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MAIL(1)                     General Commands Manual                    MAIL(1)



NAME
       mail, Mail - read or send mail messages

SYNOPSIS
       Mail [ -deHinNUv ] [ -f [ filename | +folder ] ] [ -T file ]
            [ -u user ]

       Mail [ -dFinUv ] [ -h number ] [ -r address ] [ -s subject ]
            recipient ...

       /usr/ucb/mail ...

DESCRIPTION
       mail  is  a  comfortable,  flexible, interactive program for composing,
       sending and receiving electronic  messages.   While  reading  messages,
       mail  provides  you with commands to browse, display, save, delete, and
       respond to messages.  While  sending  mail,  mail  allows  editing  and
       reviewing  of  messages  being composed, and the inclusion of text from
       files or other messages.

       Incoming mail is stored in the system mailbox for each user.  This is a
       file  named  after the user in /var/spool/mail.  mail normally looks in
       this file for incoming messages, but you can use the  MAIL  environment
       variable to have it look in a different file.  When you read a message,
       it is marked to be moved to a secondary file for  storage.   This  sec-
       ondary  file,  called  the mbox, is normally the file mbox in your home
       directory.  This file can also be changed by setting the MBOX  environ-
       ment  variable.   Messages  remain  in the mbox file until deliberately
       removed.

OPTIONS
       If no recipient is specified, mail attempts to read messages  from  the
       system mailbox.

       -d            Turn  on  debugging output.  (Neither particularly inter-
                     esting nor recommended.)

       -e            Test for presence of mail.  If there  is  no  mail,  mail
                     prints nothing and exits (with a successful return code).

       -F            Record the message in a file named after the first recip-
                     ient.  Override the record variable, if set.

       -H            Print header summary only.

       -i            Ignore interrupts (as with the ignore variable).

       -n            Do not initialize from the system default Mail.rc file.

       -N            Do not print initial header summary.

       -U            Convert  uucp  style  addresses  to  Internet  standards.
                     Overrides the conv environment variable.

       -v            Pass the -v flag to sendmail(8).

       -f [filename] Read  messages  from  filename instead of system mailbox.
                     If no filename is specified, the mbox is used.

       -f +folder    Use the file folder in the folder directory (same as  the
                     folder command).  The name of this directory is listed in
                     the folder variable.

       -h number     The number of network "hops" made so far.  This  is  pro-
                     vided  for  network  software  to avoid infinite delivery
                     loops.

       -r address    Pass address to network delivery software.  All tilde (~)
                     commands are disabled.

       -s subject    Set the Subject header field to subject.

       -T file       Print  the  contents of the article-id fields of all mes-
                     sages that were read or deleted on file (for the  use  of
                     network news programs if available).

       -u user       Read  user's  system  mailbox.  This is only effective if
                     user's system mailbox is not read protected.

USAGE
       Refer to for tutorial information about mail.

   Starting Mail
       As  it  starts,  mail  reads   commands   from   a   system-wide   file
       (/usr/lib/Mail.rc)  to initialize certain variables, then it reads from
       a private start-up file called the .mailrc file  (it  is  normally  the
       file  .mailrc in your home directory, but can be changed by setting the
       MAILRC environment variable) for your personal  commands  and  variable
       settings.   Most  mail  commands  are legal inside start-up files.  The
       most common uses for this file are to set up  initial  display  options
       and  alias lists.  The following commands are not legal in the start-up
       file: !, Copy, edit, followup, Followup, hold, mail,  preserve,  reply,
       Reply,  replyall,  replysender,  shell,  and visual.  Any errors in the
       start-up file cause the remaining lines in that file to be ignored.

       You can use the mail command to send a message  directly  by  including
       names  of recipients as arguments on the command line.  When no recipi-
       ents appear on the mail command line,  it  enters  command  mode,  from
       which you can read messages sent to you.  If you list no recipients and
       have no messages, mail prints the message: `No mail for  username'  and
       exits.

