unixdev.net


Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (4.4BSD-Lite2)
Page:
Section:
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field



GROPS(1)               BSD Reference Manual              GROPS(1)


NAME
       grops - PostScript driver for groff

SYNOPSIS
       grops  [  -glv  ]  [  -bn  ]  [  -cn ] [ -wn ] [ -Fdir ] [
       files...  ]

DESCRIPTION
       grops translates the output of GNU  troff  to  PostScript.
       Normally  grops  should be invoked by using the groff com-
       mand with a -Tps option.  (Actually, this is  the  default
       for  groff.)   If  no files are given, grops will read the
       standard input.  A filename of - will also cause grops  to
       read  the standard input.  PostScript output is written to
       the standard output.  When grops is run by  groff  options
       can be passed to grops using the groff -P option.

OPTIONS
       -bn    Workaround  broken  spoolers  and previewers.  Nor-
              mally grops produces output that conforms the Docu-
              ment Structuring Conventions version 3.0.  Unfortu-
              nately some spoolers and  previewers  can't  handle
              such  output.   The  value of n controls what grops
              does to its output acceptable to such programs.   A
              value  of  0  will  cause  grops  not to employ any
              workarounds.  Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup  and
              %%EndDocumentSetup  comments  should  be generated;
              this is needed for  early  versions  of  TranScript
              that get confused by anything between the %%EndPro-
              log comment and the first %%Page comment.  Add 2 if
              lines  in  included files beginning with %!  should
              be stripped out; this is needed for Sun's  pageview
              previewer.   Add  4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%End-
              Prolog comments should be stripped out of  included
              files;  this  is  needed  for  spoolers  that don't
              understand the  %%BeginDocument  and  %%EndDocument
              comments.    Add   8  if  the  first  line  of  the
              PostScript output should be  %!PS-Adobe-2.0  rather
              than  %!PS-Adobe-3.0;  this  is  needed  when using
              Sun's Newsprint with a printer that  requires  page
              reversal.  The default value can be specified by a

                     broken n

              command  in  the  DESC file.  Otherwise the default
              value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -g     Guess the page length.  This  generates  PostScript
              code  that guesses the page length.  The guess will



Groff Version 1.08       30 December 1993                       1








GROPS(1)               BSD Reference Manual              GROPS(1)


              be correct only if the imageable area is vertically
              centered  on  the  page.  This option allows you to
              generate documents that can be printed both on let-
              ter  (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -Fdir  Search  the  directory  dir/devname  for  font  and
              device  description  files; name is the name of the
              device, usually ps.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n  thou-
              sandths of an em.

       -v     Print the version number.

USAGE
       There  are  styles  called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font
       positions 1 to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families  A,
       BM,  C,  H, HN, N, P and T having members in each of these
       styles:

       AR     AvantGarde-Book

       AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

       AB     AvantGarde-Demi

       ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

       BMR    Bookman-Light

       BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

       BMB    Bookman-Demi

       BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

       CR     Courier

       CI     Courier-Oblique

       CB     Courier-Bold

       CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

       HR     Helvetica

       HI     Helvetica-Oblique

       HB     Helvetica-Bold



Groff Version 1.08       30 December 1993                       2








GROPS(1)               BSD Reference Manual              GROPS(1)


       HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

       HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

       HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

       HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

       HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

       NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

       NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

       NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

       NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

       PR     Palatino-Roman

       PI     Palatino-Italic

       PB     Palatino-Bold

       PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

       TR     Times-Roman

       TI     Times-Italic

       TB     Times-Bold

       TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member  of
       a family:

       ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are  also some special fonts called SS and S.  Zapf
       Dingbats is available as ZD  and  a  reversed  version  of
       ZapfDingbats (with symbols pointing in the opposite direc-
       tion) is available as ZDR; most characters in these  fonts
       are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.

       grops understands various X commands produced using the \X
       escape sequence; grops will only interpret  commands  that
       begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
              This  executes the arbitrary PostScript commands in



Groff Version 1.08       30 December 1993                       3








GROPS(1)               BSD Reference Manual              GROPS(1)


              code.  The PostScript currentpoint will be  set  to
              the  position  of  the  \X command before executing
              code.  The origin will be at the top left corner of
              the  page, and y coordinates will increase down the
              page.  A procedure u will be defined that  converts
              groff  units  to  the  coordinate system in effect.
              For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

              will draw a horizontal line one  inch  long.   code
              may  make  changes  to  the graphics state, but any
              changes will persist only to the end of  the  page.
              Any  definitions  will  also persist only until the
              end of the page.  If you use the \Y escape sequence
              with  an  argument  that  names  a  macro, code can
              extend over multiple lines.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     .de y
                     ps: exec
                     \nx u 0 rlineto
                     stroke
                     ..
                     \Yy

              is another way to draw a horizontal line  one  inch
              long.

