intro - introduction to command utilities and application programs
This section describes commands accessible by users, as opposed to
system calls in Section (2) or library routines in Section (3), which
are accessible by user programs.
Unless otherwise noted, commands described in this section accept
options and other arguments according to the following syntax:
name [ option ( s )] [ cmd_arg ( s )]
where the elements are defined as follows:
name Name of an executable file.
option One or more options can appear on a command line. Each
takes one of the following forms:
A single letter representing an option
without an argument.
Two or more single-letter options combined
into a single command-line argument.
A single-letter option followed by a required
is the single letter representing
an option that requires an
is an argument (character string)
satisfying the preceding
<> represents optional white space.
cmd_arg Path name (or other command argument) not beginning
with -, or - by itself indicating the standard input.
If two or more cmd_args appear, they must be separated
by white space.
Manual Entry Formats
All manual entries follow an established topic format, but not all
topics are included in each entry.
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NAME Gives the name(s) of the entry and briefly states
SYNOPSIS Summarizes the use of the entry or program entity
being described. A few conventions are used:
Computer font strings are literals, and are to be
typed exactly as they appear in the manual (except
for parameters in the SYNOPSIS section of entries
in Sections 2 and 3).
Italic strings represent substitutable argument
names and names of manual entries found elsewhere
in the manual.
Square brackets  around an argument name
indicate that the argument is optional.
Ellipses (...) are used to show that the previous
argument can be repeated.
A final convention is used by the commands
themselves. An argument beginning with a dash (-
), a plus sign (+), or an equal sign (=) is often
taken to be some sort of option argument, even if
it appears in a postion where a file name could
appear. Therefore it is unwise to have file names
that begin with -, +, or =.
DESCRIPTION Discusses the function and behavior of each entry.
EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Information under this heading pertains to
programming for various spoken languages. Typical
entries indicate support for single- and/or
multi-byte characters, the effect of language-
related environment variables on system behavior,
and other related information.
NETWORKING FEATURES Information under this heading is applicable only
if you are using the networking feature described
there (such as NFS).
RETURN VALUE Discusses various values returned upon completion
of program calls.
DIAGNOSTICS Discusses diagnostics indications that may be
produced. Self-explanatory messages are not
ERRORS Lists error conditions and their corresponding
error message or return value.
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EXAMPLES Provides examples of typical usage, where
WARNINGS Points out potential pitfalls.
DEPENDENCIES Points out variations in HP-UX operation that are
related to the user or specific hardware or
AUTHOR Indicate the origin of the software documented by
the manual entry.
FILES Lists file names that are built into the program
SEE ALSO Provides pointers to related topics.
BUGS Discusses known bugs and deficiencies,
occasionally suggesting fixes.
This section lists the standard specifications to
which the HP-UX component conforms.
Upon termination, each command returns two bytes of status, one
supplied by the system giving the cause for termination, and (in the
case of ``normal'' termination) one supplied by the program (for
descriptions, see wait(2) and exit(2)). The system-supplied byte is 0
for normal termination. The byte provided by the program is
customarily 0 for successful execution and non-zero to indicate errors
or failure such as incorrect parameters in the command line, or bad or
inaccessible data. Values returned are usually called variously
``exit code'', ``exit status'', ``return code'', or ``return value'',
and are described only where special conventions are involved.
Some commands produce unexpected results when processing files
containing null characters. These commands often treat text input
lines as strings, and therefore become confused when they encounter a
null character (the string terminator) within a line.
getopt(1), exit(2), wait(2), getopt(3C), hier(5), introduction(9).
Web access to HP-UX documentation at http://docs.hp.com.
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