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GPG-AGENT(1)                   GNU Privacy Guard                  GPG-AGENT(1)

       gpg-agent - Secret key management for GnuPG

       gpg-agent [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options]
       gpg-agent [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] --server
       gpg-agent  [--homedir  dir]  [--options  file] [options] --daemon [com-

       gpg-agent is a daemon to manage  secret  (private)  keys  independently
       from  any  protocol.  It is used as a backend for gpg and gpgsm as well
       as for a couple of other utilities.

       The usual way to run the agent is from the ~/.xsession file:

         eval `gpg-agent --daemon`

       If you don't use an X server, you can also put this into  your  regular
       startup file ~/.profile or .bash_profile.  It is best not to run multi-
       ple instance of the gpg-agent, so you should make sure that only one is
       running: gpg-agent uses an environment variable to inform clients about
       the communication parameters. You can write the content of  this  envi-
       ronment  variable  to  a file so that you can test for a running agent.
       This short script may do the job:

         if test -f $HOME/.gpg-agent-info &&    kill -0 `cut -d: -f 2 $HOME/.gpg-agent-info` 2>/dev/null; then
              GPG_AGENT_INFO=`cat $HOME/.gpg-agent-info`
              export GPG_AGENT_INFO
              eval `gpg-agent --daemon`
              echo $GPG_AGENT_INFO >$HOME/.gpg-agent-info

       Note that the new option --write-env-file may be used instead.

       You should always add the following lines to your .bashrc  or  whatever
       initialization file is used for all shell invocations:

         export GPG_TTY

       It is important that this environment variable always reflects the out-
       put of the tty command.  For W32 systems this option is not required.

       Please make sure that a proper  pinentry  program  has  been  installed
       under  the  default  filename  (which  is  system dependant) or use the
       option pinentry-program to specify the full name of that  program.   It
       is  often useful to install a symbolic link from the actual used pinen-
       try  (e.g.  `/usr/bin/pinentry-gtk')  to   the   expected   one   (e.g.

       Commands  are  not  distinguished from options except for the fact that
       only one command is allowed.

              Print the program version and licensing information.   Not  that
              you can abbreviate this command.


       -h     Print  a  usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
              options.  Not that you can abbreviate this command.

              Print a list of all available options and  commands.   Not  that
              you can abbreviate this command.

              Run  in  server  mode  and  wait for commands on the stdin.  The
              default mode is to create  a  socket  and  listen  for  commands

       --daemon [command line]
              Run  the  program in the background.  This option is required to
              prevent it from being accidently running in the  background.   A
              common way to do this is:
       $ eval `gpg-agent --daemon`

       --options file
              Reads  configuration  from file instead of from the default per-
              user configuration file.   The  default  configuration  file  is
              named  `gpg-agent.conf'  and  expected in the `.gnupg' directory
              directly below the home directory of the user.

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If his option is  not
              used,  the  home  directory  defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
              recognized when given on the command line.   It  also  overrides
              any  home  directory  stated  through  the  environment variable
              `GNUPGHOME' or (on W32 systems) by means on the  Registry  entry


              Outputs  additional information while running.  You can increase
              the verbosity by giving several verbose commands to gpgsm,  such
              as '-vv'.


              Try to be as quiet as possible.

              Don't  invoke  a  pinentry or do any other thing requiring human

       --faked-system-time epoch
              This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system  time
              back  or  forth  to epoch which is the number of seconds elapsed
              since the year 1970.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may  be
              one of:

                 .TP none
                 no debugging at all.
                 .TP basic
                 some basic debug messages
                 .TP advanced
                 more verbose debug messages
                 .TP expert
                 even more detailed messages
                 .TP guru
                 all of the debug messages you can get

              How  these  messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is
              not specified and may change with newer releases  of  this  pro-
              gram.  They are however carefully selected to best aid in debug-

       --debug flags
              This option is only useful for debugging and the  behaviour  may
              change  at  any  time without notice.  FLAGS are bit encoded and
              may be given in usual C-Syntax. The currently defined bits are:

              0 (1)  X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data

              1 (2)  values of big number integers

              2 (4)  low level crypto operations

              5 (32) memory allocation

              6 (64) caching

              7 (128)
                     show memory statistics.

