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MPlayer(1)                     The Movie Player                     MPlayer(1)



NAME
       mplayer  - movie player
       mencoder - movie encoder

SYNOPSIS
       mplayer [options] [file|URL|playlist|-]
       mplayer [options] file1 [specific options] [file2] [specific options]
       mplayer [options] {group of files and options} [group-specific options]
       mplayer [dvd|dvdnav]://[title|[start_title]-end_title] [options]
       mplayer vcd://track[/device]
       mplayer tv://[channel][/input_id] [options]
       mplayer radio://[channel|frequency][/capture] [options]
       mplayer pvr:// [options]
       mplayer dvb://[card_number@]channel [options]
       mplayer mf://[filemask|@listfile] [-mf options] [options]
       mplayer [cdda|cddb]://track[-endtrack][:speed][/device] [options]
       mplayer cue://file[:track] [options]
       mplayer [file|mms[t]|http|http_proxy|rt[s]p|ftp|udp|unsv|smb]://
       [user:pass@]URL[:port] [options]
       mplayer sdp://file [options]
       mplayer mpst://host[:port]/URL [options]
       mplayer tivo://host/[list|llist|fsid] [options]
       gmplayer [options] [-skin skin]
       mencoder [options] file [file|URL|-] [-o file | file://file |
       smb://[user:pass@]host/filepath]
       mencoder [options] file1 [specific options] [file2] [specific options]

DESCRIPTION
       mplayer  is  a movie player for Linux (runs on many other platforms and
       CPU architectures, see the documentation).   It  plays  most  MPEG/VOB,
       AVI, ASF/WMA/WMV, RM, QT/MOV/MP4, Ogg/OGM, MKV, VIVO, FLI, NuppelVideo,
       yuv4mpeg, FILM and RoQ files,  supported  by  many  native  and  binary
       codecs.   You  can watch Video CD, SVCD, DVD, 3ivx, DivX 3/4/5 and even
       WMV movies, too.

       MPlayer supports a wide range of video and audio  output  drivers.   It
       works  with  X11,  Xv, DGA, OpenGL, SVGAlib, fbdev, AAlib, libcaca, Di-
       rectFB, Quartz, Mac OS X CoreVideo, but you can also use GGI, SDL  (and
       all  their  drivers), VESA (on every VESA-compatible card, even without
       X11), some low-level card-specific drivers (for Matrox, 3dfx  and  ATI)
       and  some  hardware MPEG decoder boards, such as the Siemens DVB, Haup-
       pauge PVR (IVTV), DXR2 and DXR3/Hollywood+.  Most of them support soft-
       ware or hardware scaling, so you can enjoy movies in fullscreen mode.

       MPlayer  has an onscreen display (OSD) for status information, nice big
       antialiased shaded subtitles and visual feedback for keyboard controls.
       European/ISO8859-1,2 (Hungarian, English, Czech, etc), Cyrillic and Ko-
       rean fonts are supported along with 12 subtitle formats (MicroDVD, Sub-
       Rip,  OGM, SubViewer, Sami, VPlayer, RT, SSA, AQTitle, JACOsub, PJS and
       our own: MPsub) and DVD subtitles (SPU streams, VOBsub and Closed  Cap-
       tions).

       mencoder  (MPlayer's Movie Encoder) is a simple movie encoder, designed
       to encode MPlayer-playable movies (see above) to other MPlayer-playable
       formats  (see  below).   It  encodes  to MPEG-4 (DivX/Xvid), one of the
       libavcodec codecs and PCM/MP3/VBRMP3 audio in 1, 2 or 3  passes.   Fur-
       thermore  it  has  stream  copying  abilities, a powerful filter system
       (crop, expand, flip, postprocess, rotate, scale, noise, RGB/YUV conver-
       sion) and more.

       gmplayer  is  MPlayer with a graphical user interface.  It has the same
       options as MPlayer.

       Usage examples to get you started quickly can be found at  the  end  of
       this man page.

       Also see the HTML documentation!

INTERACTIVE CONTROL
       MPlayer  has  a  fully configurable, command-driven control layer which
       allows you to control MPlayer using keyboard, mouse, joystick or remote
       control (with LIRC).  See the -input option for ways to customize it.

       keyboard control
              <- and ->
                   Seek backward/forward 10 seconds.
              up and down
                   Seek forward/backward 1 minute.
              pgup and pgdown
                   Seek forward/backward 10 minutes.
              [ and ]
                   Decrease/increase current playback speed by 10%.
              { and }
                   Halve/double current playback speed.
              backspace
                   Reset playback speed to normal.
              < and >
                   Go backward/forward in the playlist.
              ENTER
                   Go forward in the playlist, even over the end.
              HOME and END
                   next/previous playtree entry in the parent list
              INS and DEL (ASX playlist only)
                   next/previous alternative source.
              p / SPACE
                   Pause (pressing again unpauses).
              .
                   Step  forward.   Pressing once will pause movie, every con-
                   secutive press will play one frame and then go  into  pause
                   mode again (any other key unpauses).
              q / ESC
                   Stop playing and quit.
              + and -
                   Adjust audio delay by +/- 0.1 seconds.
              / and *
                   Decrease/increase volume.
              9 and 0
                   Decrease/increase volume.
              ( and )
                   Adjust audio balance in favor of left/right channel.
              m
                   Mute sound.
              _ (MPEG-TS, AVI and libavformat only)
                   Cycle through the available video tracks.
              # (DVD, MPEG, Matroska, AVI and libavformat only)
                   Cycle through the available audio tracks.
              TAB (MPEG-TS only)
                   Cycle through the available programs.
              f
                   Toggle fullscreen (also see -fs).
              T
                   Toggle stay-on-top (also see -ontop).
              w and e
                   Decrease/increase pan-and-scan range.
              o
                   Toggle  OSD  states:  none  /  seek / seek + timer / seek +
                   timer + total time.
              d
                   Toggle frame dropping states: none / skip  display  /  skip
                   decoding (see -framedrop and -hardframedrop).
              v
                   Toggle subtitle visibility.
              j
                   Cycle through the available subtitles.
              y and g
                   Step forward/backward in the subtitle list.
              F
                   Toggle displaying "forced subtitles".
              a
                   Toggle subtitle alignment: top / middle / bottom.
              x and z
                   Adjust subtitle delay by +/- 0.1 seconds.
              r and t
                   Move subtitles up/down.
              i (-edlout mode only)
                   Set  start  or  end  of an EDL skip and write it out to the
                   given file.
              s (-vf screenshot only)
                   Take a screenshot.
              S (-vf screenshot only)
                   Start/stop taking screenshots.
              I
                   Show filename on the OSD.
              ! and @
                   Seek to the beginning of the previous/next chapter.
              D (-vo xvmc, -vf yadif, -vf kerndeint only)
                   Activate/deactivate deinterlacer.

              (The following keys are valid only when using a hardware  accel-
              erated  video  output  (xv, (x)vidix, (x)mga, etc), the software
              equalizer (-vf eq or -vf eq2) or hue filter (-vf hue).)

              1 and 2
                   Adjust contrast.
              3 and 4
                   Adjust brightness.
              5 and 6
                   Adjust hue.
              7 and 8
                   Adjust saturation.

              (The following keys are valid only when using the quartz or  ma-
              cosx video output driver.)

              command + 0
                   Resize movie window to half its original size.
              command + 1
                   Resize movie window to its original size.
              command + 2
                   Resize movie window to double its original size.
              command + f
                   Toggle fullscreen (also see -fs).
              command + [ and command + ]
                   Set movie window alpha.

              (The following keys are valid only when using the sdl video out-
              put driver.)

              c
                   Cycle through available fullscreen modes.
              n
                   Restore original mode.

              (The following keys are valid if you have a keyboard with multi-
              media keys.)

              PAUSE
                   Pause.
              STOP
                   Stop playing and quit.
              PREVIOUS and NEXT
                   Seek backward/forward 1 minute.

              (The following keys are only valid if GUI support is compiled in
              and will take precedence over the keys defined above.)

              ENTER
                   Start playing.
              ESC
                   Stop playing.
              l
                   Load file.
              t
                   Load subtitle.
              c
                   Open skin browser.
              p
                   Open playlist.
              r
                   Open preferences.

              (The following keys are only valid if you compiled  with  TV  or
              DVB input support and will take precedence over the keys defined
              above.)

              h and k
                   Select previous/next channel.
              n
                   Change norm.
              u
                   Change channel list.

              (The following keys are only valid if you compiled  with  dvdnav
              support: They are used to navigate the menus.)

              keypad 8
                   Select button up.
              keypad 2
                   Select button down.
              keypad 4
                   Select button left.
              keypad 6
                   Select button right.
              keypad 5
                   Return to main menu.
              keypad 7
                   Return  to  nearest menu (the order of preference is: chap-
                   ter->title->root).
              keypad ENTER
                   Confirm choice.

              (The following keys are only valid if teletext  support  is  en-
              abled during compilation: They are used for controlling TV tele-
              text.)

              X    Switch teletext on/off.
              Q and W
                   Go to next/prev teletext page.

              mouse control
                     button 3 and button 4
                          Seek backward/forward 1 minute.
                     button 5 and button 6
                          Decrease/increase volume.

              joystick control
                     left and right
                          Seek backward/forward 10 seconds.
                     up and down
                          Seek forward/backward 1 minute.
                     button 1
                          Pause.
                     button 2
                          Toggle OSD states: none / seek / seek + timer / seek
                          + timer + total time.
                     button 3 and button 4
                          Decrease/increase volume.

