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 last(1)							     last(1)




 NAME
      last, lastb - indicate last logins of users and ttys

 SYNOPSIS
      /usr/bin/last [-R] [-number] [-f file] [name ...] [tty ...]

      /usr/bin/lastb [-R] [-number] [-f file] [name ...] [tty ...]

 DESCRIPTION
      The last command searches backwards through the file /var/adm/wtmp
      (which contains a record of all logins and logouts) for information
      about a user, a tty, or any group of users and ttys.  Arguments
      specify names of users or ttys of interest.  The names of ttys can be
      given fully or abbreviated.  For example, last 0 is the same as last
      tty0.  If multiple arguments are given, the information that applies
      to any of the arguments is printed.  For example, last root console
      lists all of root's sessions as well as all sessions on the console
      terminal.	 The last command prints the sessions of the specified users
      and ttys, most recent first, indicating when the session began, the
      duration of the session, and the tty on which the session took place.
      last indicates if the session is still in progress or if it was cut
      short by a reboot.

      The pseudo-user reboot logs each time the system reboots.	 Thus, last
      reboot is a useful command for evaluating the relative time between
      system reboots.

      If last is interrupted, it indicates how far the search has progressed
      in wtmp.	If interrupted by a quit signal (generated by a Ctrl-\),
      last indicates how far the search has progressed, then continues the
      search.

      The lastb command searches backwards through the database file
      /var/adm/btmp to display bad login information.  Access to
      /var/adm/btmp should be restricted to users with appropriate
      privileges (owned by and readable only by root) because it may contain
      password information.

    Options
      The last and lastb commands recognize the following options and
      arguments:

	   (none)    If no arguments are specified, last prints a record of
		     all logins and logouts in reverse order, most recent
		     first.

	   -R	     When used with last and lastb, -R displays the user's
		     host name as it is stored in the files /var/adm/wtmp
		     and /var/adm/btmp, respectively.  The host name is
		     displayed between the tty name and the user's login
		     time.



 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 1 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 last(1)							     last(1)




	   -number   Limits the report to number of lines.

	   -f file   Use file as the name of the accounting file instead of
		     /var/adm/wtmp or /var/adm/btmp.

 AUTHOR
      last was developed by the University of California, Berkeley and HP.

 FILES
      /var/adm/btmp	  Bad login database
      /var/adm/wtmp	  Login database

 SEE ALSO
      login(1), utmp(4).








































 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 2 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000