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login(1)                         User Commands                        login(1)

       login - sign on to the system

       login  [-p]  [-d device] [-R repository] [-s service] [-t terminal] [-u
       identity] [-U ruser] [-h hostname [terminal] |  -r hostname]   [   name

       The  login command is used at the beginning of each terminal session to
       identify oneself to the system. login is invoked by the system  when  a
       connection is first established, after the previous user has terminated
       the login shell by issuing the exit command.

       If login is invoked as a command, it must replace the  initial  command
       interpreter. To invoke login in this fashion, type:

       exec login

       from  the  initial  shell.  The  C  shell and Korn shell have their own
       builtins of login. See ksh(1) and  csh(1)  for  descriptions  of  login
       builtins and usage.

       login  asks  for  your user name, if it is not supplied as an argument,
       and your password, if appropriate. Where possible,  echoing  is  turned
       off  while you type your password, so it will not appear on the written
       record of the session.

       If you make any mistake in the login procedure, the message:

       Login incorrect

       is printed and a new login prompt will appear. If you make five  incor-
       rect login attempts, all five may be logged in /var/adm/loginlog, if it
       exists. The TTY line will be dropped.

       If password aging is  turned  on  and  the  password  has  "aged"  (see
       passwd(1)  for  more  information),  the  user is forced to changed the
       password. In this case the  /etc/nsswitch.conf  file  is  consulted  to
       determine  password  repositories  (see nsswitch.conf(4)). The password
       update configurations supported  are  limited  to  the  following  five

         o  passwd: files

         o  passwd: files nis

         o  passwd: files nisplus

         o  passwd: compat (==> files nis)

         o  passwd: compat (==> files nisplus)

            passwd_compat: nisplus

       Failure  to  comply  with the configurations will prevent the user from
       logging onto the system because passwd(1) will fail. If you do not com-
       plete  the  login  successfully  within a certain period of time, it is
       likely that you will be silently disconnected.

       After a successful login, accounting files are updated.  Device  owner,
       group,  and  permissions  are  set  according  to  the  contents of the
       /etc/logindevperm file, and the time you last logged in is printed (see

       The  user-ID, group-ID, supplementary group list, and working directory
       are initialized, and the command interpreter (usually ksh) is started.

       The basic environment is initialized to:


       For Bourne shell and Korn shell logins, the shell executes /etc/profile
       and  $HOME/.profile,  if  it exists. For C shell logins, the shell exe-
       cutes  /etc/.login,  $HOME/.cshrc,  and   $HOME/.login.   The   default
       /etc/profile  and /etc/.login files check quotas (see quota(1M)), print
       /etc/motd, and check for mail. None of the messages are printed if  the
       file  $HOME/.hushlogin   exists. The name of the command interpreter is
       set to - (dash), followed by the last component  of  the  interpreter's
       path name, for example, -sh.

       If the login-shell field in the password file (see passwd(4)) is empty,
       then the default command interpreter, /usr/bin/sh,  is  used.  If  this
       field is * (asterisk), then the named directory becomes the root direc-
       tory. At that point, login is re-executed at the new level, which  must
       have its own root structure.

       The  environment  may  be  expanded or modified by supplying additional
       arguments to login, either at execution time  or  when  login  requests
       your login name. The arguments may take either the form xxx or xxx=yyy.
       Arguments without an = (equal sign) are placed in the environment as:


       where n is a number starting at 0 and is incremented each  time  a  new
       variable  name  is required. Variables containing an = (equal sign) are
       placed in the environment without modification. If they already  appear
       in the environment, then they replace the older values.

       There  are  two  exceptions:  The  variables  PATH  and SHELL cannot be
       changed. This prevents people logged into restricted shell environments
       from  spawning  secondary  shells that are not restricted. login under-
       stands simple single-character quoting conventions.  Typing a \  (back-
       slash)  in  front  of a character quotes it and allows the inclusion of
       such characters as spaces and tabs.

       Alternatively, you can pass the current environment by supplying the -p
       flag  to login. This flag indicates that all currently defined environ-
       ment variables should be passed, if possible, to the  new  environment.
       This  option does not bypass any environment variable restrictions men-
       tioned above. Environment variables specified on the  login  line  take
       precedence, if a variable is passed by both methods.