USAGE
       Every  'flag'  option  has a 'noflag' counterpart, e.g. the opposite of
       the -fs option is -nofs.

       If an option is marked as (XXX only), it will only work in  combination
       with the XXX option or if XXX is compiled in.

       NOTE:  The  suboption  parser (used for example for -ao pcm suboptions)
       supports a special kind of string-escaping intended for use with exter-
       nal GUIs.
       It has the following format:
       %n%string_of_length_n
       EXAMPLES:
       mplayer -ao pcm:file=%10%C:test.wav test.avi
       Or in a script:
       mplayer -ao pcm:file=%`expr length "$NAME"`%"$NAME" test.avi

CONFIGURATION FILES
       You  can  put  all  of the options in configuration files which will be
       read every time MPlayer/MEncoder is run.  The system-wide configuration
       file  'mplayer.conf'  is  in  your  configuration directory (e.g. /etc/
       mplayer or /usr/local/etc/mplayer), the user specific one is '~/.mplay-
       er/config'.   The configuration file for MEncoder is 'mencoder.conf' in
       your configuration  directory  (e.g.  /etc/mplayer  or  /usr/local/etc/
       mplayer),  the  user  specific  one is '~/.mplayer/mencoder.conf.  User
       specific options override system-wide options and options given on  the
       command line override either.  The syntax of the configuration files is
       'option=<value>', everything after a '#' is considered a comment.   Op-
       tions  that work without values can be enabled by setting them to 'yes'
       or '1' or 'true' and disabled  by  setting  them  to  'no'  or  '0'  or
       'false'.  Even suboptions can be specified in this way.

       You  can  also write file-specific configuration files.  If you wish to
       have a configuration file for a file called 'movie.avi', create a  file
       named  'movie.avi.conf' with the file-specific options in it and put it
       in ~/.mplayer/.  You can also put the configuration file  in  the  same
       directory  as  the  file  to  be  played, as long as you give the -use-
       filedir-conf option (either on the command line or in your global  con-
       fig file).

       EXAMPLE MPLAYER CONFIGURATION FILE:

       # Use Matrox driver by default.
       vo=xmga
       # I love practicing handstands while watching videos.
       flip=yes
       # Decode/encode multiple files from PNG,
       # start with mf://filemask
       mf=type=png:fps=25
       # Eerie negative images are cool.
       vf=eq2=1.0:-0.8

       EXAMPLE MENCODER CONFIGURATION FILE:

       # Make MEncoder output to a default filename.
       o=encoded.avi
       # The next 4 lines allow mencoder tv:// to start capturing immediately.
       oac=pcm=yes
       ovc=lavc=yes
       lavcopts=vcodec=mjpeg
       tv=driver=v4l2:input=1:width=768:height=576:device=/dev/video0:audiorate=48000
       # more complex default encoding option set
       lavcopts=vcodec=mpeg4:autoaspect=1
       lameopts=aq=2:vbr=4
       ovc=lavc=1
       oac=lavc=1
       passlogfile=pass1stats.log
       noautoexpand=1
       subfont-autoscale=3
       subfont-osd-scale=6
       subfont-text-scale=4
       subalign=2
       subpos=96
       spuaa=20

PROFILES
       To  ease  working with different configurations profiles can be defined
       in the configuration files.  A profile starts  with  its  name  between
       square  brackets,  e.g.  '[my-profile]'.  All following options will be
       part of the profile.  A description (shown by -profile help) can be de-
       fined  with the profile-desc option.  To end the profile, start another
       one or use the profile name 'default' to continue with normal options.

       EXAMPLE MENCODER PROFILE:


       [mpeg4]
       profile-desc="MPEG4 encoding"
       ovc=lacv=yes
       lavcopts=vcodec=mpeg4:vbitrate=1200

       [mpeg4-hq]
       profile-desc="HQ MPEG4 encoding"
       profile=mpeg4
       lavcopts=mbd=2:trell=yes:v4mv=yes

GENERAL OPTIONS
       -codecs-file <&lt;filename>&gt; (also see -afm, -ac, -vfm, -vc)
              Override the standard search path and use the specified file in-
              stead of the builtin codecs.conf.

       -include <&lt;configuration file>&gt;
              Specify configuration file to be parsed after the default ones.

       -list-options
              Prints all available options.

       -msgcharset <&lt;charset>&gt;
              Convert  console  messages  to  the specified character set (de-
              fault: autodetect).  Text will be in the encoding specified with
              the --charset configure option.  Set this to "noconv" to disable
              conversion (for e.g. iconv problems).
              NOTE: The option takes effect after  command  line  parsing  has
              finished.  The MPLAYER_CHARSET environment variable can help you
              get rid of the first lines of garbled output.

       -msglevel <&lt;all=<&lt;level>&gt;:<&lt;module>&gt;=<&lt;level>&gt;:...>&gt;
              Control verbosity directly for each module.   The  'all'  module
              changes  the  verbosity of all the modules not explicitly speci-
              fied on the command line.  See '-msglevel help' for  a  list  of
              all modules.
              NOTE:  Some  messages  are  printed  before  the command line is
              parsed and are therefore not affected by -msglevel.  To  control
              these  messages  you have to use the MPLAYER_VERBOSE environment
              variable, see its description below for details.
              Available levels:
                 -1   complete silence
                  0   fatal messages only
                  1   error messages
                  2   warning messages
                  3   short hints
                  4   informational messages
                  5   status messages (default)
                  6   verbose messages
                  7   debug level 2
                  8   debug level 3
                  9   debug level 4

       -quiet
              Make console output less verbose; in  particular,  prevents  the
              status  line (i.e. A:   0.7 V:   0.6 A-V:  0.068 ...) from being
              displayed.  Particularly useful on slow terminals or broken ones
              which do not properly handle carriage return (i.e. \r).

       -priority <&lt;prio>&gt; (Windows only)
              Set  process  priority  for  MPlayer according to the predefined
              priorities available under Windows.  Possible values of <prio>:
                 idle|belownormal|normal|abovenormal|high|realtime

              WARNING: Using realtime priority can cause system lockup.

       -profile <&lt;profile1,profile2,...>&gt;
              Use the given profile(s), -profile help displays a list  of  the
              defined profiles.

       -really-quiet (also see -quiet)
              Display  even  less output and status messages than with -quiet.
              Also suppresses the GUI error message boxes.

       -show-profile <&lt;profile>&gt;
              Show the description and content of a profile.

       -use-filedir-conf
              Look for a file-specific configuration file in the same directo-
              ry as the file that is being played.
              WARNING: May be dangerous if playing from untrusted media.

       -v
              Increment  verbosity  level,  one level for each -v found on the
              command line.

PLAYER OPTIONS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       -autoq <&lt;quality>&gt; (use with -vf [s]pp)
              Dynamically changes the level of postprocessing depending on the
              available  spare  CPU  time.  The number you specify will be the
              maximum level used.  Usually you can use some big  number.   You
              have  to  use  -vf [s]pp without parameters in order for this to
              work.

       -autosync <&lt;factor>&gt;
              Gradually adjusts the A/V sync based  on  audio  delay  measure-
              ments.   Specifying  -autosync  0, the default, will cause frame
              timing to be based entirely on audio delay measurements.  Speci-
              fying  -autosync  1 will do the same, but will subtly change the
              A/V correction algorithm.  An uneven video framerate in a  movie
              which  plays  fine  with -nosound can often be helped by setting
              this to an integer value greater than 1.  The higher the  value,
              the  closer the timing will be to -nosound.  Try -autosync 30 to
              smooth out problems with sound drivers which do not implement  a
              perfect  audio delay measurement.  With this value, if large A/V
              sync offsets occur, they will only take about 1 or 2 seconds  to
              settle  out.   This delay in reaction time to sudden A/V offsets
              should be the only side-effect of turning this  option  on,  for
              all sound drivers.

       -benchmark
              Prints  some  statistics  on CPU usage and dropped frames at the
              end of playback.  Use in combination with -nosound and -vo  null
              for benchmarking only the video codec.
              NOTE:  With  this option MPlayer will also ignore frame duration
              when playing only video (you can think of that as infinite fps).

       -colorkey <&lt;number>&gt;
              Changes the colorkey to an RGB value of your  choice.   0x000000
              is  black  and 0xffffff is white.  Only supported by the cvidix,
              fbdev, svga, vesa, winvidix, xmga, xvidix, xover,  xv  (see  -vo
              xv:ck), xvmc (see -vo xv:ck) and directx video output drivers.

       -nocolorkey
              Disables  colorkeying.  Only supported by the cvidix, fbdev, sv-
              ga, vesa, winvidix, xmga, xvidix, xover,  xv  (see  -vo  xv:ck),
              xvmc (see -vo xv:ck) and directx video output drivers.

       -correct-pts (experimental)
              Switches  MPlayer  to  an experimental mode where timestamps for
              video frames are calculated differently and video filters  which
              add  new  frames  or modify timestamps of existing ones are sup-
              ported.  The more accurate timestamps can be visible for example
              when  playing subtitles timed to scene changes with the -ass op-
              tion.  Without -correct-pts the subtitle timing  will  typically
              be off by some frames.  This option does not work correctly with
              some demuxers and codecs.

       -crash-debug (DEBUG CODE)
              Automatically attaches gdb upon crash or SIGTRAP.  Support  must
              be compiled in by configuring with --enable-crash-debug.

