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 ls(1)								       ls(1)




 NAME
      ls, lc, l, ll, lsf, lsr, lsx - list contents of directories

 SYNOPSIS
      ls [-abcdefgilmnopqrstuxACFLR1] [names]

      lc [-abcdefgilmnopqrstuxACFLR1] [names]

      l [ls_options] [names]
      ll [ls_options] [names]
      lsf [ls_options] [names]
      lsr [ls_options] [names]
      lsx [ls_options] [names]

 DESCRIPTION
      For each directory argument, the ls command lists the contents of the
      directory.  For each file argument, ls repeats its name and any other
      information requested.  The output is sorted in ascending collation
      order by default (see Environment Variables below).  When no argument
      is given, the current directory is listed.  When several arguments are
      given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but file
      arguments appear before directories and their contents.

      If you are a user with appropriate privileges, all files except . and
      .. are listed by default.

      There are three major listing formats.  The format chosen depends on
      whether the output is going to a login device (determined by whether
      output device file is a tty device), and can also be controlled by
      option flags.  The default format for a login device is to list the
      contents of directories in multicolumn format, with entries sorted
      vertically by column.  (When individual file names (as opposed to
      directory names) appear in the argument list, those file names are
      always sorted across the page rather than down the page in columns
      because individual file names can be arbitrarily long.) If the
      standard output is not a login device, the default format is to list
      one entry per line.  The -C and -x options enable multicolumn formats,
      and the -m option enables stream output format in which files are
      listed across the page, separated by commas.  In order to determine
      output formats for the -C, -x, and -m options, ls uses an environment
      variable, COLUMNS, to determine the number of character positions
      available on each output line.  If this variable is not set, the
      terminfo database is used to determine the number of columns, based on
      the environment variable TERM.  If this information cannot be
      obtained, 80 columns is assumed.

      The command lc functions the same as ls except that the lc default
      output is columnar, even if output is redirected.

    Options
      ls recognizes the following options:



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 ls(1)								       ls(1)




	   -a	List all entries; usually entries whose names begin with a
		period (.) are not listed.

	   -b	List nonprinting characters in the octal \ddd notation.

	   -c	Use time of last modification of the inode (file created,
		mode changed, etc.) for sorting (-t) or printing (-l (ell)).

	   -d	If an argument is a directory, list only its name (not its
		contents); often used with -l (ell) to get the status of a
		directory.

	   -e	List the extent attributes of the file.	 If any of the files
		has a extent attribute, this option lists the extent size,
		space reserved and allocation flags.  This option must be
		used with the -l (ell) option.

	   -f	Interpret each argument as a directory and list the name
		found in each slot.  This option disables -l (ell), -r, -s,
		and -t, and enables -a; the order is the order in which
		entries appear in the directory.

	   -g	Same as -l (ell), except that only the group is printed
		(owner is omitted).  If both -l (ell) and -g are specified,
		the owner is not printed.

	   -i	For each file, list the inode number in the first column of
		the report.  When used in multicolumn output, the number
		precedes the file name in each column.

	   -l	(ell) List in long format, giving mode, number of links,
		owner, group, size in bytes, and time of last modification
		for each file (see further DESCRIPTION and Access Control
		Lists below).  If the time of last modification is greater
		than six months ago, or any time in the future, the year is
		substituted for the hour and minute of the modification
		time.  If the file is a special file, the size field
		contains the major and minor device numbers rather than a
		size.  If the file is a symbolic link, the filename is
		printed, followed by ->&gt&gt> and the pathname of the referenced
		file.

	   -m	Stream output format.

	   -n	The same as -l, (ell) except that the owner's UID and
		group's GID numbers are printed, rather than the associated
		character strings.

	   -o	The same as -l, (ell) except that only the owner is printed
		(group is omitted).  (If both -l (ell) and -o are specified,
		the group is not printed).



