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INDENT(1)                   General Commands Manual                  INDENT(1)

       indent - indent and format a C program source file

       indent input-file [ output-file ] [ [ -bap | -nbap ] [ -bacc | -nbacc ]
              [ -bad | -nbad ] [ -bbb | -nbbb ] [ -bc | -nbc ] [ -bl ] [ -br ]
              [ -bs | -nbs ]  [ -cn ] [ -cdn ] [ -cdb | -ncdb ] [ -ce | -nce ]
              [ -cin ]    [ -clin ]    [ -dn ]    [ -din ]    [ -eei | -neei ]
              [ -fc1 | -nfc1 ]   [ -in ]   [ -ip | -nip ]   [ -ln ]   [ -lcn ]
              [ -lp | -nlp ]   [ -pcs | -npcs ]   [ -npro ]   [ -psl | -npsl ]
              [ -sc | -nsc ] [ -sob | -nsob ] [ -st ] [ -troff ] [ -v | -nv ]

       indent  is  a  C  program formatter.  It reformats the C program in the
       input-file according to the switches.  The switches which can be speci-
       fied  are  described  below.   They may appear before or after the file

       Note: if you only specify an input-file, the formatting  is  done  "in-
       place", that is, the formatted file is written back into input-file and
       a backup copy of input-file is written in the  current  directory.   If
       input-file is named /blah/blah/file, the backup file is named file.BAK.

       If output-file is specified, indent checks to make sure it is different
       from input-file.

       The options listed  below  control  the  formatting  style  imposed  by

       -bap,-nbap     If -bap is specified, a blank line is forced after every
                      procedure body.  Default: -nbap.

       -bacc,-nbacc   If -bacc is specified, a blank  line  is  forced  around
                      every  conditional compilation block.  That is. in front
                      of  every  #ifdef  and  after   every   #endif.    Other
                      blanklines   surrounding   these   will   be  swallowed.
                      Default: -nbacc.

       -bad,-nbad     If -bad is specified, a blank line is forced after every
                      block of declarations.  Default: -nbad.

       -bbb,-nbbb     If  -bbb  is  specified,  a  blank line is forced before
                      every block comment.  Default: -nbbb.

       -bc,-nbc       If -bc is specified, then a NEWLINE is forced after each
                      comma  in  a  declaration.   -nbc turns off this option.
                      The default is -bc.

       -br,-bl        Specifying -bl lines up compound statements like this:
                             if (...)

                      Specifying -br (the default) makes them look like this:
                             if (...) {

              Enable (disable) the forcing of a blank after sizeof.  Some peo-
              ple believe that sizeof should appear as though it were a proce-
              dure call (-nbs, the default) and some people believe that since
              sizeof  is an operator, it should always be treated that way and
              should always have a blank after it.

       -cn    The column in which comments on code start.  The default is 33.

       -cdn   The column in which comments on declarations start.  The default
              is  for  these  comments to start in the same column as those on

              Enable (disable) the placement of comment  delimiters  on  blank
              lines.  With this option enabled, comments look like this:
              * this is a comment

       Rather than like this:

              /* this is a comment */

       This  only  affects  block comments, not comments to the right of code.
       The default is -cdb .

              Enables (disables) forcing else's to cuddle up  to  the  immedi-
              ately preceding `}'.  The default is -ce.

       -cin   Sets  the  continuation indent to be n.  Continuation lines will
              be indented that far from the beginning of the first line of the
              statement.   Parenthesized  expressions  have  extra indentation
              added to indicate the nesting, unless -lp  is  in  effect.   -ci
              defaults to the same value as -i.

       -clin  Cause case labels to be indented n tab stops to the right of the
              containing switch statement.  -cli0.5 causes case labels  to  be
              indented half a tab stop.  The default is -cli0 .

       -dn    Control  the placement of comments which are not to the right of
              code.  The default -d1 means that such comments are  placed  one
              indentation  level to the left of code.  Specifying -d0 lines up
              these comments with the code.  See the section on comment inden-
              tation below.

       -din   Specify the indentation, in character positions, from a declara-
              tion keyword to the following identifier.  The default is  -di16

              If  -eei is specified, and extra expression indent is applied on
              continuation lines of the expression part of if()  and  while().
              These  continuation  lines  will  be indented one extra level --
              twice instead of just once.  This  is  to  avoid  the  confusion
              between  the continued expression and the statement that follows
              the if() or while().  Default: -neei.

              Enables (disables) the formatting of comments that start in col-
              umn  1.   Often,  comments whose leading `/' is in column 1 have
              been carefully hand formatted by the programmer.  In such cases,
              -nfc1 should be used.  The default is -fc1.

       -in    The  number of spaces for one indentation level.  The default is

              Enables (disables) the  indentation  of  parameter  declarations
              from the left margin.  The default is -ip .

       -ln    Maximum  length  of an output line with a trailing comment.  The
              default is 78.

