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 ftp(1)				  Kerberos			      ftp(1)




 NAME
      ftp - file transfer program

 SYNOPSIS
      ftp [-g] [-i] [-n] [-c] [-P] [-v] [-B size] [server-host]

 DESCRIPTION
      ftp is a user interface to the File Transfer Protocol.  ftp copies
      files over a network connection between the local ``client'' host and
      a remote ``server'' host.	 ftp runs on the client host.

    Options
      The ftp command supports the following options:

	   -g	Disable file name ``globbing''; see the glob command, below.
		By default, when this option is not specified, globbing is
		enabled.

	   -i	Disable interactive prompting by multiple-file commands; see
		the prompt command, below.  By default, when this option is
		not specified, prompting is enabled.

	   -P	Disables Kerberos authentication and authorization.  Only
		applicable in a secure environment based on Kerberos V5.
		When this option is specified, a password is required and
		the password is sent across the network in a readable form.
		By default, if this option is not specified, a password is
		not required and Kerberos authentication and authorization
		takes place instead.  See sis(5).

	   -n	Disable ``auto-login''; see the open command, below.  By
		default, when this option is not specified, auto-login is
		enabled.

	   -c	When this option is set, the SYST and TYPE calls are not
		made by the ftp client to the server upon establishing a
		connection. The -c option takes effect only when auto-login
		is disabled i.e. when it is invoked along with the -n
		option. This option does not disable the SYST and TYPE
		commands, but only refrains from invoking these commands
		upon establishing a connection.

	   -v	Enable verbose output; see the verbose command, below.	If
		this option is not specified, ftp displays verbose output
		only if the standard input is associated with a terminal.

	   -B	Set the buffer size of the data socket to size blocks of
		1024 bytes. The valid range for size is an integer from 1 to
		64 (default is 56).





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		Note: A large buffer size will improve the performance of
		ftp on fast links (e.g., FDDI), but may cause long
		connection times on slow links (e.g., X.25).

      The name of the server host that ftp communicates with can be
      specified on the command line.  If the server host is specified, ftp
      immediately opens a connection to the server host; see the open
      command, below.  Otherwise, ftp waits for commands from the user.

      File Transfer Protocol specifies file transfer parameters for type,
      mode, form, and struct.  ftp supports the ASCII, binary, and tenex
      File Transfer Protocol types.  ASCII is the default FTP type.  (It
      should be noted though that, whenever ftp establishes a connection
      between two similar systems, it switches automatically to the more
      efficient binary type.) ftp supports only the default values for the
      file transfer parameters mode which defaults to stream, form which
      defaults to non-print, and struct which defaults to file.

 COMMANDS
      ftp supports the following commands.  Command arguments with embedded
      spaces must be enclosed in quotes (for example, "argument with
      embedded spaces").

      ![command [args]]
	   Invoke a shell on the local host.  The SHELL environment variable
	   specifies which shell program to invoke.  ftp invokes /usr/bin/sh
	   if SHELL is undefined.  If command is specified, the shell
	   executes it and returns to ftp.  Otherwise, an interactive shell
	   is invoked.	When the shell terminates, it returns to ftp.

      $ macro-name [args]
	   Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef
	   command.  Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.

      account [passwd]
	   Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system for
	   access to resources once a login has been successfully completed.
	   If no argument is included, the user is prompted for an account
	   password in a non-echoing input mode.

      append local-file [remote-file]
	   Copy local-file to the end of remote-file.  If remote-file is
	   left unspecified, the local file name is used in naming the
	   remote file after being altered by any ntrans or nmap setting.

      ascii
	   Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.	 This is the default
	   type.

      bell Sound a bell after each file transfer completes.




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      binary
	   Set the file transfer type to binary.

      bye  Close the connection to the server host if a connection was open,
	   and exit.  Typing an end-of-file (EOF) character also terminates
	   and exits the session.

      case Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during mget
	   commands.  When case is on (the default is off), remote computer
	   file names with all letters in uppercase are written in the local
	   directory with the letters mapped to lowercase.

      cd remote-directory
	   Set the working directory on the server host to remote-directory.

      cdup Set the working directory on the server host to the parent of the
	   current remote working directory.

      chmod mode file-name
	   Change the permission modes of the file file-name on the remote
	   system to mode.

      close
	   Terminate the connection to the server host.	 The close command
	   does not exit ftp.  Any defined macros are erased.

      cr   Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file
	   retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage-return/line-feed
	   sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the
	   default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
	   conform with the UNIX single line-feed record delimiter.  Records
	   on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single line-feeds; when an
	   ascii type transfer is made, these line-feeds can be
	   distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr is off.

      delete remote-file
	   Delete remote-file.	The remote-file can be an empty directory.
	   No globbing is done.

      dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
	   Write a remote-directory listing to standard output or optionally
	   to local-file.  If neither remote-directory nor local-file is
	   specified, list the remote working directory to standard output.
	   If interactive prompting is on, ftp prompts the user to verify
	   that the last argument is indeed the target file for dir output.
	   Globbing characters are always expanded.

      disconnect
	   A synonym for close.





