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ls(1)									ls(1)



NAME

  ls - Lists and generates statistics for files

SYNOPSIS

  ls [-aAbcCdDfFgilLmnopqrRstux1] [file... | directory...]

STANDARDS

  Interfaces documented	on this	reference page conform to industry standards
  as follows:

  ls:  XCU5.0

  Refer	to the standards(5) reference page for more information	about indus-
  try standards	and associated tags.

OPTIONS

  -a  Lists all	entries	in the directory, including the	entries	that begin
      with a . (dot). Entries that begin with a	. are not displayed unless
      you refer	to them	specifically, or you specify the -a option.

  -A  [Tru64 UNIX]  Lists all entries, except .	(dot) and .. (dot-dot).	If
      you issue	the ls command as the superuser, it behaves as if you speci-
      fied this	option.

  -b  [Tru64 UNIX]  Displays nonprintable characters in	octal notation.

  -c  Uses the time of last inode modification (file created, mode changed,
      and so on) for sorting when used with the	-t option. Displays the	time
      of last inode modification (instead of the time at which the file's
      contents were last modified) when	used with the -l option.  This option
      has effect only when used	with either -t or -l or	both.

  -C  Sorts output vertically in a multicolumn format.	This is	the default
      when output is to	a terminal.

  -d  Displays only the	information for	the directory that is named, rather
      than for its contents.  This is useful with the -l option	to get the
      status of	a directory.

  -D  If the file is a special file, and the machine is	cluster	aware, the
      size field contains the major and	minor device numbers assigned on the
      local machine.

  -f  Lists the	name in	each slot for each named directory. This option	turns
      off -l, -t, -s, and -r, and turns	on -a; this option uses	the order in
      which entries appear in the directory.

  -F  Puts a / (slash) after each file name if the file	is a directory,	an *
      (asterisk) after each file name if the file can be executed, an =
      (equal sign) after each file name	if the file is a socket, an @ (at
      sign) for	a symbolic link, and a | (vertical bar)	for a FIFO.

  -g  Displays the same	information as -l, except for the owner.

  -i  Displays the file	serial number in the first column of the report	for
      each file.

  -l  Displays the mode, number	of links, owner, group,	size (in bytes), and
      time of last modification	for each file, and pathname.

      [Tru64 UNIX]  If the file	is a symbolic link, the	pathname of the
      linked-to	file is	also preceded by ->. The attributes of the symbolic
      link are displayed. The -n option	overrides the -l option.

      [Tru64 UNIX]  If CMD_ENV=svr4, the ls command reports an l in the	group
      execution	field when mandatory locking is	enabled.

  -L  [Tru64 UNIX]  Lists the file or directory	link references	rather than
      the link itself, if the argument is a symbolic link.

  -m  Uses stream output format	(a comma-separated series).

  -n  Displays the same	information as -l, except that it displays the user
      and the group IDs	instead	of the user names and group names.

  -o  Displays the same	information as with -l,	except for the group.  The -n
      option overrides the -o option.

  -p  Puts a slash after each file name	if that	file is	a directory.

  -q  Displays nonprintable characters in file names as	a ? (question mark)
      character, if output is to a terminal (default).

  -r  Reverses the order of the	sort, giving reverse collation or the oldest
      first, as	appropriate.

  -R  Lists all	subdirectories recursively.

  -s  Gives space used in n 1024-byte units (including indirect	blocks)	for
      each entry.

      [Tru64 UNIX]  When run on	an AdvFS clone file set, the ls	-s command
      displays the space used by the files in the original file	set at the
      time the clone file set was created. The file sizes are displayed	in
      1024-byte	units.

  -t  Sorts by time of last modification (latest first)	instead	of by name.

  -u  Uses the time of the last	access instead of time of the last modifica-
      tion for sorting (when used with -t) or for displaying (when used	with
      -l).  This option	has no effect when not used with either	-t or -l or
      both.

  -x  Sorts output horizontally	in a multicolumn format.

  -1  Forces one entry per line	output format; this is the default when	out-
      put is not directed to a terminal.

  When you specify the following mutually exclusive options, the last option
  on the command line takes effect:

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  -C	and -l (ell)

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  -C	and -1 (one)

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  -m	and -l (ell)

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  -x	and -l (ell)

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  -c	and -u


OPERANDS

  file | directory
      The path name of a file or directory about which information is to be
      output.  If this operand is omitted, the current directory is used.

DESCRIPTION

  The ls command writes	to standard output the contents	of each	specified
  directory or the name	of each	specified file,	along with any other informa-
  tion you ask for with	options.  If you do not	specify	a file or a direc-
  tory,	ls displays the	contents of the	current	directory.

  By default, ls displays all information in collated order by file name.
  The collating	sequence is determined by the LC_COLLATE environment vari-
  able.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	There are three	main ways to format the	output:

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  List entries in multiple columns by specifying either
       the -C or -x options.  When output is to	a terminal, -C is the default
       format.

    +  List one	entry per line.

    +  List entries in a comma-separated series	by specifying the -m option.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The ls command uses ioctl() to determine the number of byte
  positions in the output line.	 If ls cannot get this information, it uses a
  default value	of 80.	Columns	may not	be smaller than	20 bytes or larger
  than 400 bytes.