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 ls(1)								       ls(1)




	   -p	Put a slash (/) after each file name if that file is a
		directory.

	   -q	List nonprinting characters in file names as the character
		(?).

	   -r	Reverse the order of sort to get reverse (descending)
		collation or oldest first, as appropriate.

	   -s	List size in blocks, including indirect blocks, for each
		entry.	The first entry listed is the total number of blocks
		in the directory.  When used in multicolumn output, the
		number of blocks precedes the file name in each column.	 The
		number of indirect blocks in a file is filesystem dependent.

	   -t	Sort by time modified (latest first) before sorting
		alphabetically.

	   -u	Use time of last access instead of last modification for
		sorting (-t option) or printing (-l (ell) option).

	   -x	List multicolumn output with entries sorted across rather
		than down the page.

	   -A	The same as -a, except that the current directory . and
		parent directory .. are not listed.  For a user with
		appropriate privileges, this flag defaults to on, and is
		turned off by -A.

	   -C	List multicolumn output with entries sorted down the
		columns.

	   -F	After each file name, put one of:

		+  A slash (/) if the file is a directory or a symbolic link
		   to a directory.
		+  An asterisk (*) if the file is executable;
		+  An at-sign (@) if the file is a symbolic link to a file;
		+  A vertical bar (|) if the file is a fifo.

	   -L	If the argument is a symbolic link, list the file or
		directory to which the link refers rather than the link
		itself.

	   -R	Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

	   -1	(one) List the file names in single column format regardless
		of the output device.  This forces single column format to
		the user's terminal.





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 ls(1)								       ls(1)




      Specifying more than one of the options in the following mutually
      exclusive pairs is not considered an error: -C and -l (ell), -m and -l
      (ell), -x and -l (ell), -C and -1 (one), and -c and -u.

      ls is known by several shorthand-version names for the various
      formats:

	   l	is equivalent to ls -m
	   ll	is equivalent to ls -l (ell)
	   lsf	is equivalent to ls -F
	   lsr	is equivalent to ls -R
	   lsx	is equivalent to ls -x

      The shorthand notations are implemented as links to ls.  Option
      arguments to the shorthand versions behave exactly as if the long form
      above had been used with the additional arguments.

      Mode Bits Interpretation (-l option)
      The mode printed in listings produced by the -l (ell) option consists
      of 10 characters, for example, -rwxr-xr-x.

      The first character indicates the entry type:

	   b	Block special file
	   c	Character special file
	   d	Directory
	   l	Symbolic link
	   n	Network special file
	   p	Fifo (also called a "named pipe") special file
	   s	Socket
	   -	Ordinary file

      The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three
      characters each which identify access and execution permissions for
      the owner, group, and others categories, as described in chmod(1).
      The - indicates the permission is not granted.  The various
      permissions can be put together in any combination, except that the x,
      s, S, t, and T characters are mutually exclusive, as implied below.

	   -r--------	  Read by owner
	   --w-------	  Write by owner
	   ---x------	  Execute (or search directory) by owner; do not set
			  user ID on execution
	   ---s------	  Execute/search by owner; set user ID on execution
	   ---S------	  No execute/search by owner; set user ID on
			  execution
	   ----r-----	  Read by group
	   -----w----	  Write by group
	   ------x---	  Execute/search by group; do not set group ID on
			  execution




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 ls(1)								       ls(1)




	   ------s---	  Execute/search by group; set group ID on execution
	   ------S---	  No execute/search by group; set group ID on
			  execution
	   -------r--	  Read by others
	   --------w-	  Write by others
	   ---------x	  Execute/search by others; do not set sticky bit on
			  execution
	   ---------t	  Execute/search by others; set sticky bit on
			  execution
	   ---------T	  No execute/search by others; set sticky bit on
			  execution

      The mode characters are interpreted as follows:

	   -	Deny all permissions in the corresponding position.

	   r	Grant read permission to the corresponding user class.

	   w	Grant write permission to the corresponding user class.

	   x	Grant execute (or search in directory) permission to the
		corresponding user class.

	   s	Grant execute (search) permission to the corresponding user
		class.	Execute the file as if by the owner (set user ID,
		SUID) or group (set group ID, SGID), as indicated by
		position.