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      form format
	   Set the file transfer form to format.  The only supported format
	   is non-print

      get remote-file [local-file]
	   Copy remote-file to local-file.  If local-file is unspecified,
	   ftp uses the specified remote-file name as the local-file name,
	   subject to alteration by the current case, ntrans, and nmap
	   settings.

      glob Toggle file name globbing.  When file name globbing is enabled,
	   ftp expands csh(1) metacharacters in file and directory names.
	   These characters are *, ?, [, ], ~, {, and }.  The server host
	   expands remote file and directory names.  Globbing metacharacters
	   are always expanded for the ls and dir commands.  If globbing is
	   enabled, metacharacters are also expanded for the multiple-file
	   commands mdelete, mdir, mget, mls, and mput.

      hash Toggle printing of a hash-sign (#) for each 1024 bytes
	   transferred. Note that the use of this feature may cause
	   performance degradation.

      help [command]
	   Print an informative message about the ftp command called ftp-
	   command.  If ftp-command is unspecified, print a list of all ftp
	   commands.

      idle [seconds]
	   Set the inactivity timer on the remote server to seconds seconds.
	   If seconds is omitted, ftp prints the current inactivity timer.

      lcd [local-directory]
	   Set the local working directory to local-directory.	If local-
	   directory is unspecified, set the local working directory to the
	   user's local home directory.

      ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
	   Write a listing of remote-directory to local-file.  The listing
	   includes any system-dependent information that the server chooses
	   to include; for example, most UNIX systems produce output from
	   the command ls -l (see also nlist).	If neither remote-directory
	   nor local-file is specified, list the remote working directory.
	   If globbing is enabled, globbing metacharacters are expanded.

      macdef macro-name
	   Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro macro-
	   name; an empty input line terminates macro input mode.  There is
	   a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total characters in all defined
	   macros.  Macros remain defined until a close command is executed.
	   The macro processor interprets $ and \ as special characters.  A
	   $ followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the



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	   corresponding argument on the macro invocation command line.	 A $
	   followed by an i signals to the macro processor that the
	   executing macro is to be looped.  On the first pass $i is
	   replaced by the first argument on the macro invocation command
	   line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second argument,
	   and so on.  A \ followed by any character is replaced by that
	   character.  Use the \ to prevent special treatment of the $.

      mdelete [remote-files]
	   Delete remote-files.	 If globbing is enabled, globbing
	   metacharacters are expanded.

      mdir remote-files local-file
	   Write a listing of remote-files to local-file.  If globbing is
	   enabled, globbing metacharacters are expanded.  If interactive
	   prompting is on, ftp prompts the user to verify that the last
	   argument is indeed the target local file for mdir output.

      mget remote-files
	   Copy remote-files to the local system.  If globbing is enabled,
	   globbing metacharacters are expanded.  The resulting local file
	   names are processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.

      mkdir directory-name
	   Create remote directory-name.

      mls remote-files local-file
	   Write an abbreviated listing of remote-files to local-file.	If
	   globbing is enabled, globbing metacharacters are expanded.  If
	   interactive prompting is on, ftp prompts the user to verify that
	   the last argument is indeed the target local file for mls output.

      mode [mode-name]
	   Set the FTP file transfer mode to mode-name.	 The only supported
	   mode is stream.

      modtime remote-file
	   Show the last modification time of remote-file.

      mput local-files
	   Copy local-files from the local system to the remote system.	 The
	   remote files have the same name as the local files processed
	   according to ntrans and nmap settings.  If globbing is enabled,
	   globbing characters are expanded.

      newer file-name
	   Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file is
	   more recent that the file on the current system.  If the file
	   does not exist on the current system, the remote file is
	   considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to get.




