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 intro(1)							    intro(1)




 NAME
      intro - introduction to command utilities and application programs

 DESCRIPTION
      This section describes commands accessible by users, as opposed to
      system calls in Section (2) or library routines in Section (3), which
      are accessible by user programs.

    Command Syntax
      Unless otherwise noted, commands described in this section accept
      options and other arguments according to the following syntax:

	   name [ option ( s )] [ cmd_arg ( s )]

      where the elements are defined as follows:

	   name	     Name of an executable file.

	   option    One or more options can appear on a command line.	Each
		     takes one of the following forms:

			  -no_arg_letter
			       A single letter representing an option
			       without an argument.

			  -no_arg_letters
			       Two or more single-letter options combined
			       into a single command-line argument.

			  -arg_letter<>opt_arg
			       A single-letter option followed by a required
			       argument where:
				    arg_letter
					 is the single letter representing
					 an option that requires an
					 argument,
				    opt_arg
					 is an argument (character string)
					 satisfying the preceding
					 arg_letter,
				    <>	 represents optional white space.

	   cmd_arg   Path name (or other command argument) not beginning
		     with -, or - by itself indicating the standard input.
		     If two or more cmd_args appear, they must be separated
		     by white space.

    Manual Entry Formats
      All manual entries follow an established topic format, but not all
      topics are included in each entry.




 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 1 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000






 intro(1)							    intro(1)




      NAME		  Gives the name(s) of the entry and briefly states
			  its purpose.

      SYNOPSIS		  Summarizes the use of the entry or program entity
			  being described.  A few conventions are used:

			  Computer font strings are literals, and are to be
			  typed exactly as they appear in the manual (except
			  for parameters in the SYNOPSIS section of entries
			  in Sections 2 and 3).

			  Italic strings represent substitutable argument
			  names and names of manual entries found elsewhere
			  in the manual.

			  Square brackets [] around an argument name
			  indicate that the argument is optional.

			  Ellipses (...) are used to show that the previous
			  argument can be repeated.

			  A final convention is used by the commands
			  themselves.  An argument beginning with a dash (-
			  ), a plus sign (+), or an equal sign (=) is often
			  taken to be some sort of option argument, even if
			  it appears in a postion where a file name could
			  appear.  Therefore it is unwise to have file names
			  that begin with -, +, or =.

      DESCRIPTION	  Discusses the function and behavior of each entry.

      EXTERNAL INFLUENCES Information under this heading pertains to
			  programming for various spoken languages.  Typical
			  entries indicate support for single- and/or
			  multi-byte characters, the effect of language-
			  related environment variables on system behavior,
			  and other related information.

      NETWORKING FEATURES Information under this heading is applicable only
			  if you are using the networking feature described
			  there (such as NFS).

      RETURN VALUE	  Discusses various values returned upon completion
			  of program calls.

      DIAGNOSTICS	  Discusses diagnostics indications that may be
			  produced.  Self-explanatory messages are not
			  listed.

      ERRORS		  Lists error conditions and their corresponding
			  error message or return value.



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 intro(1)							    intro(1)




      EXAMPLES		  Provides examples of typical usage, where
			  appropriate.

      WARNINGS		  Points out potential pitfalls.

      DEPENDENCIES	  Points out variations in HP-UX operation that are
			  related to the user or specific hardware or
			  hardware combinations.

      AUTHOR		  Indicate the origin of the software documented by
			  the manual entry.

      FILES		  Lists file names that are built into the program
			  or command.

      SEE ALSO		  Provides pointers to related topics.

      BUGS		  Discusses known bugs and deficiencies,
			  occasionally suggesting fixes.

      STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
			  This section lists the standard specifications to
			  which the HP-UX component conforms.

 RETURN VALUE
      Upon termination, each command returns two bytes of status, one
      supplied by the system giving the cause for termination, and (in the
      case of ``normal'' termination) one supplied by the program (for
      descriptions, see wait(2) and exit(2)).  The system-supplied byte is 0
      for normal termination.  The byte provided by the program is
      customarily 0 for successful execution and non-zero to indicate errors
      or failure such as incorrect parameters in the command line, or bad or
      inaccessible data.  Values returned are usually called variously
      ``exit code'', ``exit status'', ``return code'', or ``return value'',
      and are described only where special conventions are involved.

 WARNINGS
      Some commands produce unexpected results when processing files
      containing null characters.  These commands often treat text input
      lines as strings, and therefore become confused when they encounter a
      null character (the string terminator) within a line.

 SEE ALSO
      getopt(1), exit(2), wait(2), getopt(3C), hier(5), introduction(9).

      Web access to HP-UX documentation at http://docs.hp.com.








 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 3 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000