  Modes


  The mode displayed with the -l option	is interpreted by the first charac-
  ter, as follows:

  b   Block special file

  c   Character	special	file

  d   Directory

  l   [Tru64 UNIX]  Symbolic link

  p   First-In-First-Out (FIFO)	special	file

  s   [Tru64 UNIX]  Local socket

  -   Ordinary file









  Permissions


  The next nine	characters are divided into three sets of three	characters
  each.	 The first three characters show the owner's permission.  The next
  set of three characters show the permission of the other users in the
  group.  The last set of three	characters show	the permission of everyone
  else.	 The three characters in each set show read, write and execute per-
  mission of the file.	Execute	permission of a	directory lets you search a
  directory for	a specified file.

  Permissions are indicated as follows:

  r   read

  w   write

  x   execute or search	(directories)

  -   no access

  The group-execute permission character is s if the file has set-group-ID
  mode.	The user-execute permission character is s if the file has set-user-
  ID mode. The last character of the mode (normally x or -) is t if the	01000
  (octal) bit of the mode is set; see the chmod	command	for the	meaning	of
  this mode. The indications of	set-ID and the 01000 bit of the	mode are cap-
  italized (S and T, respectively) if the corresponding	execute	permission is
  not set.

  When there is	an access control list (ACL) on	the listed directory or	file
  the group permissions	displayed by the ls command are	the maximum permis-
  sions	allowed	for the	owning group and for any user or group identified in
  a qualified "user" or	"group"	ACL entry. A given user	or member of a group
  can have more	restrictive permissions.  Use the getacl command to see	the
  ACL for a given file or directory.

  When the sizes of the	files in a directory are listed, the ls	command
  displays a total count in 1024-byte units, including indirect	blocks.

  The LC_TIME environment variable controls the	format of the date and time.

  System V Compatibility


  [Tru64 UNIX]	The root of the	directory tree that contains the commands
  modified for SVID 2 compliance is specified in the file /etc/svid2_path.
  You can use /etc/svid2_profile as the	basis for, or to include in, your
  .profile.  The file /etc/svid2_profile reads /etc/svid2_path and sets	the
  first	entries	in the PATH environment	variable so that the modified SVID 2
  commands are found first.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The SVID 2 compliant version of	the ls command produces	mul-
  ticolumn output only if the -C option	is specified. In addition, the -s
  option of the	SVID 2 compliant command causes	file sizes to be reported in
  512-byte units rather	than in	1024-byte units.

EXIT STATUS

  The following	exit values are	returned:

  0   Successful completion.

  >>0  An error occurred.



NOTE

  [Tru64 UNIX]	Sparse files, such as quota files, may not be using as much
  on-disk storage as the ls -l command reports.	 Use the ls -s command to
  obtain an accurate report of the on-disk storage used	by a sparse file.

EXAMPLES

   1.  The following example lists the quota.user file,	a sparse file, two
       different ways.	The example shows that although	the last byte in the
       file is at logical offset 2097151, the file uses	only 24	blocks of
       on-disk storage:
	    # ls -l quota.user
	    -rw-r-----	 1 root	    operator 2097152 Apr 29 14:54 quota.user
	    # ls -s quota.user
	    24 quota.user

   2.  To list all files in the	current	directory, enter:
	    ls -a

       This lists all files, including . (dot),	.. (dot-dot), and other	files
       with names beginning with a dot.

   3.  To display detailed information,	enter:
	    ls -l chap1	.profile

       This displays a long listing with detailed information about the	files
       chap1 and .profile.

   4.  To display detailed information about a directory, enter:
	    ls -d -l . manual manual/chap1

       This displays a long listing for	the directories	. and manual, and for
       the file	manual/chap1.  Without the -d option, this command lists the
       files in	. and manual instead of	providing detailed information about
       the directories themselves.

   5.  To list the files in the	current	directory in order of modification
       time, enter:
	    ls -l -t

       This displays a long listing of the files that were modified most
       recently, followed by the older files.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

  The following	environment variables affect the execution of ls:

  COLUMNS
      Determines the user's preferred column position width for	writing	mul-
      tiple text-column	output.	If this	variable contains a string represent-
      ing a decimal integer, the ls utility calculates how many	pathname text
      columns to write (see -C)	based on the width provided. If	COLUMNS	is
      not set or invalid, an implementation-dependent number of	column posi-
      tions is assumed,	based on the implementation's knowledge	of the output
      device. The column width chosen to write the names of files in any
      given directory will be constant.	Filenames will not be truncated	to
      fit into the multiple text-column	output.

  LANG
      Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that
      are unset	or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value
      from the default locale is used. If any of the internationalization
      variables	contain	an invalid setting, the	utility	behaves	as if none of
      the variables had	been defined.

  LC_ALL
      If set to	a non-empty string value, overrides the	values of all the
      other internationalization variables.

  LC_COLLATE
      Determines the locale for	character collation information	in determin-
      ing the pathname collation sequence.

  LC_CTYPE
      Determines the locale for	the interpretation of sequences	of bytes of
      text data	as characters (for example, single-byte	as opposed to multi-
      byte characters in arguments).

  LC_MESSAGES
      Determines the locale for	the format and contents	of diagnostic mes-
      sages written to standard	error.

  LC_TIME
      Determines the format and	contents for the date and time strings writ-
      ten by ls.

  NLSPATH
      Determines the location of message catalogues for	the processing of
      LC_MESSAGES.

  TZ  Determines the timezone for date and time	strings	written	by ls.

FILES

  /etc/passwd
      Contains user information.

  /etc/group
      Contains group information.

SEE ALSO

  Commands:  chmod(1), du(1), find(1), ln(1), stty(1)

  Functions:  ioctl(2)

  Files:  acl(4)

  Standards:  standards(5)