       -doubleclick-time
              Time in milliseconds to recognize two consecutive button presses
              as a double-click (default: 300).  Set to 0 to let your  window-
              ing system decide what a double-click is (-vo directx only).
              NOTE:  You  will  get  slightly different behaviour depending on
              whether you bind MOUSE_BTN0_DBL or MOUSE_BTN0-MOUSE_BTN0_DBL.

       -edlout <&lt;filename>&gt;
              Creates a new file and writes edit decision list  (EDL)  records
              to  it.  During playback, the user hits 'i' to mark the start or
              end of a skip block.  This provides a starting point from  which
              the user can fine-tune EDL entries later.  See http://www.mplay-
              erhq.hu/DOCS/HTML/en/edl.html for details.

       -enqueue (GUI only)
              Enqueue files given on the command line in the playlist  instead
              of playing them immediately.

       -fixed-vo
              Enforces  a  fixed video system for multiple files (one (un)ini-
              tialization for all files).  Therefore only one window  will  be
              opened  for  all  files.   Currently  the  following drivers are
              fixed-vo compliant: gl, gl2, mga, svga, x11,  xmga,  xv,  xvidix
              and dfbmga.

       -framedrop (also see -hardframedrop)
              Skip  displaying  some  frames to maintain A/V sync on slow sys-
              tems.  Video filters are not applied to  such  frames.   For  B-
              frames even decoding is skipped completely.

       -(no)gui
              Enable  or  disable the GUI interface (default depends on binary
              name).  Only works as the first argument on  the  command  line.
              Does not work as a config-file option.

       -h, -help, --help
              Show short summary of options.

       -hardframedrop
              More  intense  frame dropping (breaks decoding).  Leads to image
              distortion!

       -identify
              Shorthand for -msglevel identify=4.  Show file parameters in  an
              easily  parseable format.  Also prints more detailed information
              about subtitle and audio track languages and IDs.  In some cases
              you can get more information by using -msglevel identify=6.  For
              example, for a DVD it will list the time length of  each  title,
              as  well  as a disk ID.  The wrapper script TOOLS/midentify sup-
              presses the other MPlayer output  and  (hopefully)  shellescapes
              the filenames.

       -idle (also see -slave)
              Makes  MPlayer  wait  idly  instead of quitting when there is no
              file to play.  Mostly useful in slave mode where MPlayer can  be
              controlled through input commands.

       -input <&lt;commands>&gt;
              This  option can be used to configure certain parts of the input
              system.  Paths are relative to ~/.mplayer/.
              NOTE: Autorepeat is currently only supported by joysticks.

              Available commands are:

                 conf=<filename>
                      Specify input configuration file other than the  default
                      ~/.mplayer/input.conf.  ~/.mplayer/<filename> is assumed
                      if no full path is given.
                 ar-delay
                      Delay in milliseconds before we start  to  autorepeat  a
                      key (0 to disable).
                 ar-rate
                      Number  of key presses to generate per second on autore-
                      peat.
                 keylist
                      Prints all keys that can be bound to commands.
                 cmdlist
                      Prints all commands that can be bound to keys.
                 js-dev
                      Specifies the joystick device to use (default:  /dev/in-
                      put/js0).
                 file=<filename>
                      Read commands from the given file.  Mostly useful with a
                      FIFO.
                      NOTE: When the given file is a FIFO MPlayer  opens  both
                      ends  so  you  can do several 'echo "seek 10" > mp_pipe'
                      and the pipe will stay valid.

       -key-fifo-size <&lt;2-65000>&gt;
              Specify the size of the FIFO that buffers key  events  (default:
              7).   A  FIFO  of  size n can buffer (n-1) events.  If it is too
              small some events may be lost (leading to "stuck mouse  buttons"
              and  similar  effects).   If  it is too big, MPlayer may seem to
              hang while it processes the buffered events.  To  get  the  same
              behavior  as  before this option was introduced, set it to 2 for
              Linux or 1024 for Windows.

       -lircconf <&lt;filename>&gt; (LIRC only)
              Specifies a configuration file for LIRC (default: ~/.lircrc).

       -list-properties
              Print a list of the available properties.

       -loop <&lt;number>&gt;
              Loops movie playback <number> times.  0 means forever.

       -menu (OSD menu only)
              Turn on OSD menu support.

       -menu-cfg <&lt;filename>&gt; (OSD menu only)
              Use an alternative menu.conf.

       -menu-chroot <&lt;path>&gt; (OSD menu only)
              Chroot the file selection menu to a specific location.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -menu-chroot=/home
                      Will restrict the file selection menu to /home and down-
                      ward  (i.e.  no  access  to  /  will  be  possible,  but
                      /home/user_name will).

       -menu-keepdir (OSD menu only)
              File browser starts from the last known location instead of cur-
              rent directory.

       -menu-root <&lt;value>&gt; (OSD menu only)
              Specify the main menu.

       -menu-startup (OSD menu only)
              Display the main menu at MPlayer startup.

       -mouse-movements
              Permit  MPlayer  to receive pointer events reported by the video
              output driver (currently only derivatives of X11 are supported).
              Necessary to select the buttons in DVD menus.

       -noconsolecontrols
              Prevent  MPlayer  from  reading  key events from standard input.
              Useful when reading data from standard input.  This is automati-
              cally  enabled  when  - is found on the command line.  There are
              situations where you have to set it manually, e.g. if  you  open
              /dev/stdin  (or  the  equivalent on your system), use stdin in a
              playlist or intend to read from stdin later on via the  loadfile
              or loadlist slave commands.

       -nojoystick
              Turns off joystick support.

       -nolirc
              Turns off LIRC support.

       -nomouseinput
              Disable  mouse button press/release input (mozplayerxp's context
              menu relies on this option).

       -rtc (RTC only)
              Turns on usage of the Linux RTC (realtime clock -  /dev/rtc)  as
              timing  mechanism.   This wakes up the process every 1/1024 sec-
              onds to check the current time.  Useless with modern Linux  ker-
              nels  configured  for  desktop  use  as they already wake up the
              process with similar accuracy when using normal timed sleep.

       -playing-msg <&lt;string>&gt;
              Print out a string before starting playback.  The following  ex-
              pansions are supported:

                 ${NAME}
                      Expand to the value of the property NAME.

                 $(NAME:TEXT)
                      Expand TEXT only if the property NAME is available.

       -playlist <&lt;filename>&gt;
              Play  files  according to a playlist file (ASX, Winamp, SMIL, or
              one-file-per-line format).
              NOTE: This option is considered an entry so options found  after
              it will apply only to the elements of this playlist.
              FIXME: This needs to be clarified and documented thoroughly.

       -rtc-device <&lt;device>&gt;
              Use the specified device for RTC timing.

       -shuffle
              Play files in random order.

       -skin <&lt;name>&gt; (GUI only)
              Loads a skin from the directory given as parameter below the de-
              fault  skin   directories,   /usr/local/share/mplayer/skins/ and
              ~/.mplayer/skins/.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -skin fittyfene
                      Tries  /usr/local/share/mplayer/skins/fittyfene  and af-
                      terwards ~/.mplayer/skins/fittyfene.

       -slave (also see -input)
              Switches on slave mode, in which MPlayer works as a backend  for
              other programs.  Instead of intercepting keyboard events, MPlay-
              er will read commands separated by a newline (\n) from stdin.
              NOTE: See -input cmdlist  for  a  list  of  slave  commands  and
              DOCS/tech/slave.txt for their description.

       -softsleep
              Time  frames  by repeatedly checking the current time instead of
              asking the kernel to wake up MPlayer at the correct time.   Use-
              ful  if  your  kernel timing is imprecise and you cannot use the
              RTC either.  Comes at the price of higher CPU consumption.

       -sstep <&lt;sec>&gt;
              Skip <sec> seconds after every frame.  The normal  framerate  of
              the  movie  is  kept, so playback is accelerated.  Since MPlayer
              can only seek to the next keyframe this may be inexact.

DEMUXER/STREAM OPTIONS
       -a52drc <&lt;level>&gt;
              Select the  Dynamic  Range  Compression  level  for  AC-3  audio
              streams.   <level> is a float value ranging from 0 to 1, where 0
              means no compression and 1 (which is  the  default)  means  full
              compression  (make  loud  passages  more silent and vice versa).
              This option only shows an effect if the AC-3 stream contains the
              required range compression information.

       -aid <&lt;ID>&gt; (also see -alang)
              Select  audio channel (MPEG: 0-31, AVI/OGM: 1-99, ASF/RM: 0-127,
              VOB(AC-3):  128-159,  VOB(LPCM):  160-191,   MPEG-TS   17-8190).
              MPlayer  prints the available audio IDs when run in verbose (-v)
              mode.  When playing an MPEG-TS stream, MPlayer/MEncoder will use
              the first program (if present) with the chosen audio stream.

       -alang <&lt;language code[,language code,...]>&gt; (also see -aid)
              Specify  a  priority  list of audio languages to use.  Different
              container formats employ different language codes.  DVDs use ISO
              639-1  two  letter language codes, Matroska, MPEG-TS and NUT use
              ISO 639-2 three letter language codes while OGM uses a free-form
              identifier.   MPlayer prints the available languages when run in
              verbose (-v) mode.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer dvd://1 -alang hu,en
                      Chooses the Hungarian language track on a DVD and  falls
                      back on English if Hungarian is not available.
                 mplayer -alang jpn example.mkv
                      Plays a Matroska file in Japanese.