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      nlist [remote-directory] [local-file]
	   Write an abbreviated listing of remote-directory to local-file.
	   If remote-directory is left unspecified, the current working
	   directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp prompts
	   the user to verify that the last argument is indeed the target
	   local file for nlist output.

      nmap [inpattern outpattern]
	   Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.	 If no arguments are
	   specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.	If arguments
	   are specified, remote filenames are mapped during mput commands
	   and put commands issued without a specified remote target
	   filename.  If arguments are specified, local filenames are mapped
	   during mget commands and get commands issued without a specified
	   local target filename.  This command is useful when connecting to
	   a non-UNIX remote computer with different file naming conventions
	   or practices.  The mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern
	   and outpattern.  inpattern is a template for incoming filenames
	   (which may have already been processed according to the ntrans
	   and case settings).	Variable templating is accomplished by
	   including the sequences $1, $2, ..., $9 in inpattern.  Use \ to
	   prevent this special treatment of the $ character.  All other
	   characters are treated literally, and are used to determine the
	   nmap inpattern variable values.  For example, given inpattern
	   $1.$2 and the remote file name mydata.data, $1 would have the
	   value mydata, and $2 would have the value data.  The outpattern
	   determines the resulting mapped filename.  The sequences $1,
	   $2, ..., $9 are replaced by any value resulting from the
	   inpattern template.	The sequence $0 is replaced by the original
	   filename.  Additionally, the sequence [seq1,seq2] is replaced by
	   seq1 if seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by
	   seq2.  For example, the command nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]
	   would yield the output filename myfile.data for input filenames
	   myfile.data and myfile.data.old, myfile.file for the input
	   filename myfile, and myfile.myfile for the input filename
	   .myfile.  Spaces can be included in outpattern, as in the
	   example: nmap $1 | sed "s/  *$//" >&gt&gt> $1 . Use the \ character to
	   prevent special treatment of the $, [, ], and , characters.

      ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
	   Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.  If no
	   arguments are specified, the filename character translation
	   mechanism is unset.	If arguments are specified, characters in
	   remote filenames are translated during mput commands and put
	   commands issued without a specified remote target filename.	If
	   arguments are specified, characters in local filenames are
	   translated during mget commands and get commands issued without a
	   specified local target filename.  This command is useful when
	   connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer with different file
	   naming conventions or practices.  Characters in a filename
	   matching a character in inchars are replaced with the



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	   corresponding character in outchars.	 If the character's position
	   in inchars is longer than the length of outchars, the character
	   is deleted from the file name.

      open server-host [port-number]
	   Establish a connection to server-host, using port-number (if
	   specified).	If auto-login is enabled, ftp attempts to log into
	   the server host.

      prompt
	   Toggle interactive prompting.  By default, ftp prompts the user
	   for a yes or no response for each output file during multiple-
	   file commands.  If interactive prompting is disabled, ftp
	   performs the command for all specified files.

      put local-file [remote-file]
	   Copy local-file to remote-file.  If remote-file is unspecified,
	   ftp assigns the local-file name, processed according to any
	   ntrans or nmap settings, to the remote-file name.

      pwd  Write the name of the remote working directory to stdout.

      quit A synonym for bye.

      quote arguments
	   Send arguments, verbatim, to the server host.  See ftpd(1M).

      recv remote-file [local-file]
	   A synonym for get.

      reget remote-file [local-file]
	   reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is
	   smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a
	   partially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is
	   continued from the apparent point of failure.  This command is
	   useful when transferring very large files over networks that tend
	   to drop connections.

      rhelp [command-name]
	   Request help from the server host.  If command-name is specified,
	   supply it to the server.  See ftpd(1M).

      rstatus [file-name]
	   With no arguments, show status of remote machine.  If file-name
	   is specified, show status of file-name on remote machine.

      rename remote-from remote-to
	   Rename remote-from, which can be either a file or a directory, to
	   remote-to.





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      reset
	   Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes command/reply
	   sequencing with the remote FTP server.  Resynchronization may be
	   necessary following a violation of the FTP protocol by the remote
	   server.

      restart marker
	   Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
	   marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset into
	   the file.

      rmdir remote-directory
	   Delete remote-directory.  remote-directory must be an empty
	   directory.

      runique
	   Toggle storing of files on the local system with unique
	   filenames.  If a file already exists with a name equal to the
	   target local filename for a get or mget command, a .1 is appended
	   to the name.	 If the resulting name matches another existing
	   file, a .2 is appended to the original name.	 If this process
	   continues up to .99, an error message is printed, and the
	   transfer does not take place.  ftp reports the unique filename.
	   Note that runique does not affect local files generated from a
	   shell command (see below).  The default value is off.

      send local-file [remote-file]
	   A synonym for put.

      sendport
	   Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp attempts to use
	   a PORT command when establishing a connection for each data
	   transfer.  If the PORT command fails, ftp uses the default data
	   port.  When the use of PORT commands is disabled, ftp makes no
	   attempt to use PORT commands for each data transfer.	 This is
	   useful for certain FTP implementations that ignore PORT commands
	   but (incorrectly) indicate that they've been accepted.  See
	   ftpd(1M).  Turning sendport off may cause delays in the execution
	   of commands.

      site arguments
	   Send arguments, verbatim, to the server host as a SITE command.
	   See ftpd(1M).

      size remote-file
	   Show the size of remote-file.

      status
	   Show the current status of ftp.