       When  in  command  mode (while reading messages), you can send messages
       using the mail command.

   Sending Mail
       While you are composing a message to send, mail is in input  mode.   If
       no  subject is specified as an argument to the command a prompt for the
       subject is printed.  After entering the subject line, mail enters input
       mode to accept the text of your message to send.

       As  you  type  in  the message, mail stores it in a temporary file.  To
       review or modify the message,  enter  the  appropriate  tilde  escapes,
       listed below, at the beginning of an input line.

       To indicate that the message is ready to send, type a dot (or EOF char-
       acter, normally CTRL-D ) on a line by itself.  mail submits the message
       to sendmail(8) for routing to each recipient.

       Recipients can be;

       o      local usernames

       o      Internet addresses of the form:

                     name@domain

       o      uucp(1C) addresses of the form:

                     [host!...host!]host!username

       _      filenames for which you have write permission

       o      alias groups

       If the name of the recipient begins with a pipe symbol (|), the remain-
       der of the name is taken  as  a  shell  command  to  pipe  the  message
       through.   This  provides  an automatic interface with any program that
       reads the standard input, such as lpr(1) to  record  outgoing  mail  on
       paper.   An alias group is the name of a list of recipients that is set
       by the alias command, taken from the host's /etc/aliases file, or taken
       from  the  Network  Information  Service  (NIS)  aliases  domain.   See
       aliases(5) for more information about mail addresses and aliases.

   Tilde Escapes
       The following tilde escape commands can be used when composing messages
       to  send.   Each  must  appear  at the beginning of an input line.  The
       escape character (~), can be changed by setting a  new  value  for  the
       escape variable.  The escape character can be entered as text by typing
       it twice.

       ~!  [shell-command]
              Escape to the shell.  If present, run shell-command.

       ~.     Simulate EOF (terminate message input).

       ~: mail-command
       ~_ mail-command
              Perform the indicated mail command.  Valid only when  sending  a
              message while reading mail.

       ~?     Print a summary of tilde escapes.

       ~A     Insert the autograph string Sign into the message.

       ~a     Insert the autograph string sign into the message.

       ~b name ...
              Add the names to the blind carbon copy (Bcc) list.  This is like
              the carbon copy (Cc) list, except that the names in the Bcc list
              are not shown in the header of the mail message.

       ~c name ...
              Add the names to the carbon copy (Cc) list.

       ~d     Read  in  the dead.letter file.  The name of this file is listed
              in the variable DEAD.

       ~e     Invoke the editor to edit the message.  The name of  the  editor
              is listed in the EDITOR variable.  The default editor is ex(1).

       ~f [message-list]
              Forward  the listed messages, or the current message being read.
              Valid only when sending a message while reading mail;  the  mes-
              sages  are  inserted  without  alteration  (as opposed to the ~m
              escape).

       ~h     Prompt for the message header lines: Subject, To, Cc,  and  Bcc.
              If  the  header  line  contains  text,  you can edit the text by
              backspacing over it and retyping.

       ~i variable
              Insert the value of the named variable into the message.

       ~m [message-list]
              Insert text from the specified messages, or the current message,
              into  the letter.  Valid only when sending a message while read-
              ing mail; the text the message is shifted to the right, and  the
              string contained in the indentprefix variable is inserted as the
              leftmost characters of each line.  If indentprefix is not set, a
              TAB character is inserted into each line.

       ~p     Print the message being entered.

       ~q     Quit from input mode by simulating an interrupt.  If the body of
              the message is not empty, the partial message is  saved  in  the
              dead.letter file.

       ~r filename
       ~<&lt; filename
       ~<&lt;! shell-command
              Read  in  text from the specified file or the standard output of
              the specified shell-command.

       ~s subject
              Set the subject line to subject.

       ~t name ...
              Add each name to the list of recipients.

       ~v     Invoke a visual editor to edit the message.   The  name  of  the
              editor  is  listed  in  the VISUAL variable.  The default visual
              editor is vi(1).