       -audio-demuxer <&lt;[+]name>&gt; (-audiofile only)
              Force  audio  demuxer type for -audiofile.  Use a '+' before the
              name to force it, this will skip some checks!  Give the  demuxer
              name  as  printed by -audio-demuxer help.  For backward compati-
              bility it also accepts the demuxer ID as defined in  libmpdemux/
              demuxer.h.   -audio-demuxer  audio  or  -audio-demuxer 17 forces
              MP3.

       -audiofile <&lt;filename>&gt;
              Play audio from an external file (WAV, MP3 or Ogg Vorbis)  while
              viewing a movie.

       -audiofile-cache <&lt;kBytes>&gt;
              Enables  caching  for  the  stream used by -audiofile, using the
              specified amount of memory.

       -reuse-socket (udp:// only)
              Allows a socket to be reused by other processes as soon as it is
              closed.

       -bandwidth <&lt;value>&gt; (network only)
              Specify the maximum bandwidth for network streaming (for servers
              that are able to send content in different bitrates).  Useful if
              you  want to watch live streamed media behind a slow connection.
              With Real RTSP streaming, it is also used to set the maximum de-
              livery  bandwidth allowing faster cache filling and stream dump-
              ing.

       -cache <&lt;kBytes>&gt;
              This option specifies how much memory (in kBytes)  to  use  when
              precaching a file or URL.  Especially useful on slow media.

       -nocache
              Turns off caching.

       -cache-min <&lt;percentage>&gt;
              Playback  will  start when the cache has been filled up to <per-
              centage> of the total.

       -cache-seek-min <&lt;percentage>&gt;
              If a seek is to be made to a position within <percentage> of the
              cache  size from the current position, MPlayer will wait for the
              cache to be filled to this position  rather  than  performing  a
              stream seek (default: 50).

       -cdda <&lt;option1:option2>&gt; (CDDA only)
              This  option can be used to tune the CD Audio reading feature of
              MPlayer.

              Available options are:

                 speed=<value>
                      Set CD spin speed.

                 paranoia=<0-2>
                      Set paranoia level.  Values other than 0 seem  to  break
                      playback of anything but the first track.
                         0: disable checking (default)
                         1: overlap checking only
                         2: full data correction and verification

                 generic-dev=<value>
                      Use specified generic SCSI device.

                 sector-size=<value>
                      Set atomic read size.

                 overlap=<value>
                      Force  minimum  overlap  search  during  verification to
                      <value> sectors.

                 toc-bias
                      Assume that the beginning offset of track 1 as  reported
                      in  the  TOC  will  be addressed as LBA 0.  Some Toshiba
                      drives need this for getting track boundaries correct.

                 toc-offset=<value>
                      Add <value> sectors to the values reported when address-
                      ing tracks.  May be negative.

                 (no)skip
                      (Never) accept imperfect data reconstruction.

       -cdrom-device <&lt;path to device>&gt;
              Specify the CD-ROM device (default: /dev/cdrom).

       -channels <&lt;number>&gt; (also see -af channels)
              Request  the  number of playback channels (default: 2).  MPlayer
              asks the decoder to decode the audio into as  many  channels  as
              specified.  Then it is up to the decoder to fulfill the require-
              ment.  This is usually only important when playing  videos  with
              AC-3  audio  (like DVDs).  In that case liba52 does the decoding
              by default and correctly downmixes the audio into the  requested
              number  of  channels.   To directly control the number of output
              channels independently of how many channels are decoded, use the
              channels filter.
              NOTE:  This  option  is  honored  by codecs (AC-3 only), filters
              (surround) and audio output drivers (OSS at least).

              Available options are:

                 2    stereo
                 4    surround
                 6    full 5.1

       -chapter <&lt;chapter ID>&gt;[-<&lt;endchapter ID>&gt;] (dvd:// and dvdnav:// only)
              Specify which chapter to start playing at.   Optionally  specify
              which chapter to end playing at (default: 1).

       -cookies (network only)
              Send cookies when making HTTP requests.

       -cookies-file <&lt;filename>&gt; (network only)
              Read  HTTP  cookies  from  <filename>  (default: ~/.mozilla/ and
              ~/.netscape/) and skip reading from default locations.  The file
              is assumed to be in Netscape format.

       -delay <&lt;sec>&gt;
              audio delay in seconds (positive or negative float value)
              Negative  values  delay the audio, and positive values delay the
              video.  Note that this is the exact opposite of the -audio-delay
              MEncoder option.
              NOTE:  When  used  with MEncoder, this is not guaranteed to work
              correctly with -ovc copy; use -audio-delay instead.

       -ignore-start
              Ignore the specified starting time for streams in AVI files.  In
              MPlayer,  this nullifies stream delays in files encoded with the
              -audio-delay option.  During encoding, this option prevents MEn-
              coder  from  transferring original stream start times to the new
              file; the -audio-delay option is not affected.  Note  that  MEn-
              coder  sometimes  adjusts stream starting times automatically to
              compensate for anticipated decoding delays, so do not  use  this
              option for encoding without testing it first.

       -demuxer <&lt;[+]name>&gt;
              Force demuxer type.  Use a '+' before the name to force it, this
              will skip some checks!  Give the demuxer name as printed by -de-
              muxer  help.  For backward compatibility it also accepts the de-
              muxer ID as defined in libmpdemux/demuxer.h.

       -dumpaudio (MPlayer only)
              Dumps raw compressed audio stream to ./stream.dump (useful  with
              MPEG/AC-3,  in  most  other cases the resulting file will not be
              playable).  If you give more than one of -dumpaudio, -dumpvideo,
              -dumpstream on the command line only the last one will work.

       -dumpfile <&lt;filename>&gt; (MPlayer only)
              Specify  which  file MPlayer should dump to.  Should be used to-
              gether with -dumpaudio / -dumpvideo / -dumpstream.

       -dumpstream (MPlayer only)
              Dumps the raw stream to ./stream.dump.  Useful when ripping from
              DVD  or  network.   If  you  give  more  than one of -dumpaudio,
              -dumpvideo, -dumpstream on the command line only  the  last  one
              will work.

       -dumpvideo (MPlayer only)
              Dump  raw compressed video stream to ./stream.dump (not very us-
              able).  If you give more than  one  of  -dumpaudio,  -dumpvideo,
              -dumpstream on the command line only the last one will work.

       -dvbin <&lt;options>&gt; (DVB only)
              Pass  the following parameters to the DVB input module, in order
              to override the default ones:

                 card=<1-4>
                      Specifies using card number 1-4 (default: 1).
                 file=<filename>
                      Instructs MPlayer to read the channels list from  <file-
                      name>.         Default        is        ~/.mplayer/chan-
                      nels.conf.{sat,ter,cbl,atsc} (based on your  card  type)
                      or ~/.mplayer/channels.conf as a last resort.
                 timeout=<1-30>
                      Maximum  number of seconds to wait when trying to tune a
                      frequency before giving up (default: 30).

       -dvd-device <&lt;path to device>&gt; (DVD only)
              Specify the DVD device (default: /dev/dvd).  You can also speci-
              fy  a  directory  that contains files previously copied directly
              from a DVD (with e.g. vobcopy).  Note that using -dumpstream  is
              usually  a better way to copy DVD titles in the first place (see
              the examples).

       -dvd-speed <&lt;factor or speed in KB/s>&gt; (DVD only)
              Try to limit DVD speed (default: 0, no change).  DVD base  speed
              is  about  1350KB/s,  so  a  8x  drive  can read at speeds up to
              10800KB/s.  Slower speeds make the drive more quiet, for  watch-
              ing  DVDs 2700KB/s should be quiet and fast enough.  MPlayer re-
              sets the speed to the drive default value on close.  Values less
              than  100  mean multiples of 1350KB/s, i.e. -dvd-speed 8 selects
              10800KB/s.
              NOTE: You need write access to the  DVD  device  to  change  the
              speed.

       -dvdangle <&lt;angle ID>&gt; (DVD only)
              Some  DVD  discs contain scenes that can be viewed from multiple
              angles.  Here you can tell MPlayer which angles to use (default:
              1).

       -edl <&lt;filename>&gt;
              Enables edit decision list (EDL) actions during playback.  Video
              will be skipped over and audio will be muted and unmuted accord-
              ing  to  the entries in the given file.  See http://www.mplayer-
              hq.hu/DOCS/HTML/en/edl.html for details on how to use this.

       -endpos <&lt;[[hh:]mm:]ss[.ms]|size[b|kb|mb]>&gt; (also see -ss and -sb)
              Stop at given time or byte position.
              NOTE: Byte position is enabled only for MEncoder and will not be
              accurate, as it can only stop at a frame boundary.  When used in
              conjunction with -ss option, -endpos time will shift forward  by
              seconds specified with -ss.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -endpos 56
                      Stop at 56 seconds.
                 -endpos 01:10:00
                      Stop at 1 hour 10 minutes.
                 -ss 10 -endpos 56
                      Stop at 1 minute 6 seconds.
                 -endpos 100mb
                      Encode only 100 MB.

       -forceidx
              Force index rebuilding.  Useful for files with broken index (A/V
              desync, etc).  This will enable seeking in files  where  seeking
              was  not  possible.  You can fix the index permanently with MEn-
              coder (see the documentation).
              NOTE: This option only works if the  underlying  media  supports
              seeking (i.e. not with stdin, pipe, etc).

       -fps <&lt;float value>&gt;
              Override video framerate.  Useful if the original value is wrong
              or missing.