              9 (512)
                     write hashed data to files named dbgmd-000*

              10 (1024)
                     trace Assuan protocol

              12 (4096)
                     bypass all certificate validation

              Same as --debug=0xffffffff

       --debug-wait n
              When running in server mode, wait n seconds before entering  the
              actual  processing  loop  and print the pid.  This gives time to
              attach a debugger.

              Don't detach the process from the console.  This is mainly  use-
              ful for debugging.




       --csh  Format  the info output in daemon mode for use with the standard
              Bourne shell or the C-shell respectively.   The  default  is  to
              guess  it  based on the environment variable SHELL which is cor-
              rect in almost all cases.

       --write-env-file file
              Often it is required to connect to the agent from a process  not
              being an inferior of gpg-agent and thus the environment variable
              with the socket name is not available.  To help setting up those
              variables  in  other  sessions, this option may be used to write
              the information into file.  If file is not specified the default
              name  `${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info'  will  be  used.   The format is
              suitable to be evaluated by a Bourne shell like in  this  simple

         eval `cat file`
         eval `cut -d= -f 1 < file | xargs echo export`

              Tell  the  pinentry  not  to  grab the keyboard and mouse.  This
              option should  in  general  not  be  used  to  avoid  X-sniffing

       --log-file file
              Append all logging output to file.  This is very helpful in see-
              ing what the agent actually does.

              Allow clients to mark keys as trusted, i.e. put  them  into  the
              `trustlist.txt' file.  This is by default not allowed to make it
              harder for users to inadvertently accept Root-CA keys.

              This option will let gpg-agent bypass the passphrase  cache  for
              all  signing  operation.   Note that there is also a per-session
              option to control this behaviour but this  command  line  option
              takes precedence.

       --default-cache-ttl n
              Set  the  time a cache entry is valid to n seconds.  The default
              is 600 seconds.

       --default-cache-ttl-ssh n
              Set the time a cache entry used for SSH keys is valid to n  sec-
              onds.  The default is 1800 seconds.

       --max-cache-ttl n
              Set the maximum time a cache entry is valid to n seconds.  After
              this time a cache entry will be expired  even  if  it  has  been
              accessed recently.  The default is 2 hours (7200 seconds).

       --max-cache-ttl-ssh n
              Set the maximum time a cache entry used for SSH keys is valid to
              n seconds.  After this time a cache entry will be  expired  even
              if  it has been accessed recently.  The default is 2 hours (7200

              Enforce the passphrase constraints by not allowing the  user  to
              bypass them using the ``Take it anyway'' button.

       --min-passphrase-len n
              Set  the  minimal  length  of a passphrase.  When entering a new
              passphrase shorter than this value a warning will be  displayed.
              Defaults to 8.

       --min-passphrase-nonalpha n
              Set  the minimal number of digits or special characters required
              in a passphrase.  When entering a new passphrase with less  than
              this  number  of  digits or special characters a warning will be
              displayed.  Defaults to 1.

       --check-passphrase-pattern file
              Check the passphrase against the pattern given  in  file.   When
              entering  a new passphrase matching one of these pattern a warn-
              ing will be displayed. file should be an absolute filename.  The
              default is not to use any pattern file.

              Security  note: It is known that checking a passphrase against a
              list of pattern or even against a  complete  dictionary  is  not
              very  effective  to  enforce  good passphrases.  Users will soon
              figure up ways to bypass such a policy.  A better policy  is  to
              educate  users on good security behavior and optionally to run a
              passphrase cracker regularly on all users passphrases  to  catch
              the very simple ones.

       --max-passphrase-days n
              Ask  the  user  to  change  the passphrase if n days have passed
              since the last  change.   With  --enforce-passphrase-constraints
              set the user may not bypass this check.

              This option does nothing yet.

       --pinentry-program filename
              Use program filename as the PIN entry.  The default is installa-
              tion dependent and can be shown with the --version command.