	   S	Deny execute (search) permission to the corresponding user
		class.	Execute the file as if by the owner (set user ID,
		SUID) or group (set group ID, SGID), as indicated by
		position.

	   t	Grant execute (search) permission to others.  The "sticky"
		(save text image) bit is set (see the description of S_ISVTX
		in chmod(2)).

	   T	Deny execute (search directory) permission to others.  The
		"sticky" (save text image) bit is set.

      When an option is specified that results in a listing of directory
      and/or file sizes in bytes or blocks (such as the -s or -l (ell)
      option), a total count of blocks, including indirect blocks, is also
      printed at the beginning of the listing.

    Access Control Lists (ACLs)
      If a file has optional ACL entries, the -l (ell) option displays a
      plus sign (+) after the file's permissions.  The permissions shown are
      a summary representation of the file's access control list, as
      returned by stat() in the st_mode field (see stat(2)).  To list the
      contents of an access control list, use the lsacl command (see



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 ls(1)								       ls(1)




      lsacl(1) and acl(5)) for HFS file systems, or the getacl command (see
      getacl(1) and aclv(5)) for JFS file systems.

 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
    Environment Variables
      If the COLUMNS variable is set, ls uses the width provided in
      determining positioning of columnar output.

      LANG determines the locale to use for the locale categories when both
      LC_ALL and the corresponding environment variable (beginning with LC_)
      do not specify a locale.	If LANG is not set or is null, it defaults
      to C (see lang(5)).

      LC_COLLATE determines the order in which the output is sorted.

      LC_CTYPE determines which characters are classified as nonprinting for
      the -b and -q options, and the interpretation of single- and/or
      multibyte characters within file names.

      LC_TIME determines the date and time strings output by the -g, -l
      (ell), -n, and -o options.

      LC_MESSAGES determines the language in which messages (other than the
      date and time strings) are displayed.

      If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, they
      all default to C (see environ(5)).

    International Code Set Support
      Single- and multibyte character code sets are supported.

 RETURN VALUE
      ls exits with one of the following values:

	    0	All input files were listed successfully.

	   >&gt&gt>0	ls was aborted because errors occurred when accessing files.
		The following conditions cause an error:

		+  Specified file not found.
		+  User has no permission to read the directory.
		+  Process could not get enough memory.
		+  Invalid option specified.

 EXAMPLES
      Print a long listing of all the files in the current working directory
      (including the file sizes).  List the most recently modified
      (youngest) file first, followed by the next older file, and so forth,
      to the oldest.  Files whose names begin with a . are also printed.





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 ls(1)								       ls(1)




	   ls -alst

 WARNINGS
      Setting options based on whether the output is a login (tty) device is
      undesirable because ls -s is very different from ls -s | lp.  On the
      other hand, not using this setting makes old shell scripts that used
      ls almost inevitably fail.

      Nonprinting characters in file names (without the -b or -q option) may
      cause columnar output to be misaligned.

 DEPENDENCIES
    NFS
      The -l (ell) option does not display a plus sign (+) after the access
      permission bits of networked files to represent existence of optional
      access control list entries.

 AUTHOR
      ls was developed by AT&T, the University of California, Berkeley and
      HP.

 FILES
      /etc/group		    For group IDs for -l (ell) and -g.
      /etc/passwd		    For user IDs for -l (ell) and -o.
      /usr/share/lib/terminfo/?/*   For terminal information.

 SEE ALSO
      chmod(1), find(1), getacl(1), lsacl(1), stat(2), acl(5), aclv(5).

 STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
      ls: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, POSIX.2























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