       \X'ps: file name'
              This  is  the  same as the exec command except that
              the PostScript code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
              Place a PostScript definition contained in code  in
              the  prologue.  There should be at most one defini-
              tion per \X command.  Long definitions can be split
              over  several  \X  commands; all the code arguments
              are simply joined together separated  by  newlines.
              The definitions are placed in a dictionary which is
              automatically pushed on the dictionary  stack  when
              an  exec  command  is  executed.  If you use the \Y
              escape sequence  with  an  argument  that  names  a
              macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
              Like def, except that code may contain up to n def-
              initions.  grops needs to know how many definitions
              code  contains  so  that it can create an appropri-
              ately sized PostScript dictionary to contain  them.



Groff Version 1.08       30 December 1993                       4








GROPS(1)               BSD Reference Manual              GROPS(1)


       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
              Import  a  PostScript graphic from file.  The argu-
              ments llx, lly, urx, and ury give the bounding  box
              of the graphic in the default PostScript coordinate
              system; they should all be integers;  llx  and  lly
              are  the x and y coordinates of the lower left cor-
              ner of the graphic; urx and ury are  the  x  and  y
              coordinates  of  the  upper  right  corner  of  the
              graphic; width and height are  integers  that  give
              the  desired width and height in groff units of the
              graphic.  The graphic will be scaled so that it has
              this  width  and  height and translated so that the
              lower left corner of the graphic is located at  the
              position associated with \X command.  If the height
              argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly  in
              the x and y directions so that it has the specified
              width.  Note that the contents of  the  \X  command
              are not interpreted by troff; so vertical space for
              the graphic is not  automatically  added,  and  the
              width  and height arguments are not allowed to have
              attached scaling  indicators.   If  the  PostScript
              file  complies  with the Adobe Document Structuring
              Conventions and contains a  %%BoundingBox  comment,
              then   the   bounding   box  can  be  automatically
              extracted from within groff by using the sy request
              to run the psbb command.

              The  -mps  macros  (which  are automatically loaded
              when grops is run by the groff command)  include  a
              PSPIC  macro  which  allows  a picture to be easily
              imported.  This has the format

                     .PSPIC file [width [height]]

              file is the name of the file containing the  illus-
              tration;  width  and  height give the desired width
              and height of the graphic.  The  width  and  height
              arguments may have scaling indicators attached; the
              default scaling indicator is i.   This  macro  will
              scale  the  graphic uniformly in the x and y direc-
              tions so that it is no more  than  width  wide  and
              height high.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
              No  output  will  be generated for text and drawing
              commands that are bracketed with these \X commands.
              These  commands  are  intended  for use when output
              from troff will be previewed before being processed
              with  grops;  if the previewer is unable to display
              certain characters or other constructs, then  other



Groff Version 1.08       30 December 1993                       5








GROPS(1)               BSD Reference Manual              GROPS(1)


              substitute characters or constructs can be used for
              previewing by bracketing them with  these  \X  com-
              mands.

              For  example,  gxditview  is  not able to display a
              proper \(em  character  because  the  standard  X11
              fonts  do not provide it; this problem can be over-
              come by executing the following request

                     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
                     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
                     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

              In this case, gxditview will be unable  to  display
              the  \(em character and will draw the line, whereas
              grops will print the \(em character and ignore  the
              line.