       --pinentry-touch-file filename
              By default the filename of the socket gpg-agent is listening for
              requests  is  passed to Pinentry, so that it can touch that file
              before exiting (it does this only in curses mode).  This  option
              changes  the  file  passed to Pinentry to filename.  The special
              name /dev/null may be used to completely disable  this  feature.
              Note  that  Pinentry  will  not  create  that file, it will only
              change the modification and access time.

       --scdaemon-program filename
              Use program filename as the Smartcard daemon.   The  default  is
              installation  dependent and can be shown with the --version com-

              Do not make use of the  scdaemon  tool.   This  option  has  the
              effect  of  disabling  the  ability  to do smartcard operations.
              Note, that enabling this option at  runtime  does  not  kill  an
              already forked scdaemon.


              By  enabling  this  option  gpg-agent  will listen on the socket
              named `S.gpg-agent', located in the home directory, and not cre-
              ate a random socket below a temporary directory.  Tools connect-
              ing to gpg-agent should first try to connect to the socket given
              in  environment  variable  GPG_AGENT_INFO  and then fall back to
              this socket.  This option may not be used if the home  directory
              is  mounted as a remote file system.  Note, that --use-standard-
              socket is the default on Windows systems.

       --display string

       --ttyname string

       --ttytype string

       --lc-type string

       --lc-messages string

       --xauthority string
              These options are used with the server mode to pass localization


              Ignore  requests  to change the current tty or X window system's
              DISPLAY variable respectively.   This  is  useful  to  lock  the
              pinentry to pop up at the tty or display you started the agent.


              Enable emulation of the OpenSSH Agent protocol.

              In this mode of operation, the agent does not only implement the
              gpg-agent protocol, but also the agent protocol used by  OpenSSH
              (through  a separate socket).  Consequently, it should be possi-
              ble to use the gpg-agent as a drop-in replacement for  the  well
              known ssh-agent.

              SSH  Keys,  which  are  to be used through the agent, need to be
              added to the gpg-agent initially through  the  ssh-add  utility.
              When  a  key  is added, ssh-add will ask for the password of the
              provided key file and send the unprotected key material  to  the
              agent;  this causes the gpg-agent to ask for a passphrase, which
              is to be used for encrypting the newly received key and  storing
              it in a gpg-agent specific directory.

              Once  a  key  has been added to the gpg-agent this way, the gpg-
              agent will be ready to use the key.

              Note: in case the gpg-agent receives a  signature  request,  the
              user might need to be prompted for a passphrase, which is neces-
              sary for decrypting the stored key.  Since the ssh-agent  proto-
              col  does not contain a mechanism for telling the agent on which
              display/terminal it is running, gpg-agent's ssh-support will use
              the  TTY  or  X  display  where  gpg-agent has been started.  To
              switch this display to the current one,  the  following  command
              may be used:

         echo UPDATESTARTUPTTY | gpg-connect-agent

       All  the long options may also be given in the configuration file after
       stripping off the two leading dashes.

       The usual way to invoke gpg-agent is

         $ eval `gpg-agent --daemon`

       An alternative way is by replacing ssh-agent with  gpg-agent.   If  for
       example  ssh-agent  is  started as part of the Xsession initialization,
       you may simply replace ssh-agent by a script like:


         exec /usr/local/bin/gpg-agent --enable-ssh-support --daemon       --write-env-file ${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info "$@"

       and add something like (for Bourne shells)

           if [ -f "${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info" ]; then
             . "${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info"
             export GPG_AGENT_INFO
             export SSH_AUTH_SOCK
             export SSH_AGENT_PID

       to your shell initialization file (e.g. `~/.bashrc').

       There are a few configuration files needed for  the  operation  of  the
       agent.  By  default they may all be found in the current home directory
       (see: [option --homedir]).

                This is the standard configuration file read by gpg-agent on
                startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading
                two dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbre-
                This file is also read after a SIGHUP however only a few
                options  will  actually have an effect.  This default name may
                changed on the command line (see: [option --options]).

                This is the list of trusted keys.  Comment lines, indicated by
              a leading
                hash  mark, as well as empty lines are ignored.  To mark a key
              as trusted
                you need to enter its fingerprint followed by a  space  and  a
                letter S.  Colons may optionally be used to separate the bytes
                a fingerprint; this allows to cut and  paste  the  fingerprint
              from a key
                listing output.

