                      Prompt for Subject line and  To,  Cc,  and  Bcc
                               lists.  If  the field is displayed with an ini-
                               tial value, it may be edited as if you had just
                               typed it.



       ~i variable             Insert the value of the named variable into the
                               text of the message. For example, ~A is equiva-
                               lent  to  `~i  Sign.' Environment variables set
                               and exported in the shell are  also  accessible
                               by ~i.



       ~m [message-list]       Insert the listed messages, or the current mes-
                               sage being read into  the  letter.  Valid  only
                               when  sending a message while reading mail. The
                               text of the message is shifted  to  the  right,
                               and  the  string  contained in the indentprefix
                               variable is inserted as the leftmost characters
                               of each line. If indentprefix is not set, a TAB
                               character is inserted into each line.



       ~M [message-list]       Insert the listed messages, or the current mes-
                               sage  being  read, including the header fields,
                               into the letter. Valid only when sending a mes-
                               sage  while  reading mail. The text of the mes-
                               sage is shifted to the right,  and  the  string
                               contained   in  the  indentprefix  variable  is
                               inserted as the  leftmost  characters  of  each
                               line. If indentprefix is not set, a TAB charac-
                               ter is inserted into each line.  Overrides  the
                               suppression of fields by the ignore command.



       ~p                      Print the message being entered.



       ~q                      Quit  from  input  mode by simulating an inter-
                               rupt. If the body of the message is  not  null,
                               the  partial  message  is saved in dead-letter.
                               See  DEAD  in  ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES   for   a
                               description of this file.



       ~R                      Mark message for return receipt.



       ~r file                 Read  in  the  specified  file. If the argument
       ~<&lt; file                 begins with an exclamation point (!), the  rest
       ~<&lt; ! shell-command      of  the  string  is taken as an arbitrary shell
                               command and is executed, with the standard out-
                               put inserted into the message.





       ~s string ...           Set the subject line to string.



       ~t name ...             Add the given names to the To list.



       ~v                      Invoke a preferred screen editor on the partial
                               message. The default visual  editor  is  vi(1).
                               See also VISUAL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.



       ~w file                 Write  the message into the given file, without
                               the header.



       ~x                      Exit as with ~q except the message is not saved
                               in dead-letter.



       ~| shell-command        Pipe  the body of the message through the given
                               shell-command. If the shell-command  returns  a
                               successful  exit status, the output of the com-
                               mand replaces the message.



   Internal Variables
       The following variables are internal variables. They  may  be  imported
       from  the  execution  environment  or  set using the set command at any
       time. The unset command may be used to erase variables.

       allnet                  All network names whose last  component  (login
                               name)  match  are  treated  as  identical. This
                               causes the message-list message  specifications
                               to  behave  similarly. Disabled by default. See
                               also the alternates command and the  metoo  and
                               fuzzymatch variables.



       alwaysignore            Ignore  header  fields  with ignore everywhere,
                               not just during  print  or  type.  Affects  the
                               save,  Save,  copy,  Copy, top, pipe, and write
                               commands, and the  ~m  and  ~f  tilde  escapes.
                               Enabled by default.



       append                  Upon termination, append messages to the end of
                               the  mbox  file  instead  of  prepending  them.
                               Although  disabled by default, append is set in
                               the system startup  file  (which  can  be  sup-
                               pressed with the -n command line option).



       appenddeadletter        Append to the deadletter file rather than over-
                               write  it.  Although  disabled   by    default,
                               appenddeadletter  is frequently set in the sys-
                               tem startup file. See Starting  Mail  in  USAGE
                               above.



       askbcc                  Prompt  for  the  Bcc list after the Subject is
                               entered if it is not specified on  the  command
                               line with the -b option. Disabled by default.



       askcc                   Prompt  for  the  Cc  list after the Subject is
                               entered if it is not specified on  the  command
                               line with the -c option. Disabled by default.



       asksub                  Prompt  for  subject  if it is not specified on
                               the command line with the -s option. Enabled by
                               default.



       autoinc                 Automatically incorporate new messages into the
                               current session as they  arrive.  This  has  an
                               affect similar to issuing the inc command every
                               time the command prompt is displayed.  Disabled
                               by  default,  but autoinc is set in the default
                               system startup file for mailx; it  is  not  set
                               for /usr/ucb/mail or /usr/ucb/Mail.



