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 join(1)							     join(1)

      join - relational database operator

      join [options] file1 file2

      join forms, on the standard output, a join of the two relations
      specified by the lines of file1 and file2.  If file1 or file2 is -,
      the standard input is used.

      file1 and file2 must be sorted in increasing collating sequence (see
      Environment Variables below) on the fields on which they are to be
      joined; normally the first in each line.

      The output contains one line for each pair of lines in file1 and file2
      that have identical join fields.	The output line normally consists of
      the common field followed by the rest of the line from file1, then the
      rest of the line from file2.

      The default input field separators are space, tab, or new-line.  In
      this case, multiple separators count as one field separator, and
      leading separators are ignored.  The default output field separator is
      a space.

      Some of the below options use the argument n.  This argument should be
      a 1 or a 2 referring to either file1 or file2, respectively.

      -a n	  In addition to the normal output, produce a line for each
		  unpairable line in file n, where n is 1 or 2.

      -e s	  Replace empty output fields by string s.

      -j m	  Join on field m of both files.  The argument m must be
		  delimited by space characters.  This option and the
		  following two are provided for backward compatibility.
		  Use of the -1 and -2 options ( see below ) is recommended
		  for portability.

      -j1 m	  Join on field m of file1.

      -j2 m	  Join on field m of file2.

      -o list	  Each output line comprises the fields specified in list,
		  each element of which has the form n.m, where n is a file
		  number and m is a field number.  The common field is not
		  printed unless specifically requested.

      -t c	  Use character c as a separator (tab character).  Every
		  appearance of c in a line is significant.  The character c

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 1 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000

 join(1)							     join(1)

		  is used as the field separator for both input and output.

      -v file_number
		  Instead of the default output, produce a line only for
		  each unpairable line in file_number, where file_number is
		  1 or 2.

      -1 f	  Join on field f of file 1.  Fields are numbered starting
		  with 1.

      -2 f	  Join on field f of file 2.  Fields are numbered starting
		  with 1.

    Environment Variables
      LC_COLLATE determines the collating sequence join expects from input

      LC_CTYPE determines the alternative blank character as an input field
      separator, and the interpretation of data within files as single
      and/or multi-byte characters.  LC_CTYPE also determines whether the
      separator defined through the -t option is a single- or multi-byte

      If LC_COLLATE or LC_CTYPE is not specified in the environment or is
      set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used as a default for
      each unspecified or empty variable.  If LANG is not specified or is
      set to the empty string, a default of ``C'' (see lang(5)) is used
      instead of LANG.	If any internationalization variable contains an
      invalid setting, join behaves as if all internationalization variables
      are set to ``C'' (see environ(5)).

    International Code Set Support
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported with the
      exception that multi-byte-character file names are not supported.

      The following command line joins the password file and the group file,
      matching on the numeric group ID, and outputting the login name, the
      group name, and the login directory.  It is assumed that the files
      have been sorted in the collating sequence defined by the LC_COLLATE
      or LANG environment variable on the group ID fields.

	   join -1 4 -2 3 -o 1.1 2.1 1.6 -t: /etc/passwd /etc/group

      The following command produces an output consisting all possible
      combinations of lines that have identical first fields in the two
      sorted files sf1 and sf2, with each line consisting of the first and
      third fields from sorted_file1 and the second and fourth fields from

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 2 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000

 join(1)							     join(1)

	   join -j1 1 -j2 1 -o 1.1,2.2,1.3,2.4 sorted_file1 sorted_file2

      With default field separation, the collating sequence is that of sort
      -b; with -t, the sequence is that of a plain sort.

      The conventions of join, sort, comm, uniq, and awk are incongruous.

      Numeric filenames may cause conflict when the -o option is used
      immediately before listing filenames.

      join was developed by OSF and HP.

      awk(1), comm(1), sort(1), uniq(1).

      join: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3, XPG4, POSIX.2

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 3 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000