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 gprof(1)							    gprof(1)




 NAME
      gprof - display call graph profile data

 SYNOPSIS
      gprof [options] [a.out [gmon.out...]] [shared_library
      shared_library_profile]

 DESCRIPTION
      The gprof command produces an execution profile of C++, C, Pascal, and
      FORTRAN programs.	 The effect of called routines is incorporated into
      the profile of each caller.  Profile data is taken from the call graph
      profile file (gmon.out default) that is created by programs compiled
      with the -G option of aCC, CC, cc, pc, and f77.  That option also
      links in versions of the library routines that are compiled for
      profiling.  The symbol table in the named object file (a.out default)
      is read and correlated with the call graph profile file.	If more than
      one profile file is specified, gprof output shows the sum of the
      profile information in the given profile files.

      First, a flat profile is given, similar to that provided by prof (see
      prof(1)).	 This listing gives the total execution times and call
      counts for each function in the program, sorted by decreasing time.

      Next, these times are propagated along the edges of the call graph.
      gprof discovers all cycles in the call graph.  All calls made into the
      cycle share the time of that cycle.  A second listing shows the
      functions sorted according to the time they represent including the
      time of their call graph descendants.  Below each function entry is
      shown its (direct) call graph children, and how their times are
      propagated to this function.  A similar display above the function
      shows how the time of this function and the time of its descendants
      are propagated to its (direct) call graph parents.

      Cycles are also shown, with an entry for the cycle as a whole and a
      listing of the members of the cycle, each with their contributions to
      the time and call counts of the cycle.

    Shared Library Profiling (32-bit only)
      Support for gprof profiling of shared libraries is available on 32-bit
      systems only.

      To profile shared libraries, set the environment variable LD_PROFILE
      to the path of the shared library to be profiled.	 (See HP-UX Linker
      and Libraries Online User's Guide for details.) Do not use the -G
      option to compile programs for shared libraries profiling.  Do not
      link the executable gcrt0.o or mcrt0.o.  This turns on profiling of
      a.out, which is not compatible with profiling of shared libraries. You
      can either profile your executable or a shared library, but not both.

      At the termination of the program, a profile file with the name of the
      shared library prepended to it is generated by a run-time library. To



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 gprof(1)							    gprof(1)




      get the complete listing, provide the gprof command with names of the
      shared library and the profile file for the shared library as
      arguments.

    Options
      The gprof command recognizes the following options:

	   -a		  Suppress printing statically declared functions.
			  If this option is given, all relevant information
			  about the static function (such as time samples,
			  calls to other functions, and calls from other
			  functions) belongs to the function loaded just
			  before the static function in the a.out file.

	   -b		  Suppress printing a description of each field in
			  the profile.

	   -e name	  Suppress printing the graph profile entry for
			  routine name and all its descendants (unless they
			  have other ancestors that are not suppressed).
			  More than one -e option can be given.	 Only one
			  name can be given with each -e option.

	   -E name	  Suppress printing the graph profile entry for
			  routine name (and its descendants) as -e above,
			  and also exclude the time spent in name (and its
			  descendants) from the total and percentage time
			  computations.	 -E mcount -E mcleanup is the
			  default.

	   -f name	  Print only the graph profile entry of the
			  specified routine name and its descendants.  More
			  than one -f option can be given.  Only one name
			  can be given with each -f option.

	   -F name	  Print only the graph profile entry of the routine
			  name and its descendants (as -f above) and also
			  use only the times of the printed routines in
			  total time and percentage computations.  More than
			  one -F option can be given.  Only one name can be
			  given with each -F option.  The -F option
			  overrides the -E option.

	   -s		  Produce a profile file gmon.sum that represents
			  the sum of the profile information in all
			  specified profile files.  This summary profile
			  file can be given to subsequent executions of
			  gprof (probably also with a -s option) to
			  accumulate profile data across several runs of an
			  a.out file.