       autoprint               Enable  automatic  printing  of  messages after
                               delete  and  undelete  commands.  Disabled   by
                               default.



       bang                    Enable the special-casing of exclamation points
                               (!) in shell escape command lines as in  vi(1).
                               Disabled by default.



       bsdcompat               Set  automatically  if mailx is invoked as mail
                               or Mail. Causes mailx to use  /etc/mail/Mail.rc
                               as the system startup file. Changes the default
                               pager to more(1).



       cmd=shell-command       Set the default command for the  pipe  command.
                               No default value.



       conv=conversion         Convert uucp addresses to the specified address
                               style, which can be either:


                               internet        This requires a  mail  delivery
                                               program   conforming   to   the
                                               RFC822 standard for  electronic
                                               mail addressing.




                               optimize        Remove    loops   in   uucp(1C)
                                               address paths (typically gener-
                                               ated by the reply command).  No
                                               rerouting  is  performed;  mail
                                               has no knowledge of UUCP routes
                                               or connections.


                               Conversion is disabled  by  default.  See  also
                               sendmail(1M) and the -U command-line option.


       crt[=number]            Pipe  messages  having  more  than number lines
                               through the command specified by the  value  of
                               the  PAGER  variable  (  pg(1)  or  more(1)  by
                               default). If number is not specified, the  cur-
                               rent window size is used. Disabled by default.



       debug                   Enable  verbose diagnostics for debugging. Mes-
                               sages are not delivered. Disabled by default.



       dot                     Take a period on a line by itself, or EOF  dur-
                               ing  input from a terminal as end-of-file. Dis-
                               abled by default, but dot is set in the  system
                               startup  file (which can be suppressed with the
                               -n command line option).



       fcc                     By default, mailx will treat any  address  con-
                               taining  a  slash  ("/")  character  as a local
                               "send  to  file"  address.  By  unsetting  this
                               option,  this  behavior is disabled. Enabled by
                               default.



       flipr                   Reverse the effect of the followup/Followup and
                               reply/Reply  command  pairs.  If both flipr and
                               replyall are set, the effect is as  if  neither
                               was set.



       from                    Extract the author listed in the header summary
                               from the From: header instead of the UNIX  From
                               line. Enabled by default.



       fuzzymatch              The from command searches for messages from the
                               indicated sender. By default, the  full  sender
                               address  must  be  specified.  By  setting this
                               option, only a sub-string of the sender address
                               need be specified. Disabled by default.



       escape=c                Substitute  c for the ~ escape character. Takes
                               effect with next message sent.



       folder=directory        The directory for saving standard  mail  files.
                               User-specified file names beginning with a plus
                               (+) are expanded by  preceding  the  file  name
                               with  this  directory  name  to obtain the real
                               file name. If directory does not start  with  a
                               slash  (/), $HOME is prepended to it.  There is
                               no default for the folder variable.   See  also
                               outfolder below.



       header                  Enable  printing  of  the  header  summary when
                               entering mailx. Enabled by default.



       hold                    Preserve all messages  that  are  read  in  the
                               mailbox instead of putting them in the standard
                               mbox save file. Disabled by default.



       ignore                  Ignore  interrupts  while  entering   messages.
                               Handy  for  noisy  dial-up  lines.  Disabled by
                               default.



       ignoreeof               Ignore end-of-file during message input.  Input
                               must be terminated by a period (.) on a line by
                               itself or by  the  ~.  command.  See  also  dot
                               above. Disabled by default.



       indentprefix=string     When  indentprefix  is  set,  string is used to
                               mark indented lines from messages included with
                               ~m. The default is a TAB character.



       keep                    When  the mailbox is empty, truncate it to zero
                               length instead  of  removing  it.  Disabled  by
                               default.



       iprompt=string          The specified prompt string is displayed before
                               each line on input is requested when sending  a
                               message.



       keepsave                Keep  messages  that  have  been saved in other
                               files in the mailbox instead of deleting  them.
                               Disabled by default.



       makeremote              When  replying  to all recipients of a message,
                               if an address does not include a machine  name,
                               it  is  assumed to be relative to the sender of
                               the message. Normally not needed  when  dealing
                               with hosts that support RFC822.



       metoo                   If  your  login  appears as a recipient, do not
                               delete it from the list. Disabled by default.