       -frames <&lt;number>&gt;
              Play/convert only first <number> frames, then quit.

       -hr-mp3-seek (MP3 only)
              Hi-res MP3 seeking.  Enabled when playing from an  external  MP3
              file,  as we need to seek to the very exact position to keep A/V
              sync.  Can be slow especially when seeking  backwards  since  it
              has to rewind to the beginning to find an exact frame position.

       -idx (also see -forceidx)
              Rebuilds index of files if no index was found, allowing seeking.
              Useful with broken/incomplete downloads, or badly created files.
              NOTE: This option only works if the  underlying  media  supports
              seeking (i.e. not with stdin, pipe, etc).

       -noidx Skip  rebuilding  index  file.  MEncoder skips writing the index
              with this option.

       -ipv4-only-proxy (network only)
              Skip the proxy for IPv6 addresses.  It will still  be  used  for
              IPv4 connections.

       -loadidx <&lt;index file>&gt;
              The  file  from  which  to  read  the  video index data saved by
              -saveidx.  This index will be used for seeking,  overriding  any
              index  data  contained in the AVI itself.  MPlayer will not pre-
              vent you from loading an index file generated from  a  different
              AVI, but this is sure to cause unfavorable results.
              NOTE:  This option is obsolete now that MPlayer has OpenDML sup-
              port.

       -mc <&lt;seconds/frame>&gt;
              maximum A-V sync correction per frame (in seconds)

       -mf <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt;
              Used when decoding from multiple PNG or JPEG files.

              Available options are:

                 w=<value>
                      input file width (default: autodetect)
                 h=<value>
                      input file height (default: autodetect)
                 fps=<value>
                      output fps (default: 25)
                 type=<value>
                      input file type (available: jpeg, png, tga, sgi)

       -ni (AVI only)
              Force usage of non-interleaved AVI  parser  (fixes  playback  of
              some bad AVI files).

       -nobps (AVI only)
              Do  not  use average byte/second value for A-V sync.  Helps with
              some AVI files with broken header.

       -noextbased
              Disables extension-based demuxer selection.   By  default,  when
              the  file  type  (demuxer) cannot be detected reliably (the file
              has no header or it is not reliable enough), the filename exten-
              sion  is  used to select the demuxer.  Always falls back on con-
              tent-based demuxer selection.

       -passwd <&lt;password>&gt; (also see -user) (network only)
              Specify password for HTTP authentication.

       -prefer-ipv4 (network only)
              Use IPv4 on network connections.  Falls back on  IPv6  automati-
              cally.

       -prefer-ipv6 (IPv6 network only)
              Use  IPv6  on network connections.  Falls back on IPv4 automati-
              cally.

       -psprobe <&lt;byte position>&gt;
              When playing an MPEG-PS stream, this option lets you specify how
              many  bytes  in  the stream you want MPlayer to scan in order to
              identify the video codec used.  This option is  needed  to  play
              EVO files containing H.264 streams.

       -pvr <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt; (PVR only)
              This option tunes various encoding properties of the PVR capture
              module.  It has to be used with any hardware MPEG encoder  based
              card   supported  by  the  V4L2  driver.   The  Hauppauge  WinTV
              PVR-150/250/350/500 and all IVTV based cards are  known  as  PVR
              capture cards.  Be aware that only Linux 2.6.18 kernel and above
              is able to handle MPEG stream through V4L2 layer.  For  hardware
              capture of an MPEG stream and watching it with MPlayer/MEncoder,
              use 'pvr://' as a movie URL.

              Available options are:

                 aspect=<0-3>
                      Specify input aspect ratio:
                         0: 1:1
                         1: 4:3 (default)
                         2: 16:9
                         3: 2.21:1

                 arate=<32000-48000>
                      Specify encoding audio rate (default: 48000  Hz,  avail-
                      able: 32000, 44100 and 48000 Hz).

                 alayer=<1-3>
                      Specify MPEG audio layer encoding (default: 2).

                 abitrate=<32-448>
                      Specify audio encoding bitrate in kbps (default: 384).

                 amode=<value>
                      Specify  audio  encoding  mode.  Available preset values
                      are 'stereo', 'joint_stereo',  'dual'  and  'mono'  (de-
                      fault: stereo).

                 vbitrate=<value>
                      Specify average video bitrate encoding in Mbps (default:
                      6).

                 vmode=<value>
                      Specify video encoding mode:
                         vbr: Variable BitRate (default)
                         cbr: Constant BitRate

                 vpeak=<value>
                      Specify peak video bitrate encoding in Mbps (only useful
                      for VBR encoding, default: 9.6).

                 fmt=<value>
                      Choose an MPEG format for encoding:
                         ps:    MPEG-2 Program Stream (default)
                         ts:    MPEG-2 Transport Stream
                         mpeg1: MPEG-1 System Stream
                         vcd:   Video CD compatible stream
                         svcd:  Super Video CD compatible stream
                         dvd:   DVD compatible stream

       -radio <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt; (radio only)
              These  options  set various parameters of the radio capture mod-
              ule.  For listening to radio with MPlayer use 'radio://<frequen-
              cy>' (if channels option is not given) or 'radio://<channel_num-
              ber>' (if channels option is given) as a movie URL.  You can see
              allowed  frequency range by running MPlayer with '-v'.  To start
              the grabbing subsystem, use 'radio://<frequency or channel>/cap-
              ture'.   If  the  capture keyword is not given you can listen to
              radio using the line-in cable only.  Using capture to listen  is
              not  recommended  due  to  synchronization problems, which makes
              this process uncomfortable.

              Available options are:

                 device=<value>
                      Radio device to use (default: /dev/radio0 for Linux  and
                      /dev/tuner0 for *BSD).

                 driver=<value>
                      Radio  driver to use (default: v4l2 if available, other-
                      wise v4l).  Currently, v4l and v4l2 drivers are support-
                      ed.

                 volume=<0..100>
                      sound volume for radio device (default 100)

                 freq_min=<value> (*BSD BT848 only)
                      minimum allowed frequency (default: 87.50)

                 freq_max=<value> (*BSD BT848 only)
                      maximum allowed frequency (default: 108.00)

                 channels=<frequency>-<name>,<frequency>-<name>,...
                      Set  channel  list.   Use _ for spaces in names (or play
                      with quoting ;-).  The channel names will then be  writ-
                      ten  using OSD and the slave commands radio_step_channel
                      and radio_set_channel will be usable for a  remote  con-
                      trol  (see LIRC).  If given, number in movie URL will be
                      treated as channel position in channel list.
                      EXAMPLE: radio://1, radio://104.4, radio_set_channel 1

                 adevice=<value> (radio capture only)
                      Name of device to capture sound from.   Without  such  a
                      name  capture will be disabled, even if the capture key-
                      word appears in the URL.  For ALSA devices use it in the
                      form  hw=<card>.<device>.  If the device name contains a
                      '=', the module will use ALSA to capture, otherwise OSS.

                 arate=<value> (radio capture only)
                      Rate in samples per second (default: 44100).
                      NOTE:  When  using  audio  capture  set  also  -rawaudio
                      rate=<value>  option  with  the same value as arate.  If
                      you have problems with sound speed (runs  too  quickly),
                      try   to   play   with   different   rate  values  (e.g.
                      48000,44100,32000,...).

                 achannels=<value> (radio capture only)
                      Number of audio channels to capture.

       -rawaudio <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt;
              This option lets you play raw audio files.  You have to use -de-
              muxer  rawaudio  as well.  It may also be used to play audio CDs
              which are not 44kHz 16-bit stereo.  For playing raw AC-3 streams
              use -rawaudio format=0x2000 -demuxer rawaudio.

              Available options are:

                 channels=<value>
                      number of channels
                 rate=<value>
                      rate in samples per second
                 samplesize=<value>
                      sample size in bytes
                 bitrate=<value>
                      bitrate for rawaudio files
                 format=<value>
                      fourcc in hex

       -rawvideo <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt;
              This option lets you play raw video files.  You have to use -de-
              muxer rawvideo as well.

              Available options are:

                 fps=<value>
                      rate in frames per second (default: 25.0)
                 sqcif|qcif|cif|4cif|pal|ntsc
                      set standard image size
                 w=<value>
                      image width in pixels
                 h=<value>
                      image height in pixels
                 i420|yv12|yuy2|y8
                      set colorspace
                 format=<value>
                      colorspace (fourcc) in  hex  or  string  constant.   Use
                      -rawvideo format=help for a list of possible strings.
                 size=<value>
                      frame size in Bytes

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer foreman.qcif -demuxer rawvideo -rawvideo qcif
                      Play the famous "foreman" sample video.
                 mplayer   sample-720x576.yuv   -demuxer   rawvideo  -rawvideo
                 w=720:h=576
                      Play a raw YUV sample.

       -rtsp-port
              Used with 'rtsp://' URLs to  force  the  client's  port  number.
              This option may be useful if you are behind a router and want to
              forward the RTSP stream from the server to a specific client.

       -rtsp-destination
              Used with 'rtsp://' URLs to force the destination IP address  to
              be bound.  This option may be useful with some RTSP server which
              do not send RTP packets to the right interface.  If the  connec-
              tion  to  the  RTSP server fails, use -v to see which IP address
              MPlayer tries to bind to and try to force it to one assigned  to
              your computer instead.

       -rtsp-stream-over-tcp (LIVE555 and NEMESI only)
              Used  with 'rtsp://' URLs to specify that the resulting incoming
              RTP and RTCP packets be streamed over TCP (using  the  same  TCP
              connection  as  RTSP).   This option may be useful if you have a
              broken internet connection that does not pass incoming UDP pack-
              ets (see http://www.live555.com/mplayer/).