       ~w filename
              Write the message text onto the given file, without the header.

       ~x     Exit as with ~q but do not save the message in  the  dead.letter
              file.

       ~| shell-command
              Pipe  the  body  of the message through the given shell-command.
              If shell-command returns a successful exit status, the output of
              the command replaces the message.

   Reading Mail
       When  you  enter command mode in order to read your messages, mail dis-
       plays a header summary of the first several  messages,  followed  by  a
       prompt for one of the commands listed below.  The default prompt is the
       &&amp; (ampersand character).

       Message are listed and referred to by number.  There is, at any time, a
       current  message,  which  is  marked by a >&gt; in the header summary.  For
       commands that take an optional list of messages, if you omit a  message
       number as an argument, the command applies to the current message.

       A  message-list is a list of message specifications, separated by SPACE
       characters, which may include:

              .      The current message.
              n      Message number n.
              ^      The first undeleted message.
              $      The last message.
              +      The next undeleted message.
              -      The previous undeleted message.
              *      All messages.
              n-m    An inclusive range of message numbers.
              user   All messages from user.
              /string
                     All messages  with  string  in  the  subject  line  (case
                     ignored).
              :c     All messages of type c, where c is one of:
                            d      deleted messages
                            n      new messages
                            o      old messages
                            r      read messages
                            u      unread messages
                     Note:  the context of the command determines whether this
                     type of message specification makes sense.

       Additional arguments are treated as strings whose usage depends on  the
       command  involved.   Filenames,  where expected, are expanded using the
       normal shell filename-substitution mechanism.

       Special characters, recognized by certain commands, are documented with
       those commands.

   Commands
       While  in  command mode, if you type in an empty command line (a RETURN
       or NEWLINE only), the print command is assumed.   The  following  is  a
       complete list of mail commands:

       ! shell-command   Escape to the shell.  The name of the shell to use is
                         listed in the SHELL variable.

       # arguments       Null command.  This may be used as if it were a  com-
                         ment in .mailrc files, but note that it must be sepa-
                         rated from its arguments (commentary) by white space.

       =                 Print the current message number.

       ?                 Print a summary of commands.

       alias [alias recipient...]
       group [alias recipient...]
                         Declare an alias for the given  list  of  recipients.
                         The  list  will be substituted when the alias is used
                         as a recipient while sending mail.  When put  in  the
                         .mailrc file, this command provides you with a record
                         of the alias.  With no arguments,  the  command  dis-
                         plays the list of defined aliases.

       alternates name ...
                         Declare  a  list  of  alternate names for your login.
                         When responding to a message, these names are removed
                         from  the  list of recipients for the response.  With
                         no arguments, alternates prints the current  list  of
                         alternate names.

       cd[ directory]
       chdir [directory]
                         Change  directory.   If  directory  is not specified,
                         $HOME is used.

       copy [message-list] [filename]
                         Copy messages to the file without  marking  the  mes-
                         sages  as  saved.   Otherwise  equivalent to the save
                         command.

       Copy [message-list]
                         Save the specified messages in a file whose  name  is
                         derived  from  the author of the message to be saved,
                         without marking the  messages  as  saved.   Otherwise
                         equivalent to the Save command.

       delete [message-list]
                         Delete  messages  from  the  system  mailbox.  If the
                         variable autoprint is set, print the message  follow-
                         ing the last message deleted.

       discard [header-field...]
       ignore [header-field...]
                         Suppress printing of the specified header fields when
                         displaying messages on the screen, such  as  "Status"
                         and  "Received".   The  fields  are included when the
                         message is saved unless the variable alwaysignore  is
                         set.   The Print and Type commands display all header
                         fields, ignored or not.

       dp [message-list]
       dt [message-list]
                         Delete the specified messages from the  system  mail-
                         box,  and  print  the  message  after  the  last  one
                         deleted.  Equivalent to a delete command followed  by
                         a print command.