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      struct [struct-name]
	   Set the FTP file transfer struct to struct-name.  The only
	   supported struct is file.

      sunique
	   Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file
	   names.  The remote server reports the unique name.  By default,
	   sunique is off.

      system
	   Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.

      tenex
	   Set the FTP file transfer type to tenex.

      type [type-name]
	   Set the FTP file transfer type to type-name.	 If type-name is
	   unspecified, write the current type to stdout.  Ascii, binary,
	   and tenex are the types currently supported.

      umask [newmask]
	   Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If
	   newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

      user user-name [password] [account]
	   Log into the server host on the current connection, which must
	   already be open.  A .netrc file in the user's local home
	   directory can provide the user-name, password, and optionally the
	   account; see netrc(4).  Otherwise ftp prompts the user for this
	   information.	 In a secure environment based on Kerberos V5, ftp
	   will not require a password.	 Instead, Kerberos authentication
	   and authorization will be performed as described in sis(5).	In
	   all other environments, users are considered authenticated if
	   they have a password and that password is correct, and authorized
	   if an account exists for them on the remote system.

      verbose
	   Toggle verbose output.  If verbose output is enabled, ftp
	   displays responses from the server host, and when a file transfer
	   completes it reports statistics regarding the efficiency of the
	   transfer.

      ? [command]
	   A synonym for the help command.  Prints the help information for
	   the specified command.

    Aborting A File Transfer
      To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually
      Ctrl-C).	Sending transfers are halted immediately.  ftp halts
      incoming (receive) transfers by first sending a FTP protocol ABOR
      command to the remote server, then discarding any further received



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      data.  The speed at which this is accomplished depends upon the remote
      server's support for ABOR processing.  If the remote server does not
      support the ABOR command, an ftp>&gt&gt> prompt does not appear until the
      remote server completes sending the requested file.

      The terminal interrupt key sequence is ignored while ftp awaits a
      reply from the remote server.  A long delay in this mode may result
      from the ABOR processing described above, or from unexpected behavior
      by the remote server, including violations of the FTP protocol.  If
      the delay results from unexpected remote server behavior, the local
      ftp program must be killed manually.

    File Naming Conventions
      Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according
      to the following rules.

      +	 If the file name - is specified, ftp uses the standard input (for
	 reading) or standard output (for writing).

      +	 If the first character of the file name is |, ftp interprets the
	 remainder of the argument as a shell command.	ftp forks a shell,
	 using popen() (see popen(3S)) with the supplied argument, and reads
	 (writes) from standard output (standard input).  If the shell
	 command includes spaces, the argument must be quoted, as in:

	      "| ls -lt"

	 Some useful examples of this mechanism are:

	      ls . "| more"

	 The above command lists the files in the current directory page by
	 page.

	      put "| tail -20 loc_file" rem_file

	 This command copies the last twenty lines of the local file
	 "loc_file" to the remote system as "rem_file".

      +	 Otherwise, if globbing is enabled, ftp expands local file names
	 according to the rules used by the C shell (see csh(1)); see the
	 glob command, below.  If the ftp command expects a single local
	 file (e.g.  put), only the first filename generated by the globbing
	 operation is used.

      +	 For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file
	 names, the local filename is named the same as the remote filename,
	 which may be altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The
	 resulting filename may then be altered if runique is on.





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      +	 For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file
	 names, the remote filename is named the same as the local filename,
	 which may be altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The resulting
	 filename may then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.

 WARNINGS
      Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the
      remote server.

 DIAGNOSTICS
      Error! could not retrieve authentication type.

      Please notify sys admin.
	   There are two authentication mechanisms used by ftp.	 One
	   authentication mechanism is based on Kerberos and the other is
	   not.	 The type of authentication mechanism is obtained from a
	   system file which is updated by inetsvcs_sec(1M).  If the system
	   file does not contain known authentication types, the above error
	   is displayed.

 AUTHOR
      ftp was developed by the University of California, Berkeley.

 SEE ALSO
      csh(1), rcp(1), ftpd(1M), inetsvcs_sec(1M), netrc(4), ftpusers(4),
      hosts(4), sis(5).




























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