       -saveidx <&lt;filename>&gt;
              Force  index  rebuilding and dump the index to <filename>.  Cur-
              rently this only works with AVI files.
              NOTE: This option is obsolete now that MPlayer has OpenDML  sup-
              port.

       -sb <&lt;byte position>&gt; (also see -ss)
              Seek  to  byte position.  Useful for playback from CD-ROM images
              or VOB files with junk at the beginning.

       -speed <&lt;0.01-100>&gt;
              Slow down or speed up playback by the factor given as parameter.
              Not guaranteed to work correctly with -oac copy.

       -srate <&lt;Hz>&gt;
              Selects the output sample rate to be used (of course sound cards
              have limits on this).  If the sample frequency selected is  dif-
              ferent  from  that of the current media, the resample or lavcre-
              sample audio filter will be inserted into the audio filter layer
              to compensate for the difference.  The type of resampling can be
              controlled by the -af-adv option.  The default  is  fast  resam-
              pling that may cause distortion.

       -ss <&lt;time>&gt; (also see -sb)
              Seek to given time position.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ss 56
                      Seeks to 56 seconds.
                 -ss 01:10:00
                      Seeks to 1 hour 10 min.

       -tskeepbroken
              Tells  MPlayer  not  to discard TS packets reported as broken in
              the stream.  Sometimes needed to play corrupted MPEG-TS files.

       -tsprobe <&lt;byte position>&gt;
              When playing an MPEG-TS stream, this option lets you specify how
              many  bytes in the stream you want MPlayer to search for the de-
              sired audio and video IDs.

       -tsprog <&lt;1-65534>&gt;
              When playing an MPEG-TS stream, you can specify with this option
              which  program  (if present) you want to play.  Can be used with
              -vid and -aid.

       -tv <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt; (TV/PVR only)
              This option tunes various properties of the TV  capture  module.
              For watching TV with MPlayer, use 'tv://' or 'tv://<channel_num-
              ber>' or even  'tv://<channel_name>;  (see  option  channels  for
              channel_name   below)   as  a  movie  URL.   You  can  also  use
              'tv:///<input_id>;' to start watching a movie from a composite or
              S-Video input (see option input for details).

              Available options are:

                 noaudio
                      no sound

                 automute=<0-255> (v4l and v4l2 only)
                      If  signal strength reported by device is less than this
                      value, audio and video will be muted.  In most cases au-
                      tomute=100  will be enough.  Default is 0 (automute dis-
                      abled).

                 driver=<value>
                      See -tv driver=help for a list of compiled-in  TV  input
                      drivers.   available:  dummy,  v4l,  v4l2, bsdbt848 (de-
                      fault: autodetect)

                 device=<value>
                      Specify TV device (default: /dev/video0).  NOTE: For the
                      bsdbt848  driver you can provide both bktr and tuner de-
                      vice names separating them with a comma, tuner after bk-
                      tr (e.g. -tv device=/dev/bktr1,/dev/tuner1).

                 input=<value>
                      Specify  input  (default: 0 (TV), see console output for
                      available inputs).

                 freq=<value>
                      Specify  the  frequency  to  set  the  tuner  to   (e.g.
                      511.250).  Not compatible with the channels parameter.

                 outfmt=<value>
                      Specify  the  output  format  of the tuner with a preset
                      value supported by the V4L driver (yv12,  rgb32,  rgb24,
                      rgb16,  rgb15,  uyvy, yuy2, i420) or an arbitrary format
                      given as hex value.  Try outfmt=help for a list  of  all
                      available formats.

                 width=<value>
                      output window width

                 height=<value>
                      output window height

                 fps=<value>
                      framerate at which to capture video (frames per second)

                 buffersize=<value>
                      maximum  size  of  the  capture buffer in megabytes (de-
                      fault: dynamical)

                 norm=<value>
                      For bsdbt848 and v4l, PAL, SECAM,  NTSC  are  available.
                      For  v4l2,  see  the  console  output  for a list of all
                      available norms, also see the normid option below.

                 normid=<value> (v4l2 only)
                      Sets the TV norm to the given numeric ID.  The  TV  norm
                      depends on the capture card.  See the console output for
                      a list of available TV norms.

                 channel=<value>
                      Set tuner to <value> channel.

                 chanlist=<value>
                      available: europe-east, europe-west, us-bcast, us-cable,
                      etc

                 channels=<channel>-<name>,<channel>-<name>,...
                      Set  names for channels.  NOTE: If <channel> is an inte-
                      ger greater than 1000, it will be treated  as  frequency
                      (in kHz) rather than channel name from frequency table.
                      Use  _  for  spaces  in names (or play with quoting ;-).
                      The channel names will then be written  using  OSD,  and
                      the  slave  commands tv_step_channel, tv_set_channel and
                      tv_last_channel will be usable for a remote control (see
                      LIRC).  Not compatible with the frequency parameter.
                      NOTE:  The  channel  number will then be the position in
                      the 'channels' list, beginning with 1.
                      EXAMPLE:    tv://1,    tv://TV1,    tv_set_channel    1,
                      tv_set_channel TV1

                 [brightness|contrast|hue|saturation]=<-100-100>
                      Set the image equalizer on the card.

                 audiorate=<value>
                      Set audio capture bitrate.

                 forceaudio
                      Capture audio even if there are no audio sources report-
                      ed by v4l.

                 alsa
                      Capture from ALSA.

                 amode=<0-3>
                      Choose an audio mode:
                         0: mono
                         1: stereo
                         2: language 1
                         3: language 2

                 forcechan=<1-2>
                      By default, the count of recorded audio channels is  de-
                      termined  automatically  by querying the audio mode from
                      the TV card.  This  option  allows  forcing  stereo/mono
                      recording  regardless of the amode option and the values
                      returned by v4l.  This can be used  for  troubleshooting
                      when  the  TV card is unable to report the current audio
                      mode.

                 adevice=<value>
                      Set an audio device.  <value> should be /dev/xxx for OSS
                      and a hardware ID for ALSA.  You must replace any ':' by
                      a '.' in the hardware ID for ALSA.

                 audioid=<value>
                      Choose an audio output of the capture card,  if  it  has
                      more than one.

                 [volume|bass|treble|balance]=<0-65535> (v4l1)

                 [volume|bass|treble|balance]=<0-100> (v4l2)
                      These  options  set parameters of the mixer on the video
                      capture card.  They will have no effect,  if  your  card
                      does not have one.  For v4l2 50 maps to the default val-
                      ue of the control, as reported by the driver.

                 gain=<0-100> (v4l2)
                      Set gain control for video devices (usually webcams)  to
                      the  desired  value and switch off automatic control.  A
                      value of 0 enables automatic control.  If this option is
                      omitted, gain control will not be modified.

                 immediatemode=<bool>
                      A  value  of  0 means capture and buffer audio and video
                      together (default for MEncoder).  A value of 1  (default
                      for  MPlayer) means to do video capture only and let the
                      audio go through a loopback cable from the  TV  card  to
                      the sound card.

                 mjpeg
                      Use  hardware  MJPEG  compression  (if the card supports
                      it).  When using this option, you do not need to specify
                      the  width  and  height  of  the  output window, because
                      MPlayer will determine it automatically from the decima-
                      tion value (see below).

                 decimation=<1|2|4>
                      choose  the  size of the picture that will be compressed
                      by hardware MJPEG compression:
                         1: full size
                             704x576    PAL
                             704x480    NTSC
                         2: medium size
                             352x288    PAL
                             352x240    NTSC
                         4: small size
                             176x144    PAL
                             176x120    NTSC

                 quality=<0-100>
                      Choose the quality of the JPEG compression (< 60  recom-
                      mended for full size).

                 tdevice=<value>
                      Specify  TV  teletext  device  (example: /dev/vbi0) (de-
                      fault: none).

                 tformat=<format>
                      Specify TV teletext display format (default: 0):
                         0: opaque
                         1: transparent
                         2: opaque with inverted colors
                         3: transparent with inverted colors

                 tpage=<100-899>
                      Specify initial TV teletext page number (default: 100).

                 tlang=<-1-127>
                      Specify default teletext  language  code  (default:  0),
                      which  will  be used as primary language until a type 28
                      packet is received.  Useful when the teletext system us-
                      es a non-latin character set, but language codes are not
                      transmitted via teletext type 28 packets for  some  rea-
                      son.  To see a list of supported language codes set this
                      option to -1.

       -tvscan <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt; (TV and MPlayer only)
              Tune the TV channel scanner.  MPlayer will also print value  for
              "-tv  channels=" option, including existing and just found chan-
              nels.

              Available suboptions are:

                 autostart
                      Begin channel scanning immediately  after  startup  (de-
                      fault: disabled).

                 period=<0.1-2.0>
                      Specify  delay in seconds before switching to next chan-
                      nel (default: 0.5).   Lower  values  will  cause  faster
                      scanning, but can detect inactive TV channels as active.

                 threshold=<1-100>
                      Threshold value for the signal strength (in percent), as
                      reported by the device (default: 50).  A signal strength
                      higher  than this value will indicate that the currently
                      scanning channel is active.

       -user <&lt;username>&gt; (also see -passwd) (network only)
              Specify username for HTTP authentication.

       -user-agent <&lt;string>&gt;
              Use <string> as user agent for HTTP streaming.