       -lcn   Sets the line length for block comments to n.   It  defaults  to
              being the same as the usual line length as specified with -l.

              Lines  up  code surrounded by parenthesis in continuation lines.
              If a line has a left paren which is not  closed  on  that  line,
              then continuation lines will be lined up to start at the charac-
              ter position just after the left parenthesis.  For example, here
              is how a piece of continued code looks with -nlp in effect:
                     p1 = first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),
                                          third_procedure(p4, p5));

              With  -lp  in  effect  (the  default)  the  code  looks somewhat
                     p1 = first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),
                                          third_procedure(p4, p5));

              Inserting a couple more NEWLINE characters we get:
                     p1 = first_procedure(second_procedure(p2,

       -npro  Ignore the profile files, ./.indent.pro and ~/.indent.pro.

       -pcs , -npcs
              If true (-pcs) all procedure calls will have  a  space  inserted
              between the name and the '('.  The default is -npcs

       -psl , -npsl
              If  true (-psl) the names of procedures being defined are placed
              in column 1 -- their types, if any, will be left on the previous
              lines.  The default is -psl.

              Enables (disables) the placement of asterisks (`*'s) at the left
              edge of all comments.

              If -sob is specified, indent will swallow optional blank  lines.
              You  can  use this to get rid of blank lines after declarations.
              Default: -nsob

       -st    indent takes its input from the standard input, and put its out-
              put to the standard output.

       -T typename
              Add typename to the list of type keywords.  Names accumulate: -T
              can be specified more than once.  You need to  specify  all  the
              typenames  that appear in your program that are defined by type-
              defs -- nothing will be harmed if you miss a few, but  the  pro-
              gram  won't  be  formatted  as nicely as it should.  This sounds
              like a painful thing to have to do, but it is really  a  symptom
              of a problem in C: typedef causes a syntactic change in the lan-
              guage and indent cannot find all typedefs.

       -troff Causes indent to format the program for processing by troff.  It
              will  produce a fancy listing in much the same spirit as vgrind.
              If the output file is not specified,  the  default  is  standard
              output, rather than formatting in place.  The usual way to get a
              troffed listing is with the command

                     indent -troff program.c | troff -mindent

       -v,-nv -v turns on "verbose" mode, -nv turns it off.  When  in  verbose
              mode,  indent  reports when it splits one line of input into two
              or more lines of output, and gives some size statistics at  com-
              pletion. The default is -nv.

       You  may  set up your own "profile" of defaults to indent by creating a
       file called .indent.pro in either your login directory or  the  current
       directory  and including whatever switches you like.  An .indent.pro in
       the current directory takes precedence  over  the  one  in  your  login
       directory.  If indent is run and a profile file exists, then it is read
       to set up the  program's  defaults.   Switches  on  the  command  line,
       though, always override profile switches.  The switches should be sepa-
       rated by SPACE, TAB, or NEWLINE characters.

       Boxed          indent assumes that any comment  with  a  dash  or  star
                      immediately   after  the  start  of  comment  (that  is,
                      `/*-'or`/**') is a comment surrounded by a box of stars.
                      Each  line  of  such a comment is left unchanged, except
                      that its indentation may be adjusted to account for  the
                      change in indentation of the first line of the comment.

       Straight text  All other comments are treated as straight text.  indent
                      fits as many words (separated by SPACE, TAB, or  NEWLINE
                      characters)  on  a  line as possible.  Blank lines break

   Comment indentation
       If a comment is on a line with code it is started in the "comment  col-
       umn",  which  is set by the -cn command line parameter.  Otherwise, the
       comment is started at n indentation levels less than where code is cur-
       rently  being  placed,  where  n  is  specified by the -dn command line
       parameter.  If the code on a line extends past the comment column,  the
       comment  starts further to the right, and the right margin may be auto-
       matically extended in extreme cases.

   Preprocessor lines
       In general, indent leaves preprocessor lines alone.  The only reformat-
       ting  that it will do is to straighten up trailing comments.  It leaves
       imbedded comments alone.  Conditional compilation (#ifdef...#endif)  is
       recognized  and indent attempts to correctly compensate for the syntac-
       tic peculiarities introduced.

   C syntax
       indent understands a substantial amount about the syntax of C,  but  it
       has  a "forgiving" parser.  It attempts to cope with the usual sorts of
       incomplete and misformed syntax.  In  particular,  the  use  of  macros

              #define forever for(;;)

       is handled properly.

       ./.indent.pro       profile file
       ~/.indent.pro       profile file
                           troff macro package for `indent -troff' output.

       ls(1V), troff(1)

       indent has even more switches than ls(1V).

       A common mistake that often causes grief is typing:

              indent *.c

       to the shell in an attempt to indent all the C programs in a directory.
       This is probably a bug, not a feature.

       The -bs option splits an excessively fine hair.

                               9 September 1987                      INDENT(1)