       echo [string ...]
                         Echo the given strings (like echo(1V)).

       edit [message-list]
                         Edit  the given messages.  The messages are placed in
                         a temporary file and the EDITOR variable is  used  to
                         get  the  name  of the editor.  The default editor is
                         ex(1).

       exit
       xit               Exit from mail without changing the  system  mailbox.
                         No messages are saved in the mbox (see also quit).

       file [filename]
       folder [filename]
                         Quit  from  the  current mailbox file and read in the
                         named mailbox file.  Several special  characters  are
                         recognized when used as file names:

                                %         Your system mailbox.
                                %user     The system mailbox for user.
                                #         The previous mail file.
                                &&amp;         Your  mbox  file (of messages previ-
                                          ously read).
                                +filename The named file in the folder  direc-
                                          tory  (listed  in  the  folder vari-
                                          able).

                         With no arguments, file prints the name of  the  cur-
                         rent  mail file, and the number of messages and char-
                         acters it contains.

       folders           Print the name of each mail file in the folder direc-
                         tory (listed in the folder variable).

       followup [message]
                         Respond  to  a  message,  recording the response in a
                         file, name of which is derived from the author of the
                         message (overrides the record variable, if set).  See
                         also the Followup, Save, and Copy  commands  and  the
                         outfolder variable.

       Followup [message-list]
                         Respond  to  the  first  message in the message list,
                         sending the message to the author of each message  in
                         the  list.   The subject line is taken from the first
                         message, and the response is recorded in a file,  the
                         name of which is derived from the author of the first
                         message (overrides the record variable, if set).  See
                         also  the  followup,  Save, and Copy commands and the
                         outfolder variable.

       from [message-list]
                         Print the header summary for the  indicated  messages
                         or the current message.

       group alias name ...
                         Same as the alias command.

       headers [message] Print  the  page of headers that includes the message
                         specified, or the current message.  The screen  vari-
                         able  sets  the number of headers per page.  See also
                         the z command.

       help              Print a summary of commands.

       hold [message-list]
       preserve [message-list]
                         Hold the specified messages in the system mailbox.

       if s|r|t
       mail-command
       ...
       else
       mail-command
       ...
       endif             Conditional execution, where s will execute following
                         mail-command  up  to an else or endif, if the program
                         is in send mode, r executes the mail-command only  in
                         receive mode, and t executes the mail-command only if
                         mail is being run from a terminal.  Useful  primarily
                         in the .mailrc file.

       ignore [header-field...]
                         Same as the discard command.

       inc               Incorporate  messages that arrive while you are read-
                         ing the system mailbox.  The new messages  are  added
                         to  the  message  list  in  the current mail session.
                         This command does not commit changes made during  the
                         session, and prior messages are not renumbered.

       list              Prints  all  commands  available.   No explanation is
                         given.

       load [message] filename
                         Load the specified message from the name file.  file-
                         name  should  contain a single mail message including
                         mail headers (as saved by the save command).

       mail recipient ...
                         Mail a message to the specified recipients.

       mbox [message-list]
                         Arrange for the given messages to end up in the stan-
                         dard  mbox  file  when mail terminates normally.  See
                         also the exit and quit commands.

       new [message-list]
                         New [message-list]
                         unread [message-list]
       Unread [message-list]
                         Take a message list and mark each message as not hav-
                         ing been read.

       next message      Go  to next message matching message.  A message-list
                         can be given instead of message, but only first valid
                         message  in the list is used.  (This can be used, for
                         instance, to jump to the next message from a specific
                         user.)

       pipe [message-list] [shell-command]
       | [message-list] [shell-command]
                         Pipe  the message through shell-command.  The message
                         is treated marked as read (and normally saved to  the
                         mbox  file  when  mail  exits).   If no arguments are
                         given, the current message is piped through the  com-
                         mand  specified by the value of the cmd variable.  If
                         the page variable is set, a form  feed  character  is
                         inserted after each message.

       preserve [message-list]
                         Same as the hold command.

       print [message-list]
       type [message-list]
                         Print the specified messages.  If the crt variable is
                         set, messages longer than  the  number  of  lines  it
                         indicates  paged through the command specified by the
                         PAGER  variable.   The  default  paging  command   is
                         more(1).