       To  enable  remote  logins by root, edit the /etc/default/login file by
       inserting a # (pound sign) before the CONSOLE=/dev/console  entry.  See

       For  accounts in name services which support automatic account locking,
       the  account  may  be  configured  to  be  automatically  locked   (see
       user_attr(4)  and  policy.conf(4))  if successive failed login attempts
       equals or exceeds RETRIES.  Currently, only the "files" repository (see
       passwd(4)  and  shadow(4)) supports automatic account locking. See also

       The login command uses pam(3PAM) for  authentication,  account  manage-
       ment,  session  management, and password management. The PAM configura-
       tion policy, listed through /etc/pam.conf, specifies the modules to  be
       used  for  login.  Here is a partial pam.conf file with entries for the
       login command using the UNIX authentication,  account  management,  and
       session management modules:

       login  auth       required  pam_authtok_get.so.1
       login  auth       required  pam_dhkeys.so.1
       login  auth       required  pam_unix_auth.so.1
       login  auth       required  pam_dial_auth.so.1

       login  account    requisite pam_roles.so.1
       login  account    required  pam_projects.so.1
       login  account    required  pam_unix_account.so.1

       login  session    required  pam_unix_session.so.1

       The Password Management stack looks like the following:

       other  password   required   pam_dhkeys.so.1
       other  password   requisite  pam_authtok_get.so.1
       other  password   requisite  pam_authtok_check.so.1
       other  password   required   pam_authtok_store.so.1

       If  there  are  no  entries  for  the service, then the entries for the
       "other" service will be used. If multiple  authentication  modules  are
       listed, then the user may be prompted for multiple passwords.

       When login is invoked through rlogind or telnetd, the service name used
       by PAM is rlogin or telnet, respectively.

       The following options are supported:

       -d device

           login accepts a device option, device. device is taken  to  be  the
           path  name  of  the TTY port login is to operate on. The use of the
           device option can be expected to improve login  performance,  since
           login will not need to call ttyname(3C). The -d option is available
           only to users whose UID and  effective  UID  are  root.  Any  other
           attempt to use -d will cause login to quietly exit.

       -h hostname [ terminal ]

           Used  by  in.telnetd(1M)  to pass information about the remote host
           and terminal type.

           Terminal type as a second argument to  the  -h  option  should  not
           start with a hyphen (-).


           Used to pass environment variables to the login shell.

       -r hostname

           Used by in.rlogind(1M) to pass information about the remote host.

       -R repository

           Used  to specify the PAM repository that should be used to tell PAM
           about the "identity" (see option -u below). If no "identity" infor-
           mation is passed, the repository is not used.

       -s service

           Indicates  the PAM service name that should be used. Normally, this
           argument is not necessary and is used only for specifying  alterna-
           tive  PAM  service names. For example: "ktelnet" for the Kerberized
           telnet process.

       -u identity

           Specifies the "identity" string associated with  the  user  who  is
           being  authenticated.  This  will  usually  not be the same as that
           user's Unix login name. For Kerberized login sessions, this will be
           the Kerberos principal name associated with the user.

       -U ruser

           Indicates  the name of the person attempting to login on the remote
           side of the rlogin connection. When in.rlogind(1M) is operating  in
           Kerberized  mode,  that daemon will process the terminal and remote
           user name  information prior to invoking login, so the "ruser" data
           is  indicated using this command line parameter. Normally (non-Ker-
           beros authenticated rlogin), the login daemon will read the  remote
           user information from the client.

       The following exit values are returned:

       0               Successful operation.

       non-zero        Error.

       $HOME/.cshrc            initial commands for each csh

       $HOME/.hushlogin        suppresses login messages

       $HOME/.login            user's login commands for csh

       $HOME/.profile          user's login commands for sh and ksh

       $HOME/.rhosts           private  list of trusted hostname/username com-

       /etc/.login             system-wide csh login commands

       /etc/issue              issue or project identification

       /etc/logindevperm       login-based device permissions

       /etc/motd               message-of-the-day

       /etc/nologin            message displayed to users attempting to  login
                               during machine shutdown

       /etc/passwd             password file

       /etc/profile            system-wide sh and ksh login commands

       /etc/shadow             list of users' encrypted passwords

       /usr/bin/sh             user's default command interpreter

       /var/adm/lastlog        time of last login

       /var/adm/loginlog       record of failed login attempts

       /var/adm/utmpx          accounting

       /var/adm/wtmpx          accounting

       /var/mail/your-name     mailbox for user your-name

       /etc/default/login      Default  value  can  be  set  for the following
                               flags in /etc/default/login. For example: TIME-


                                   Sets  the  TZ  environment  variable of the
                                   shell (see environ(5)).


                                   Sets the HZ  environment  variable  of  the


                                   Sets  the  file  size  limit for the login.
                                   Units are disk blocks.  Default is zero (no


                                   If set, root can login on that device only.
                                   This will not prevent execution  of  remote
                                   commands with rsh(1). Comment out this line
                                   to allow login by root.