       mustbang                Force all mail addresses to be in bang format.



       onehop                  When responding to a message  that  was  origi-
                               nally  sent  to  several  recipients, the other
                               recipient addresses are normally forced  to  be
                               relative  to  the  originating author's machine
                               for the response. This flag disables alteration
                               of  the  recipients' addresses, improving effi-
                               ciency in a network where all machines can send
                               directly  to  all  other machines (that is, one
                               hop away). Disabled by default.



       outfolder               Locate the files used to record  outgoing  mes-
                               sages  in the directory specified by the folder
                               variable unless the path name is absolute. Dis-
                               abled  by  default.  See  folder  above and the
                               Save, Copy, followup, and Followup commands.



       page                    Used with the pipe command  to  insert  a  form
                               feed  after each message sent through the pipe.
                               Disabled by default.



       pipeignore              Omit ignored header when outputting to the pipe
                               command.    Although   disabled   by   default,
                               pipeignore is  frequently  set  in  the  system
                               startup file. See Starting Mail in USAGE above.



       postmark                Your  "real  name"  to  be included in the From
                               line of messages you send.  By default this  is
                               derived   from   the   comment  field  in  your
                               passwd(4) file entry.



       prompt=string           Set the command mode prompt to string.  Default
                               is  "? ", unless the bsdcompat variable is set,
                               then the default is "&&amp;".



       quiet                   Refrain from printing the opening  message  and
                               version   when   entering  mailx.  Disabled  by
                               default.



       record=file             Record all outgoing mail in file.  Disabled  by
                               default. See also outfolder above.



       replyall                Reverse  the  effect of the reply and Reply and
                               followup and Followup commands. Although set by
                               default,   replayall is frequently unset in the
                               system startup file.  See  flipr  and  Starting
                               Mail in USAGE above.



       returnaddr=string       The  default sender address is that of the cur-
                               rent user. This variable can be used to set the
                               sender address to any arbitrary value. Set with
                               caution.



       save                    Enable saving of  messages  in  dead-letter  on
                               interrupt  or  delivery  error.  See DEAD for a
                               description of this file. Enabled by default.



       screen=number           Sets the number of lines in  a  screen-full  of
                               headers for the headers command. number must be
                               a positive number.

                               The default is set according to  baud  rate  or
                               window  size.  With a baud rate less than 1200,
                               number defaults to 5, if baud rate  is  exactly
                               1200,  it  defaults to 10. If you are in a win-
                               dow, number defaults to the default window size
                               minus 4. Otherwise, the default is 20.



       sendmail=shell-command  Alternate   command  for  delivering  messages.
                               Note: In  addition  to  the  expected  list  of
                               recipients,  mail  also  passes  the -i and -m,
                               flags to the command. Since these flags are not
                               appropriate  to other commands, you may have to
                               use a shell script that strips  them  from  the
                               arguments list before invoking the desired com-
                               mand.  Default is /usr/bin/rmail.



       sendwait                Wait for background  mailer  to  finish  before
                               returning. Disabled by default.



       showname                Causes  the  message header display to show the
                               sender's real name (if known) rather than their
                               mail address. Disabled by default, but showname
                               is set in the /etc/mail/mailx.rc system startup
                               file for mailx.



       showto                  When displaying the header summary and the mes-
                               sage is from you, print  the  recipient's  name
                               instead of the author's name.



       sign=string             The  variable  inserted into the text of a mes-
                               sage when the ~a (autograph) command is  given.
                               No default (see also ~i in Tilde Escapes).

                               `



       Sign=string             The  variable  inserted into the text of a mes-
                               sage when the ~A command is given.  No  default
                               (see also ~i in Tilde Escapes).



       toplines=number         The number of lines of header to print with the
                               top command. Default is 5.



       verbose                 Invoke sendmail(1M) with the -v flag.



       translate               The  name  of  a  program  to  translate   mail
                               addresses.  The program receives mail addresses
                               as arguments.  The  program  produces,  on  the
                               standard output, lines containing the following
                               data, in this order:

                                 o  the postmark for the sender (see the post-
                                    mark variable)

                                 o  translated  mail  addresses, one per line,
                                    corresponding to the program's  arguments.
                                    Each  translated  address will replace the
                                    corresponding address in the mail  message
                                    being sent.