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 gprof(1)							    gprof(1)




	   -z		  Display routines that have zero usage (as
			  indicated by call counts and accumulated time).

      The name of the file created by a profiled program is controlled by
      the environment variable GPROFDIR.  If GPROFDIR is not set, gmon.out
      is produced in the current directory when the program terminates.	 If
      GPROFDIR=string, string/pid.progname is produced, where progname
      consists of argv[0] with any path prefix removed, and pid is the
      program's process ID.  If GPROFDIR is set to a null string, no
      profiling output is produced.

 EXAMPLES
      To profile libc.sl:

	   $ cat >&gt&gt> test.c
	   main()
	   {
	   printf("hello world\n");
	   }

	   $ cc test.c -lc

	   $ ldd a.out
		   /usr/lib/libc.2 =>	   /usr/lib/libc.2
		   /usr/lib/libdld.2 =>	   /usr/lib/libdld.2
		   /usr/lib/libc.2 =>	   /usr/lib/libc.2

	   $ export LD_PROFILE=/usr/lib/libc.2

	   $ ./a.out
	   hello world

	   $ unset LD_PROFILE

	   $ ls libc.2.profile
	   libc.2.profile

	   $ ll libc.2.profile
	   -rw-rw-r--	1 user1	      lang	  606464 May 19 10:24 libc.2.profile

	   $ gprof /usr/lib/libc.2 libc.2.profile

 WARNINGS
      Beware of quantization errors.  The granularity of the sampling is
      shown, but remains statistical at best.  It is assumed that the time
      for each execution of a function can be expressed by the total time
      for the function, divided by the number of times the function is
      called.  Thus the time propagated along the call graph arcs to parents
      of that function is directly proportional to the number of times that
      arc is traversed.




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 gprof(1)							    gprof(1)




      Parents that are not profiled have the time of their profiled children
      propagated to them, but they appear to be spontaneously invoked in the
      call graph listing, and do not have their time propagated further.
      Similarly, signal catchers, even though profiled, appear to be
      spontaneous (although for more obscure reasons).	Any profiled
      children of signal catchers should have their times propagated
      properly unless the signal catcher was invoked during the execution of
      the profiling routine, in which case all is lost.

      The profiled program must call exit() (see exit(2)) or return
      normally, for the profiling information to be saved in the gmon.out
      file.

      The following limitations exist for gprof shared library profiling:

      +	   Local, static, and hidden functions are not profiled.

      +	   Shared libraries built with -B symbolic are not profiled.

      +	   Any function calls made from library initializers are not
	   collected.

      Set LD_PROFILE to the exact string with which you call shl_load.	If
      the library is implicitly loaded, LD_PROFILE must match the path
      encoded in the a.out.  You can find this value by running the ldd
      command on the executable.

 DEPENDENCIES
      gprof cannot be used with dynamically linked executables (built with
      ld -A in pre HP-UX 10.20 releases).

 AUTHOR
      gprof was developed by the University of California, Berkeley.

 FILES
      a.out*				 Default object file.
      gmon.out*				 Default dynamic call graph and
					 profile.
      gmon.sum*				 Summarized dynamic call graph and
					 profile.
      /usr/lib/gprof.callg*		 Call graph description.
      /usr/lib/gprof.flat*		 Flat profile description.
      /usr/lib/libgprof32.sl		 gprof 32-bit shared library
					 profiler

 SEE ALSO
      cc_bundled(1), prof(1), exit(2), profil(2), crt0(3), monitor(3C).

      gprof: A Call Graph Execution Profiler; Graham, S.L., Kessler, P.B.,
      McKusick, M.K.;




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 gprof(1)							    gprof(1)




      Proceedings of the SIGPLAN '82 Symposium on Compiler Construction;
      SIGPLAN Notices; Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 120-126, June 1982.

      HP-UX Linker and Libraries Online User's Guide (See the ld +help
      option).

















































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