                                   Determines if  login  requires  a  non-null


                                   Determines  if  login  should set the SHELL
                                   environment variable.


                                   Sets the initial shell PATH variable.


                                   Sets the initial shell  PATH  variable  for


                                   Sets  the  number of seconds (between 0 and
                                   900) to wait before abandoning a login ses-


                                   Sets  the  initial shell file creation mode
                                   mask. See umask(1).


                                   Determines whether the syslog(3C)  LOG_AUTH
                                   facility  should  be  used  to log all root
                                   logins at  level  LOG_NOTICE  and  multiple
                                   failed login attempts atLOG_CRIT.


                                   If present, and greater than zero, the num-
                                   ber of seconds that login will  wait  after
                                   RETRIES  failed  attempts or the PAM frame-
                                   work returns PAM_ABORT. Default is 20  sec-
                                   onds.  Minimum  is 0 seconds. No maximum is


                                   If present, sets the number of  seconds  to
                                   wait  before  the  login failure message is
                                   printed to the  screen.  This  is  for  any
                                   login failure other than PAM_ABORT. Another
                                   login attempt is allowed, providing RETRIES
                                   has  not  been reached or the PAM framework
                                   is returned PAM_MAXTRIES. Default is 4 sec-
                                   onds.  Minimum  is  0 seconds. Maximum is 5

                                   Both su(1M) and sulogin(1M) are affected by
                                   the value of SLEEPTIME.


                                   Sets  the  number of retries for logging in
                                   (see pam(3PAM)). The default is 5. The max-
                                   imum  number of retries is 15. For accounts
                                   configured  with  automatic  locking   (see
                                   SECURITY  above), the account is locked and
                                   login exits. If automatic locking  has  not
                                   been  configured, login exits without lock-
                                   ing the account.


                                   Used to determine  how  many  failed  login
                                   attempts  will  be  allowed  by  the system
                                   before a failed login  message  is  logged,
                                   using  the  syslog(3C) LOG_NOTICE facility.
                                   For example, if the variable is set  to  0,
                                   login will log all failed login attempts.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).   ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE   VALUE   AvailabilitySUNWcsu
       Interface StabilityEvolving

       csh(1),  exit(1),  ksh(1),  mail(1),  mailx(1),  newgrp(1),  passwd(1),
       rlogin(1),  rsh(1),  sh(1),  shell_builtins(1),  telnet(1),   umask(1),
       in.rlogind(1M),  in.telnetd(1M),  logins(1M),  quota(1M), su(1M), sulo-
       gin(1M),    syslogd(1M),    useradd(1M),    userdel(1M),     pam(3PAM),
       rcmd(3SOCKET),  syslog(3C),  ttyname(3C),  auth_attr(4),  exec_attr(4),
       hosts.equiv(4),  issue(4),  logindevperm(4),  loginlog(4),  nologin(4),
       nsswitch.conf(4),  pam.conf(4),  passwd(4), policy.conf(4), profile(4),
       shadow(4), user_attr(4), utmpx(4), wtmpx(4), attributes(5), environ(5),
       pam_unix_account(5),  pam_unix_auth(5),  pam_unix_session(5), pam_auth-
       tok_check(5), pam_authtok_get(5), pam_authtok_store(5),  pam_dhkeys(5),
       pam_passwd_auth(5), termio(7I)

       Login incorrect

           The user name or the password cannot be matched.

       Not on system console

           Root login denied. Check the CONSOLE setting in /etc/default/login.

       No directory! Logging in with home=/

           The user's home directory named in the passwd(4) database cannot be
           found or has the wrong permissions.  Contact your  system  adminis-

       No shell

           Cannot  execute  the shell named in the passwd(4) database. Contact
           your system administrator.

       NO LOGINS: System going down in N minutes

           The machine is in the process of being shut down  and  logins  have
           been disabled.

       Users  with  a  UID  greater  than 76695844 are not subject to password
       aging, and the system does not record their last login time.

       If you use the CONSOLE setting  to  disable  root  logins,  you  should
       arrange  that  remote  command  execution by root is also disabled. See
       rsh(1), rcmd(3SOCKET), and hosts.equiv(4) for further details.

       The pam_unix(5) module is no longer supported. Similar functionality is
       provided by pam_unix_account(5), pam_unix_auth(5), pam_unix_session(5),
       pam_authtok_check(5),     pam_authtok_get(5),     pam_authtok_store(5),
       pam_dhkeys(5), and pam_passwd_auth(5).

SunOS 5.10                        13 Oct 2004                         login(1)