                                 o  a line containing only "y" or "n".  if the
                                    line contains "y" the user will  be  asked
                                    to  confirm  that  the  message  should be
                                    sent.


                               The translate program will be invoked for  each
                               mail  message  to be sent. If the program exits
                               with a non-zero exit status, or fails  to  pro-
                               duce enough output, the message is not sent.



   Large File Behavior
       See  largefile(5)  for  the  description  of the behavior of mailx when
       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect  the  execution  of  mailx: HOME, LANG, LC_CTYPE, LC_TIME,
       LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TERM.

       DEAD            The name of the file in which to save  partial  letters
                       in    case    of   untimely   interrupt.   Default   is
                       $HOME/dead.letter.



       EDITOR          The command to run when the edit or ~e command is used.
                       Default is ed(1).



       LISTER          The  command (and options) to use when listing the con-
                       tents of the folder directory. The default is ls(1).



       MAIL            The name of the initial mailbox file to read  (in  lieu
                       of   the  standard  system  mailbox).  The  default  is
                       /var/mail/username .



       MAILRC          The   name   of   the   startup   file.    Default   is
                       $HOME/.mailrc.



       MAILX_HEAD      The  specified  string  is included at the beginning of
                       the body of each message that is sent.



       MAILX_TAIL      The specified string is included at the end of the body
                       of each message that is sent.



       MBOX            The  name  of the file to save messages which have been
                       read. The exit command overrides this function, as does
                       saving the message explicitly in another file.  Default
                       is $HOME/mbox.



       PAGER           The command to use as a filter for  paginating  output.
                       This  can  also  be  used  to specify the options to be
                       used.  Default is pg(1), or if the  bsdcompat  variable
                       is  set,  the  default  is more(1).  See Internal Vari-
                       ables.



       SHELL           The name of a preferred command interpreter. Default is
                       sh(1).



       VISUAL          The  name  of  a  preferred  screen editor.  Default is
                       vi(1).



EXIT STATUS
       When the  -e  option  is  specified,  the  following  exit  values  are
       returned:

       0        Mail was found.



       >&gt;0       Mail was not found or an error occurred.



       Otherwise, the following exit values are returned:

       0        Successful  completion.  Notice  that this status implies that
                all messages were sent, but it gives no assurances that any of
                them were actually delivered.



       >&gt;0       An error occurred



FILES
       $HOME/.mailrc                            personal startup file



       $HOME/mbox                              secondary storage file



       $HOME/.Maillock                         lock  file  to prevent multiple
                                               writers of system mailbox



       /etc/mail/mailx.rc                      optional  system  startup  file
                                               for mailx only



       /etc/mail/Mail.rc                       BSD  compatibility  system-wide
                                               startup file for  /usr/ucb/mail
                                               and /usr/ucb/Mail



       /tmp/R[emqsx]*                          temporary files



       /usr/share/lib/mailx/mailx.help*        help message files



       /var/mail/*                             post office directory



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).   ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE   VALUE   AvailabilitySUNWcsu
       Interface StabilityStandard


SEE ALSO
       biff(1B),   echo(1),  ed(1),  ex(1),  fmt(1),  lp(1),  ls(1),  mail(1),
       mail(1B), mailcompat(1), more(1), pg(1), sh(1), uucp(1C),  vacation(1),
       vi(1),    newaliases(1M),    sendmail(1M),    aliases(4),    passwd(4),
       attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
       Where shell-command  is  shown  as  valid,  arguments  are  not  always
       allowed. Experimentation is recommended.

       Internal  variables  imported  from the execution environment cannot be
       unset.

       The full internet addressing is not fully supported by mailx.  The  new
       standards need some time to settle down.

       Replies do not always generate correct return addresses.  Try resending
       the errant reply with onehop set.

       mailx does not lock your record file. So, if you use a record file  and
       send  two  or more messages simultaneously, lines from the messages may
       be interleaved in the record file.

       The format for the alias command is a space-separated list  of  recipi-
       ents,  while  the  format  for  an  alias  in  either  the  .forward or
       /etc/aliases is a comma-separated list.

       To read mail on a workstation running Solaris 1.x when your mail server
       is running Solaris 2.x, first execute the mailcompat(1) program.



SunOS 5.10                        19 Sep 2001                         mailx(1)