       Print [message-list]
       Type [message-list]
                         Print the specified messages on the screen, including
                         all header fields.  Overrides suppression  of  fields
                         by the ignore and retain commands.

       quit              Exit from mail storing messages that were read in the
                         mbox file and unread messages in the system  mailbox.
                         Messages  that  have  been explicitly saved in a file
                         are deleted unless the variable keepsave is set.

       reply [message-list]
       respond [message-list]
       replysender [message-list]
                         Send a response to the author of each message in  the
                         message-list.   The  subject  line  is taken from the
                         first message.  If record is set  to  a  filename,  a
                         copy  of  the  reply  is  added to that file.  If the
                         replyall   variable   is   set,   the   actions    of
                         Reply/Respond  and  reply/respond  are reversed.  The
                         replysender command is not affected by  the  replyall
                         variable,  but sends each reply only to the sender of
                         each message.

       Reply [message]
       Respond [message]
       replyall [message]
                         Reply to the specified message, including  all  other
                         recipients  of  that message.  If the variable record
                         is set to a filename, a copy of the  reply  added  to
                         that  file.   If  the  replyall  variable is set, the
                         actions  of  Reply/Respond  and   reply/respond   are
                         reversed.   The  replyall  command is not affected by
                         the replyall variable, but always sends the reply  to
                         all recipients of the message.

       retain            Add  the  list of header fields named to the retained
                         list.  Only the header fields in the retain list  are
                         shown on your terminal when you print a message.  All
                         other header  fields  are  suppressed.   The  set  of
                         retained fields specified by the retain command over-
                         rides any list of ignored  fields  specified  by  the
                         ignore  command.   The Type and Print commands can be
                         used to print a message in its entirety.   If  retain
                         is  executed  with no arguments, it lists the current
                         set of retained fields.

       save [message-list] [filename]
                         Save the specified messages in the named  file.   The
                         file is created if it does not exist.  If no filename
                         is specified, the file named in the MBOX variable  is
                         used,  mbox  in your home directory by default.  Each
                         saved message is deleted from the system mailbox when
                         mail  terminates unless the keepsave variable is set.
                         See also the exit and quit commands.

       Save [message-list]
                         Save the specified messages in a file whose  name  is
                         derived  from  the  author of the first message.  The
                         name of the file is taken  from  the  author's  name,
                         with  all  network addressing stripped off.  See also
                         the Copy, followup, and  Followup  commands  and  the
                         outfolder variables.

       set [variable[=value]]
                         Define  a  variable.   To assign a value to variable,
                         separate the variable name from the value by  an  `='
                         (there  must be no space before or after the `=').  A
                         variable may be given  a  null,  string,  or  numeric
                         value.   To  embed  SPACE  characters  within a value
                         enclose it in quotes.

                         With no arguments, set displays all defined variables
                         and  any values they might have.  See Variables for a
                         description of all predefined mail variables.

       shell             Invoke the interactive  shell  listed  in  the  SHELL
                         variable.

       size [message-list]
                         Print  the  size  in characters of the specified mes-
                         sages.

       source filename   Read commands from the given file and return to  com-
                         mand mode.

       top [message-list]
                         Print  the  top  few lines of the specified messages.
                         If the toplines variable is set, it is taken  as  the
                         number of lines to print.  The default number is 5.

       touch [message-list]
                         Touch the specified messages.  If any message in mes-
                         sage-list is not specifically saved  in  a  file,  it
                         will  be  placed in the mbox upon normal termination.
                         See also the exit and quit commands.

       type [message-list]
                         Same as the print command.

