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LS(1V)                                                                  LS(1V)

       ls - list the contents of a directory

       ls [ -aAcCdfFgilLqrRstu1 ] filename ...

       /usr/5bin/ls [ -abcCdfFgilLmnopqrRstux ] filename ...

       The  System  V  version  of this command is available with the System V
       software installation option.  Refer  to  for  information  on  how  to
       install optional software.

       For  each  filename  which is a directory, ls lists the contents of the
       directory; for each filename which is a file, ls repeats its  name  and
       any  other  information  requested.   By  default, the output is sorted
       alphabetically.  When no argument is given, the  current  directory  is
       listed.   When  several  arguments  are  given, the arguments are first
       sorted appropriately, but file arguments are processed before  directo-
       ries and their contents.

       In  order  to  determine output formats for the -C, -x, and -m options,
       /usr/5bin/ls uses an environment variable, COLUMNS,  to  determine  the
       number  of  character  positions available on one output line.  If this
       variable is not set, the terminfo database is  used  to  determine  the
       number  of  columns,  based  on the environment variable TERM.  If this
       information cannot be obtained, 80 columns are assumed.

   Permissions Field
       The mode printed under the -l option contains 10 characters interpreted
       as follows.  If the first character is:
              d  entry is a directory;
              b  entry is a block-type special file;
              c  entry is a character-type special file;
              l  entry is a symbolic link;
              p  entry is a FIFO (also known as "named pipe") special file;
              s  entry is an AF_UNIX address family socket, or
              -  entry is a plain file.

       The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three bits each.
       The first set refers to owner permissions; the next refers  to  permis-
       sions to others in the same user-group; and the last refers to all oth-
       ers.  Within each set the three characters indicate permission  respec-
       tively  to  read, to write, or to execute the file as a program.  For a
       directory, "execute" permission is interpreted to  mean  permission  to
       search the directory.  The permissions are indicated as follows:
              r  the file is readable;
              w  the file is writable;
              x  the file is executable;
              -  the indicated permission is not granted.

       The  group-execute  permission  character is given as s if the file has
       the set-group-id bit set; likewise the owner-execute permission charac-
       ter is given as s if the file has the set-user-id bit set.

       The last character of the mode (normally x or `-') is t if the 1000 bit
       of the mode is on.  See chmod(1V) for the meaning of  this  mode.   The
       indications  of set-ID and 1000 bits of the mode are capitalized (S and
       T respectively) if the corresponding execute permission is not set.

       When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a total count of
       blocks, including indirect blocks is printed.

       -a     List  all  entries; in the absence of this option, entries whose
              names begin with a `.'  are not listed (except  for  the  super-
              user,  for  whom  ls, but not /usr/5bin/ls, normally prints even
              files that begin with a `.').

       -A     (ls only)  Same as -a,  except  that  `.'   and  `..'   are  not

       -c     Use  time  of  last  edit  (or  last mode change) for sorting or

       -C     Force multi-column output, with entries sorted down the columns;
              for ls, this is the default when output is to a terminal.

       -d     If  argument  is  a  directory, list only its name (not its con-
              tents); often used with -l to get the status of a directory.

       -f     Force each argument to be interpreted as a  directory  and  list
              the  name found in each slot.  This option turns off -l, -t, -s,
              and -r, and turns on -a; the order is the order in which entries
              appear in the directory.

       -F     Mark  directories  with a trailing slash (`/'), executable files
              with a trailing asterisk (`*'), symbolic links with  a  trailing
              at-sign  (`@'), and AF_UNIX address family sockets with a trail-
              ing equals sign (`=').

       -g     For ls, show the group ownership of the file in a  long  output.
              For  /usr/5bin/ls,  print a long listing, the same as -l, except
              that the owner is not printed.

       -i     For each file, print the i-number in the  first  column  of  the

       -l     List  in  long format, giving mode, number of links, owner, size
              in bytes, and time of last modification for each file.   If  the
              file  is  a special file the size field will instead contain the
              major and minor device numbers.  If the time of  last  modifica-
              tion  is  greater than six months ago, it is shown in the format
              `month date year'; files modified within six months show  `month
              date  time'.  If the file is a symbolic link the pathname of the
              linked-to file is printed preceded by `-->>'.  /usr/5bin/ls  will
              print the group in addition to the owner.

       -L     If  argument  is a symbolic link, list the file or directory the
              link references rather than the link itself.

       -q     Display non-graphic characters in filenames as the character  ?;
              for ls, this is the default when output is to a terminal.

       -r     Reverse  the  order  of sort to get reverse alphabetic or oldest
              first as appropriate.

       -R     Recursively list subdirectories encountered.

       -s     Give size of each file, including any indirect  blocks  used  to
              map   the   file,   in   kilobytes   (ls)   or  512-byte  blocks

       -t     Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by name.

       -u     Use time of last access instead of last modification for sorting
              (with the -t option) and/or printing (with the -l option).

       -1     (ls  only)  Force  one entry per line output format; this is the
              default when output is not to a terminal.

       -b     Force printing of non-graphic characters to be in the octal \ddd

       -m     Stream output format; the file names are printed as a list sepa-
              rated by commas, with as many entries as possible printed  on  a

       -n     The same as -l, except that the owner's UID and group's GID num-
              bers are printed, rather than the associated character strings.

       -o     The same as -l, except that the group is not printed.

       -p     Put a slash (`/') after each filename if that file is  a  direc-

       -x     Multi-column  output with entries sorted across rather than down
              the page.

       The environment variables LC_CTYPE, LANG, and  LC_default  control  the
       character classification throughout ls.  On entry to ls, these environ-
       ment variables are checked in the following order: LC_CTYPE, LANG,  and
       LC_default.   When  a valid value is found, remaining environment vari-
       ables for character classification are ignored.   For  example,  a  new
       setting  for LANG does not override the current valid character classi-
       fication rules of LC_CTYPE.  When none of  the  values  is  valid,  the
       shell character classification defaults to the POSIX.1 "C" locale.

       /etc/passwd         to get user ID's for `ls -l' and `ls -o'.
       /etc/group          to get group ID for `ls -g' and `/usr/5bin/ls -l'.
                           to get terminal information for /usr/5bin/ls.

       NEWLINE and TAB are considered printing characters in filenames.

       The output device is assumed to be 80 columns wide.

       The  option  setting based on whether the output is a teletype is unde-
       sirable as `ls -s' is much different than `ls -s | lpr'.  On the  other
       hand, not doing this setting would make old shell scripts which used ls
       almost certain losers.

       None of the above apply to /usr/5bin/ls.

       Unprintable characters in file names may confuse  the  columnar  output

                                2 October 1989                          LS(1V)