       -vid <&lt;ID>&gt;
              Select video channel (MPG: 0-15, ASF: 0-255, MPEG-TS:  17-8190).
              When  playing  an  MPEG-TS stream, MPlayer/MEncoder will use the
              first program (if present) with the chosen video stream.

       -vivo <&lt;suboption>&gt; (DEBUG CODE)
              Force audio parameters for the VIVO demuxer (for debugging  pur-
              poses).  FIXME: Document this.

OSD/SUBTITLE OPTIONS
       NOTE: Also see -vf expand.

       -ass (FreeType only)
              Turn  on  SSA/ASS  subtitle rendering.  With this option, libass
              will be used for SSA/ASS external subtitles and Matroska tracks.
              You may also want to use -embeddedfonts.

       -ass-border-color <&lt;value>&gt;
              Sets  the  border (outline) color for text subtitles.  The color
              format is RRGGBBAA.

       -ass-bottom-margin <&lt;value>&gt;
              Adds a black band at the bottom of the frame.  The SSA/ASS  ren-
              derer can place subtitles there (with -ass-use-margins).

       -ass-color <&lt;value>&gt;
              Sets  the  color for text subtitles.  The color format is RRGGB-
              BAA.

       -ass-font-scale <&lt;value>&gt;
              Set the scale coefficient to be used for fonts  in  the  SSA/ASS
              renderer.

       -ass-force-style <&lt;[Style.]Param=Value[,...]>&gt;
              Override some style parameters.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ass-force-style FontName=Arial,Default.Bold=1

       -ass-hinting <&lt;type>&gt;
              Set hinting type.
                 <type>
                      0: No hinting.
                      1: FreeType autohinter, light mode.
                      2: FreeType autohinter, normal mode.
                      3: Font native hinter.
                      0-3 + 4: The same, but hinting will only be performed if
                      OSD is rendered at  screen  resolution  and,  therefore,
                      will not be scaled.
                      The  default  value is 7 (use native hinter for unscaled
                      OSD and no hinting otherwise).

       -ass-line-spacing <&lt;value>&gt;
              Set line spacing value for SSA/ASS renderer.

       -ass-styles <&lt;filename>&gt;
              Load all SSA/ASS styles found in the specified file and use them
              for rendering text subtitles.  The syntax of the file is exactly
              like the [V4 Styles] / [V4+ Styles] section of SSA/ASS.

       -ass-top-margin <&lt;value>&gt;
              Adds a black band at the top of the frame.  The SSA/ASS renderer
              can place toptitles there (with -ass-use-margins).

       -ass-use-margins
              Enables  placing  toptitles  and subtitles in black borders when
              they are available.

       -dumpjacosub (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub  option)  to
              the  time-based  JACOsub  subtitle format.  Creates a dumpsub.js
              file in the current directory.

       -dumpmicrodvdsub (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub  option)  to
              the MicroDVD subtitle format.  Creates a dumpsub.sub file in the
              current directory.

       -dumpmpsub (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub  option)  to
              MPlayer's  subtitle format, MPsub.  Creates a dump.mpsub file in
              the current directory.

       -dumpsami (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub  option)  to
              the time-based SAMI subtitle format.  Creates a dumpsub.smi file
              in the current directory.

       -dumpsrtsub (MPlayer only)
              Convert the given subtitle (specified with the -sub  option)  to
              the time-based SubViewer (SRT) subtitle format.  Creates a dump-
              sub.srt file in the current directory.
              NOTE: Some broken hardware players choke on SRT  subtitle  files
              with  Unix line endings.  If you are unlucky enough to have such
              a box, pass your subtitle files through unix2dos  or  a  similar
              program  to replace Unix line endings with DOS/Windows line end-
              ings.

       -dumpsub (MPlayer only) (BETA CODE)
              Dumps the subtitle substream from VOB  streams.   Also  see  the
              -dump*sub and -vobsubout* options.

       -embeddedfonts (FreeType only)
              Enables  extraction  of  Matroska  embedded fonts (default: dis-
              abled).  These fonts can be used for SSA/ASS subtitle  rendering
              (-ass  option).   Font files are created in the ~/.mplayer/fonts
              directory.
              NOTE: With FontConfig 2.4.2 or newer, embedded fonts are  opened
              directly from memory, and this option is enabled by default.

       -ffactor <&lt;number>&gt;
              Resample the font alphamap.  Can be:
                 0    plain white fonts
                 0.75 very narrow black outline (default)
                 1    narrow black outline
                 10   bold black outline

       -flip-hebrew (FriBiDi only)
              Turns on flipping subtitles using FriBiDi.

       -noflip-hebrew-commas
              Change  FriBiDi's  assumptions about the placements of commas in
              subtitles.  Use this if commas in subtitles  are  shown  at  the
              start of a sentence instead of at the end.

       -font <&lt;path to font.desc file>&gt;
              Search  for  the  OSD/SUB fonts in an alternative directory (de-
              fault for normal fonts: ~/.mplayer/font/font.desc,  default  for
              FreeType fonts: ~/.mplayer/subfont.ttf).
              NOTE: With FreeType, this option determines the path to the text
              font file.  With fontconfig, this option determines the fontcon-
              fig font name.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -font ~/.mplayer/arial-14/font.desc
                 -font ~/.mplayer/arialuni.ttf
                 -font 'Bitstream Vera Sans'

       -fontconfig (fontconfig only)
              Enables the usage of fontconfig managed fonts.

       -forcedsubsonly
              Display  only  forced  subtitles for the DVD subtitle stream se-
              lected by e.g. -slang.

       -fribidi-charset <&lt;charset name>&gt; (FriBiDi only)
              Specifies the character set that will be passed to FriBiDi  when
              decoding non-UTF-8 subtitles (default: ISO8859-8).

       -ifo <&lt;VOBsub IFO file>&gt;
              Indicate  the  file  that will be used to load palette and frame
              size for VOBsub subtitles.

       -noautosub
              Turns off automatic subtitle file loading.

       -osd-duration <&lt;time>&gt;
              Set the duration of the OSD messages in ms (default: 1000).

       -osdlevel <&lt;0-3>&gt; (MPlayer only)
              Specifies which mode the OSD should start in.
                 0    subtitles only
                 1    volume + seek (default)
                 2    volume + seek + timer + percentage
                 3    volume + seek + timer + percentage + total time

       -overlapsub
              Allows the next subtitle to be displayed while the  current  one
              is still visible (default is to enable the support only for spe-
              cific formats).

       -sid <&lt;ID>&gt; (also see -slang, -vobsubid)
              Display the subtitle stream specified by <ID>  (0-31).   MPlayer
              prints the available subtitle IDs when run in verbose (-v) mode.
              If you cannot select one of the subtitles on  a  DVD,  also  try
              -vobsubid.

       -slang <&lt;language code[,language code,...]>&gt; (also see -sid)
              Specify a priority list of subtitle languages to use.  Different
              container formats employ different language codes.  DVDs use ISO
              639-1  two  letter language codes, Matroska uses ISO 639-2 three
              letter language codes while OGM  uses  a  free-form  identifier.
              MPlayer  prints the available languages when run in verbose (-v)
              mode.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer dvd://1 -slang hu,en
                      Chooses the Hungarian subtitle track on a DVD and  falls
                      back on English if Hungarian is not available.
                 mplayer -slang jpn example.mkv
                      Plays a Matroska file with Japanese subtitles.

       -spuaa <&lt;mode>&gt;
              Antialiasing/scaling  mode for DVD/VOBsub.  A value of 16 may be
              added to <mode> in order to force scaling even when original and
              scaled  frame  size already match.  This can be employed to e.g.
              smooth subtitles with gaussian blur.  Available modes are:
                 0    none (fastest, very ugly)
                 1    approximate (broken?)
                 2    full (slow)
                 3    bilinear (default, fast and not too bad)
                 4    uses swscaler gaussian blur (looks very good)

       -spualign <&lt;-1-2>&gt;
              Specify how SPU (DVD/VOBsub) subtitles should be aligned.
                 -1   original position
                  0   Align at top (original behavior, default).
                  1   Align at center.
                  2   Align at bottom.

       -spugauss <&lt;0.0-3.0>&gt;
              Variance parameter of gaussian used by -spuaa 4.   Higher  means
              more blur (default: 1.0).

       -sub <&lt;subtitlefile1,subtitlefile2,...>&gt;
              Use/display  these  subtitle  files.   Only one file can be dis-
              played at the same time.

       -sub-bg-alpha <&lt;0-255>&gt;
              Specify the alpha channel value  for  subtitles  and  OSD  back-
              grounds.  Big values mean more transparency.  0 means completely
              transparent.

       -sub-bg-color <&lt;0-255>&gt;
              Specify the color value for subtitles and OSD backgrounds.  Cur-
              rently  subtitles  are  grayscale so this value is equivalent to
              the intensity of the color.  255 means white and 0 black.

       -sub-demuxer <&lt;[+]name>&gt; (-subfile only) (BETA CODE)
              Force subtitle demuxer type for -subfile.  Use a '+' before  the
              name  to force it, this will skip some checks!  Give the demuxer
              name as printed by -sub-demuxer help.  For backward compatibili-
              ty it also accepts the demuxer ID as defined in subreader.h.

       -sub-fuzziness <&lt;mode>&gt;
              Adjust matching fuzziness when searching for subtitles:
                 0    exact match
                 1    Load all subs containing movie name.
                 2    Load all subs in the current directory.