       Type [message-list]
                         Same as the Print command.

       undelete [message-list]
                         Restore deleted messages.  This command only restores
                         messages deleted in the current mail session.  If the
                         autoprint variable is set, the last message  restored
                         is printed.

       unread [message-list]
       Unread [message-list]
                         Same as the new command.
       unset variable ...
                         Erase  the  specified variables.  If the variable was
                         imported from the environment (that is,  an  environ-
                         ment  variable or exported shell variable), it cannot
                         be unset from within mail.

       version           Print the current version and  release  date  of  the
                         mail utility.

       visual [message-list]
                         Edit the given messages with the screen editor listed
                         in the VISUAL variable.  The default screen editor is
                         vi(1).   Each  message  is placed in a temporary file
                         for editing.

       write [message-list] [filename]
                         Write the given messages onto the specified file, but
                         without  the  header and trailing blank line.  Other-
                         wise, this is  equivalent to the save command.

       xit               Same as the exit command.

       z[+|-]            Scroll the header display forward (+) or backward (-)
                         one  screenfull.   The number of headers displayed is
                         set by the screen variable.

   Forwarding Messages
       To forward a specific message, include it in a message to  the  desired
       recipients  with the ~f or ~m tilde escapes.  To forward mail automati-
       cally, add a comma-separated list of addresses for  additional  recipi-
       ents  to  the  .forward file in your home directory.  This is different
       from the format of the alias command,  which  takes  a  space-separated
       list  instead.   Note: forwarding addresses must be valid (as described
       in aliases(5)),  or  the  messages  will  "bounce."   You  cannot,  for
       instance,  reroute your mail to a new host by forwarding it to your new
       address if it is not yet listed in the NIS aliases domain.

   Variables
       The behavior of mail is governed by a set of predefined variables  that
       are set and cleared using the set and unset commands.

   Environment Variables
       Values  for  the following variables are read in automatically from the
       environment; they cannot be altered from within mail:

       HOME=directory
                     The user's home directory.

       MAIL=filename
                     The name of the initial mailbox file to read (in lieu  of
                     the   standard   system   mailbox).    The   default   is
                     /var/spool/mail/username.

       MAILRC=filename
                     The name of the personal start-up file.  The  default  is
                     $HOME/.mailrc.

   Mail Variables
       The  following variables can be initialized within the .mailrc file, or
       set and altered interactively using the set command.  They can also  be
       imported  from  the  environment  (in which case their values cannot be
       changed within mail).  The unset command clears variables. The set com-
       mand  can  also be used to clear a variable by prefixing the word no to
       the name of the variable to clear.

       Variables for which values are normally supplied are indicated with  an
       equal-sign  (=).   The  equal-sign  is required by the set command, and
       there can be no  spaces  between  the  variable-name,  equal-sign,  and
       value, using set to assign a value.

       allnet        All network names whose last component (login name) match
                     are treated as identical.  This causes the  message  list
                     specifications to behave similarly.  Default is noallnet.
                     See also the alternates command and the metoo variable.

       alwaysignore  Ignore header fields with  ignore  everywhere,  not  just
                     during  print  or  type.   Affects  the save, Save, copy,
                     Copy, top, pipe, and write commands, and the  ~m  and  ~f
                     tilde escapes.

       append        Upon  termination, append messages to the end of the mbox
                     file instead of prepending them.  Default is noappend but
                     append  is  set in the global start-up file (which can be
                     suppressed with the -n command line option).

       askcc         Prompt for the Cc list after message is entered.  Default
                     is noaskcc.

       asksub        Prompt  for subject if it is not specified on the command
                     line with the -s option.  Enabled by default.

       autoprint     Enable automatic printing of messages  after  delete  and
                     undelete commands.  Default is noautoprint.

       bang          Enable  the  special-casing  of exclamation points (!) in
                     shell escape command  lines  as  in  vi(1).   Default  is
                     nobang.

       cmd=shell-command
                     Set the default command for the pipe command.  No default
                     value.

       conv=conversion
                     Convert uucp addresses to the address style specified  by
                     conversion, which can be either:

                     internet
                            This  requires  a mail delivery program conforming
                            to  the  RFC822  standard  for   electronic   mail
                            addressing.

                     optimize
                            Remove  loops in uucp(1C) address paths (typically
                            generated by the reply command).  No rerouting  is
                            performed; mail has no knowledge of UUCP routes or
                            connections.

