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LS(1)                       General Commands Manual                      LS(1)



NAME
       ls  -  list contents of directory

SYNOPSIS
       ls [ -ltasdrucifg ] name ...

DESCRIPTION
       For  each  directory  argument, ls lists the contents of the directory;
       for each file argument, ls repeats its name and any  other  information
       requested.   The  output  is sorted alphabetically by default.  When no
       argument is given, the current directory is listed.  When several argu-
       ments are given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but file
       arguments appear before directories and their contents.  There are sev-
       eral options:

       -l     List  in  long format, giving mode, number of links, owner, size
              in bytes, and time of last modification  for  each  file.   (See
              below.)   If  the  file  is  a  special file the size field will
              instead contain the major and minor device numbers.

       -t     Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by name,  as  is
              normal.

       -a     List all entries; usually `.'  and `..'  are suppressed.

       -s     Give size in blocks, including indirect blocks, for each entry.

       -d     If argument is a directory, list only its name, not its contents
              (mostly used with -l to get status on directory).

       -r     Reverse the order of sort to get reverse  alphabetic  or  oldest
              first as appropriate.

       -u     Use time of last access instead of last modification for sorting
              (-t) or printing (-l).

       -c     Use time of last modification to inode (mode, etc.)  instead  of
              last modification to file for sorting (-t) or printing (-l).

       -i     Print  i-number  in  first  column  of  the report for each file
              listed.

       -f     Force each argument to be interpreted as a  directory  and  list
              the  name found in each slot.  This option turns off -l, -t, -s,
              and -r, and turns on -a; the order is the order in which entries
              appear in the directory.

       -g     Give group ID instead of owner ID in long listing.

       The  mode  printed under the -l option contains 11 characters which are
       interpreted as follows: the first character is

       d  if the entry is a directory;
       b  if the entry is a block-type special file;
       c  if the entry is a character-type special file;
       -  if the entry is a plain file.

       The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three bits each.
       The  first  set refers to owner permissions; the next to permissions to
       others in the same user-group; and the last to all others.  Within each
       set  the  three characters indicate permission respectively to read, to
       write, or to execute the file as a program.  For a directory, `execute'
       permission  is  interpreted  to mean permission to search the directory
       for a specified file.  The permissions are indicated as follows:

       r  if the file is readable;
       w  if the file is writable;
       x  if the file is executable;
       -  if the indicated permission is not granted.

       The group-execute permission character is given as s if  the  file  has
       set-group-ID  mode;  likewise  the user-execute permission character is
       given as s if the file has set-user-ID mode.

       The last character of the mode (normally `x' or `-') is t if  the  1000
       bit of the mode is on.  See chmod(1) for the meaning of this mode.

       When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a total count of
       blocks, including indirect blocks is printed.

FILES
       /etc/passwd to get user ID's for `ls -l'.
       /etc/group to get group ID's for `ls -g'.



                                                                         LS(1)