       The  input  to  grops  must  be  in  the  format output by
       troff(1).  This is described in groff_out(1).  In addition
       the  device and font description files for the device used
       must meet  certain  requirements.   The  device  and  font
       description  files  supplied  for ps device meet all these
       requirements.  afmtodit(1) can  be  used  to  create  font
       files  from  AFM files.  The resolution must be an integer
       multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device uses  a
       resolution  of  72000 and a sizescale of 1000.  The device
       description file should contain a command

              paperlength n

       which says that output should be generated which is  suit-
       able  for  printing  on  a  page whose length is n machine
       units.  Each font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.
       It may also contain a command

              encoding enc_file

       which  says  that  the PostScript font should be reencoded
       using the encoding described in enc_file; this file should
       consist of a sequence of lines of the form:

              pschar code

       where  pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and
       code is its position in the encoding expressed as a  deci-
       mal  integer.   The  code  for each character given in the



Groff Version 1.08       30 December 1993                       6








GROPS(1)               BSD Reference Manual              GROPS(1)


       font file must correspond to the code for the character in
       encoding  file, or to the code in the default encoding for
       the font if the PostScript font is not  to  be  reencoded.
       This code can be used with the \N escape sequence in troff
       to select the character, even if the  character  does  not
       have  a groff name.  Every character in the font file must
       exist in the PostScript font, and the widths given in  the
       font  file  must  match  the widths used in the PostScript
       font.  grops will assume that a  character  with  a  groff
       name  of  space  is blank (makes no marks on the page); it
       can make use of such a character to  generate  more  effi-
       cient and compact PostScript output.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts
       necessary to print the document.  Any  downloadable  fonts
       which  should, when required, be included by grops must be
       listed in the  file  /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download;
       this should consist of lines of the form

              font  filename

       where  font  is the PostScript name of the font, and file-
       name is the name of the file containing  the  font;  lines
       beginning  with  # and blank lines are ignored; fields may
       be separated by tabs or spaces; filename will be  searched
       for  using  the same mechanism that is used for groff font
       metric files.  The  download  file  itself  will  also  be
       searched for using this mechanism.

       If  the  file  containing  a downloadable font or imported
       document conforms to the Adobe Document  Structuring  Con-
       ventions,  then  grops  will interpret any comments in the
       files sufficiently to ensure that its own output  is  con-
       forming.   It  will  also supply any needed font resources
       that are listed in the download file as well as any needed
       file  resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource
       dependencies.  For example, suppose that you have a  down-
       loadable  font  called  Garamond,  and also a downloadable
       font called Garamond-Outline  which  depends  on  Garamond
       (typically  it  would  be  defined to copy Garamond's font
       dictionary, and change the PaintType), then it  is  neces-
       sary for Garamond to appear before Garamond-Outline in the
       PostScript document.  grops will handle this automatically
       provided  that  the  downloadable  font file for Garamond-
       Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by  means  of
       the  Document  Structuring  Conventions,  for  example  by
       beginning with the following lines

              %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
              %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
              %%EndComments



Groff Version 1.08       30 December 1993                       7








GROPS(1)               BSD Reference Manual              GROPS(1)


              %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need
       to  be  listed  in the download file.  A downloadable font
       should not  include  its  own  name  in  a  %%DocumentSup-
       pliedResources comment.

       grops  will  not  interpret %%DocumentFonts comments.  The
       %%DocumentNeededResources,    %%DocumentSuppliedResources,
       %%IncludeResource,  %%BeginResource and %%EndResource com-
       ments (or possibly the old %%DocumentNeededFonts,  %%Docu-
       mentSuppliedFonts,  %%IncludeFont,  %%BeginFont and %%End-
       Font comments) should be used.

FILES
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/DESC
              Device description file.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/F
              Font description file for font F.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download
              List of downloadable fonts.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/text.enc
              Encoding used for text fonts.

       /usr/share/tmac/tmac.ps
              Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded  by
              troffrc

       /usr/share/tmac/tmac.pspic
              Definition  of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by
              tmac.ps.

       /usr/share/tmac/tmac.psold
              Macros to disable use of characters not present  in
              older  PostScript printers; automatically loaded by
              tmac.ps.

       /usr/share/tmac/tmac.psnew
              Macros to undo the effect of tmac.psold.

       /tmp/gropsXXXXXX
              Temporary file.

SEE ALSO
       afmtodit(1), groff(1),  troff(1),  psbb(1),  groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7)





Groff Version 1.08       30 December 1993                       8