                     Conversion is disabled by default.  See also  sendmail(8)
                     and the -U command line option.

       crt=number    Pipe  messages  having more than number lines through the
                     command specified by the  value  of  the  PAGER  variable
                     (more by default).  Disabled by default.

       DEAD=filename
                     The  name of the file in which to save partial letters in
                     case of untimely interrupt or delivery  errors.   Default
                     is the file dead.letter in your home directory.

       debug         Enable  verbose  diagnostics for debugging.  Messages are
                     not delivered.  Default is nodebug.

       dot           Take a period on a line by itself  during  input  from  a
                     terminal  as EOF.  Default is nodot but dot is set in the
                     global start-up file (which can be suppressed with the -n
                     command line option).

       editheaders   Include  message  headers in the text to be edited by the
                     ~e and ~v commands.

       EDITOR=shell-command
                     The command to run when the edit or ~e command  is  used.
                     Default is ex(1).

       escape=c      Substitute c for the ~ escape character.

       folder=directory
                     The directory for saving standard mail files.  User spec-
                     ified file names beginning with a plus (+)  are  expanded
                     by  preceding  the  filename  with this directory name to
                     obtain the real filename.  If directory  does  not  start
                     with  a  slash (/), the value of HOME is prepended to it.
                     There is no default for the folder  variable.   See  also
                     outfolder below.

       header        Enable printing of the header summary when entering mail.
                     Enabled by default.

       hold          Preserve all messages that are read in the system mailbox
                     instead  of  putting them in the standard mbox save file.
                     Default is nohold for mail and hold for mailtool(1).

       ignore        Ignore interrupts while  entering  messages.   Handy  for
                     noisy dial-up lines.  Default is noignore.

       ignoreeof     Ignore  EOF  during  message input.  Input must be termi-
                     nated by a period (`.')  on a line by itself  or  by  the
                     `~.'   command.   Default  is  noignoreeof.  See also dot
                     above.

       indentprefix=string
                     When indentprefix is set, string is used to mark indented
                     lines  from  messages included with ~m.  The default is a
                     TAB character.

       keep          When the system mailbox is empty,  truncate  it  to  zero
                     length instead of removing it.  Disabled by default.

       keepsave      Keep  messages that have been saved in other files in the
                     system mailbox instead  of  deleting  them.   Default  is
                     nokeepsave.

       LISTER=shell-command
                     The  command  (and options) to use when listing the files
                     in the folder directory.  The default is ls(1V).

       MBOX=filename
                     The name of the file to save  messages  which  have  been
                     read.   The  xit command overrides this variable, as does
                     saving the message explicitly to another  file.   Default
                     is the file mbox in your home directory.

       metoo         If  your  login  appears as a recipient, do not delete it
                     from the list.  Default is nometoo.

       no            When used as a prefix to a variable name, has the  effect
                     of unsetting the variable.

       onehop        When  responding to a message that was originally sent to
                     several recipients, the  other  recipient  addresses  are
                     normally   forced  to  be  relative  to  the  originating
                     author's machine for the response.   This  flag  disables
                     alteration  of the recipients' addresses, improving effi-
                     ciency in a network where all machines can send  directly
                     to all other machines (that is, one "hop" away).

       outfolder     Locate  the files used to record outgoing messages in the
                     directory specified by the  folder  variable  unless  the
                     pathname  is  absolute.   Default  is  nooutfolder.   See
                     folder above and the Save, Copy, followup,  and  Followup
                     commands.

       page          Used  with  the  pipe command to insert a form feed after
                     each message sent through the pipe.  Default is nopage.