                Here  is  an  example  where two keys are marked as ultimately

                .RS 2
                # CN=Wurzel ZS 3,O=Intevation GmbH,C=DE
                A6935DD34EF3087973C706FC311AA2CCF733765B S

                # CN=PCA-1-Verwaltung-02/O=PKI-1-Verwaltung/C=DE
                DC:BD:69:25:48:BD:BB:7E:31:6E:BB:80:D3:00:80:35:D4:F8:A6:CD S

       Before entering a key into this file, you need to ensure its
       authenticity.  How to do this depends on your organisation; your
       administrator might have already entered those keys which are deemed
       trustworthy enough into this file.  Places where to look for the
       fingerprint of a root certificate are letters received from the CA or
       the website of the CA (after making 100% sure that this is indeed the
       website of that CA).  You may want to consider allowing interactive
       updates of this file by using the see: [option --allow-mark-trusted].
       This is however not as secure as maintaining this file manually.  It is
       even advisable to change the permissions to read-only so that this file
       can't be changed inadvertently.

       As a special feature a line include-default will include a global
       list of trusted certificates (e.g. `/etc/gnupg/trustlist.txt').
       This global list is also used if the local list is not available.

       It is possible to add further flags after the S for use by the

              relax  Relax checking of some root certificate requirements.  This is for
                     example required if the certificate is missing the basicConstraints
                     attribute (despite that it is a MUST for CA certificates).

              cm     If validation of a certificate finally issued by a CA with this flag set
                     fails, try again using the chain validation model.


              This file is used when support for the secure shell agent protocol has
              been enabled (see: [option --enable-ssh-support]). Only keys present
              in this file are used in the SSH protocol.  The ssh-add tool
              may be used to add new entries to this file; you may also add them
              manually.  Comment lines, indicated by a leading hash mark, as well as
              empty lines are ignored.  An entry starts with optional whitespace,
              followed by the keygrip of the key given as 40 hex digits, optionally
              followed by the caching TTL in seconds and another optional field for
              arbitrary flags.  The keygrip may be prefixed with a ! to
              disable this entry.

              The following example lists exactly one key.  Note that keys available
              through a OpenPGP smartcard in the active smartcard reader are
              implicitly added to this list; i.e. there is no need to list them.

                .RS 2
                # Key added on 2005-02-25 15:08:29
                5A6592BF45DC73BD876874A28FD4639282E29B52 0


                This is the directory where gpg-agent stores the private keys.  Each
                key is stored in a file with the name made up of the keygrip and the
                suffix `key'.

              Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined
              files into the directory `/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created
              users start up with a working configuration.  For existing users the
              a small helper script is provided to create these files (see: [addgnupghome]).

       A running gpg-agent may be controlled by signals, i.e. using  the  kill
       command to send a signal to the process.

       Here is a list of supported signals:

       SIGHUP This  signal  flushes  all cached passphrases and if the program
              has been started with a configuration  file,  the  configuration
              file  is  read  again.  Only certain options are honored: quiet,
              verbose, debug, debug-all, debug-level,  no-grab,  pinentry-pro-
              gram,  default-cache-ttl,  max-cache-ttl, ignore-cache-for-sign-
              ing, allow-mark-trusted and disable-scdaemon.   scdaemon-program
              is  also  supported but due to the current implementation, which
              calls the scdaemon only once, it is not of much use  unless  you
              manually kill the scdaemon.

              Shuts  down the process but waits until all current requests are
              fulfilled.  If the process has received 3 of these  signals  and
              requests are still pending, a shutdown is forced.

       SIGINT Shuts down the process immediately.

              Dump internal information to the log file.

              This signal is used for internal purposes.

       gpg2(1), gpgsm(1), gpg-connect-agent(1), scdaemon(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG and the info program are properly installed at your site,  the

         info gnupg

       should  give  you access to the complete manual including a menu struc-
       ture and an index.

GnuPG 2.0.9                       2008-10-04                      GPG-AGENT(1)