       PAGER=shell-command
                     The command to use as a  filter  for  paginating  output,
                     along with any options to be used.  Default is more(1).

       prompt=string Set the command mode prompt to string.  Default is `&&amp;'.

       quiet         Refrain  from  printing  the  opening message and version
                     when entering mail.  Default is noquiet.

       record=filename
                     Record  all  outgoing  mail  in  filename.   Disabled  by
                     default.  See also the variable outfolder.

       replyall      Reverse the effect of the reply and Reply commands.

       save          Enable  saving  of  messages  in  the dead.letter file on
                     interrupt or delivery error.  See DEAD for a  description
                     of this file.  Enabled by default.

       screen=number Set  the  number of lines in a screen-full of headers for
                     the headers command.

       sendmail=shell-command
                     Alternate command  for  delivering  messages.   Note:  in
                     addition  to  the  expected list of recipients, mail also
                     passes the -i and -m, flags to the command.  Since  these
                     flags are not appropriate to other commands, you may have
                     to use a shell script that strips them from the arguments
                     list before invoking the desired command.

       sendwait      Wait  for  background  mailer to finish before returning.
                     Default is nosendwait.

       SHELL=shell-command
                     The name of a preferred command  interpreter.   Typically
                     inherited from the environment, the shell is normally the
                     one you always use.  Otherwise defaults to sh(1).

       showto        When displaying the header summary  and  the  message  is
                     from  you,  print  the  recipient's  name  instead of the
                     author's name.

       sign=autograph
                     The autograph text inserted into the message when the  ~a
                     (autograph)  command  is given.  No default (see also the
                     ~i tilde escape).

       Sign=autograph
                     The autograph text inserted into the message when the  ~A
                     command  is  given.   No  default  (see also the ~i tilde
                     escape).

       toplines=number
                     The number of lines of header to print with the top  com-
                     mand.  Default is 5.

       verbose       Invoke sendmail with the -v flag.

       VISUAL=shell-command
                     The name of a preferred screen editor.  Default is vi.

FILES
       $HOME/.mailrc       personal start-up file
       $HOME/.forward      list of recipients for automatic forwarding of mes-
                           sages
       $HOME/mbox          secondary storage file
       $HOME/dead.letter   undeliverable messages file
       /var/spool/mail     directory for system mailboxes
       /usr/lib/Mail.help* help message files
       /usr/lib/Mail.rc    global start-up file
       /tmp/R[emqsx]*      temporary files

SEE ALSO
       biff(1), bin-mail(1), echo(1V),  ex(1),  fmt(1),  ls(1V),  mailtool(1),
       more(1),    sh(1),    uucp(1C),    vacation(1),    vi(1),   aliases(5),
       newaliases(8), sendmail(8)

       mail is found in /usr/ucb/Mail, as a link  to  /usr/ucb/mail.   If  you
       wish to use the original (version 7) UNIX mail program, you can find it
       in /usr/bin/mail.  Its man page is named bin-mail(1).

BUGS
       Where shell-command  is  shown  as  valid,  arguments  are  not  always
       allowed.  Experimentation is recommended.

       Internal  variables  imported  from the execution environment cannot be
       unset.

       Replies do not always generate correct return addresses.  Try resending
       the errant reply with onehop set.

       mail  does not lock your record file.  So, if you use a record file and
       send two or more messages simultaneously, lines from the  messages  may
       be interleaved in the record file.

       The  format  for the alias command is a space-separated list of recipi-
       ents, while  the  format  for  an  alias  in  either  the  .forward  or
       /etc/aliases is a comma-separated list.

NOTES
       The  Network Information Service (NIS) was formerly known as Sun Yellow
       Pages (YP).  The functionality of the two remains the  same;  only  the
       name has changed.



                               19 December 1988                        MAIL(1)