       -sub-no-text-pp
              Disables any kind of text post processing done after loading the
              subtitles.  Used for debug purposes.

       -subalign <&lt;0-2>&gt;
              Specify which edge of the subtitles should  be  aligned  at  the
              height given by -subpos.
                 0    Align subtitle top edge (original behavior).
                 1    Align subtitle center.
                 2    Align subtitle bottom edge (default).

       -subcc
              Display  DVD  Closed  Caption (CC) subtitles.  These are not the
              VOB subtitles, these are special ASCII subtitles for the hearing
              impaired  encoded  in  the  VOB userdata stream on most region 1
              DVDs.  CC subtitles have not been spotted on DVDs from other re-
              gions so far.

       -subcp <&lt;codepage>&gt; (iconv only)
              If  your  system  supports  iconv(3), you can use this option to
              specify the subtitle codepage.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -subcp latin2
                 -subcp cp1250

       -subcp enca:<&lt;language>&gt;:<&lt;fallback codepage>&gt; (ENCA only)
              You can specify your language using a two letter  language  code
              to  make ENCA detect the codepage automatically.  If unsure, en-
              ter anything and watch mplayer  -v  output  for  available  lan-
              guages.   Fallback  codepage specifies the codepage to use, when
              autodetection fails.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -subcp enca:cs:latin2
                      Guess the encoding, assuming the  subtitles  are  Czech,
                      fall back on latin 2, if the detection fails.
                 -subcp enca:pl:cp1250
                      Guess the encoding for Polish, fall back on cp1250.

       -subdelay <&lt;sec>&gt;
              Delays subtitles by <sec> seconds.  Can be negative.

       -subfile <&lt;filename>&gt; (BETA CODE)
              Currently useless.  Same as -audiofile, but for subtitle streams
              (OggDS?).

       -subfont <&lt;filename>&gt; (FreeType only)
              Sets the subtitle font.  If no -subfont is given, -font is used.

       -subfont-autoscale <&lt;0-3>&gt; (FreeType only)
              Sets the autoscale mode.
              NOTE: 0 means that text scale and OSD scale are font heights  in
              points.

              The mode can be:

                 0    no autoscale
                 1    proportional to movie height
                 2    proportional to movie width
                 3    proportional to movie diagonal (default)

       -subfont-blur <&lt;0-8>&gt; (FreeType only)
              Sets the font blur radius (default: 2).

       -subfont-encoding <&lt;value>&gt; (FreeType only)
              Sets  the  font encoding.  When set to 'unicode', all the glyphs
              from the font file will be rendered and  unicode  will  be  used
              (default: unicode).

       -subfont-osd-scale <&lt;0-100>&gt; (FreeType only)
              Sets the autoscale coefficient of the OSD elements (default: 6).

       -subfont-outline <&lt;0-8>&gt; (FreeType only)
              Sets the font outline thickness (default: 2).

       -subfont-text-scale <&lt;0-100>&gt; (FreeType only)
              Sets  the  subtitle  text autoscale coefficient as percentage of
              the screen size (default: 5).

       -subfps <&lt;rate>&gt;
              Specify the framerate of the subtitle file (default: movie fps).
              NOTE: <rate> > movie fps speeds the subtitles up for frame-based
              subtitle files and slows them down for time-based ones.

       -subpos <&lt;0-100>&gt; (useful with -vf expand)
              Specify  the  position of subtitles on the screen.  The value is
              the vertical position of the subtitle in % of the screen height.

       -subwidth <&lt;10-100>&gt;
              Specify the maximum width of subtitles on  the  screen.   Useful
              for  TV-out.  The value is the width of the subtitle in % of the
              screen width.

       -noterm-osd
              Disable the display of OSD messages on the console when no video
              output is available.

       -term-osd-esc <&lt;escape sequence>&gt;
              Specify the escape sequence to use before writing an OSD message
              on the console.  The escape sequence should move the pointer  to
              the  beginning  of  the  line used for the OSD and clear it (de-
              fault: ^[[A\r^[[K).

       -unicode
              Tells MPlayer to handle the subtitle file as unicode.

       -utf8
              Tells MPlayer to handle the subtitle file as UTF-8.

       -vobsub <&lt;VOBsub file without extension>&gt;
              Specify a VOBsub file to use for subtitles.  Has to be the  full
              pathname  without  extension, i.e. without the '.idx', '.ifo' or
              '.sub'.

       -vobsubid <&lt;0-31>&gt;
              Specify the VOBsub subtitle ID.

AUDIO OUTPUT OPTIONS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       -abs <&lt;value>&gt; (-ao oss only) (OBSOLETE)
              Override audio driver/card buffer size detection.

       -format <&lt;format>&gt; (also see the format audio filter)
              Select the sample format used for output from the  audio  filter
              layer to the sound card.  The values that <format> can adopt are
              listed below in the description of the format audio filter.

       -mixer <&lt;device>&gt;
              Use a mixer device different from the default  /dev/mixer.   For
              ALSA this is the mixer name.

       -mixer-channel <&lt;mixer line>&gt;[,mixer index] (-ao oss and -ao alsa only)
              This  option  will  tell  MPlayer to use a different channel for
              controlling volume than the default PCM.  Options  for  OSS  in-
              clude  vol,  pcm, line.  For a complete list of options look for
              SOUND_DEVICE_NAMES in /usr/include/linux/soundcard.h.  For  ALSA
              you  can  use  the  names  e.g. alsamixer displays, like Master,
              Line, PCM.
              NOTE: ALSA mixer channel names followed  by  a  number  must  be
              specified  in  the  <name,number> format, i.e. a channel labeled
              'PCM 1' in alsamixer must be converted to PCM,1.

       -softvol
              Force the use of the software mixer, instead of using the  sound
              card mixer.

       -softvol-max <&lt;10.0-10000.0>&gt;
              Set  the  maximum amplification level in percent (default: 110).
              A value of 200 will allow you to adjust the volume up to a maxi-
              mum of double the current level.  With values below 100 the ini-
              tial volume (which is 100%) will be  above  the  maximum,  which
              e.g. the OSD cannot display correctly.

       -volstep <&lt;0-100>&gt;
              Set  the  step  size  of  mixer volume changes in percent of the
              whole range (default: 3).

AUDIO OUTPUT DRIVERS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       Audio output drivers are interfaces to different audio  output  facili-
       ties.  The syntax is:

       -ao <&lt;driver1[:suboption1[=value]:...],driver2,...[,]>&gt;
              Specify a priority list of audio output drivers to be used.

       If  the  list  has a trailing ',' MPlayer will fall back on drivers not
       contained in the list.  Suboptions are optional and can mostly be omit-
       ted.
       NOTE: See -ao help for a list of compiled-in audio output drivers.

       EXAMPLE:
                 -ao alsa,oss,
                      Try the ALSA driver, then the OSS driver, then others.
                 -ao alsa:noblock:device=hw=0.3
                      Sets  noblock-mode  and  the  device-name as first card,
                      fourth device.

       Available audio output drivers are:

       alsa
              ALSA 0.9/1.x audio output driver
                 noblock
                      Sets noblock-mode.
                 device=<device>
                      Sets the device name.  Replace any ',' with '.' and  any
                      ':'  with '=' in the ALSA device name.  For hwac3 output
                      via S/PDIF, use an "iec958" or  "spdif"  device,  unless
                      you really know how to set it correctly.

       alsa5
              ALSA 0.5 audio output driver

       oss
              OSS audio output driver
                 <dsp-device>
                      Sets the audio output device (default: /dev/dsp).
                 <mixer-device>
                      Sets the audio mixer device (default: /dev/mixer).
                 <mixer-channel>
                      Sets the audio mixer channel (default: pcm).

       sdl (SDL only)
              highly  platform  independent SDL (Simple Directmedia Layer) li-
              brary audio output driver
                 <driver>
                      Explicitly choose the SDL audio driver to use  (default:
                      let SDL choose).

       arts
              audio output through the aRts daemon

       esd
              audio output through the ESD daemon
                 <server>
                      Explicitly choose the ESD server to use (default: local-
                      host).

       jack
              audio output through JACK (Jack Audio Connection Kit)
                 port=<name>
                      Connects to the ports  with  the  given  name  (default:
                      physical ports).
                 name=<client
                      Client  name  that  is  passed to JACK (default: MPlayer
                      [<PID>]).  Useful if you want to  have  certain  connec-
                      tions established automatically.
                 (no)estimate
                      Estimate  the  audio  delay,  supposed to make the video
                      playback smoother (default: enabled).

       nas
              audio output through NAS

       macosx (Mac OS X only)
              native Mac OS X audio output driver

       openal Experimental, unfinished (will downmix  to  mono)  OpenAL  audio
              output driver

       sgi (SGI only)
              native SGI audio output driver
                 <output device name>
                      Explicitly  choose  the  output  device/interface to use
                      (default: system-wide default).   For  example,  'Analog
                      Out' or 'Digital Out'.

       sun (Sun only)
              native Sun audio output driver
                 <device>
                      Explicitly  choose  the  audio  device  to use (default:
                      /dev/audio).

       win32 (Windows only)
              native Windows waveout audio output driver

       dsound (Windows only)
              DirectX DirectSound audio output driver
                 device=<devicenum>
                      Sets the device number to use.  Playing a file  with  -v
                      will show a list of available devices.

       dxr2 (also see -dxr2) (DXR2 only)
              Creative DXR2 specific output driver

       ivtv (IVTV only)
              IVTV  specific  MPEG  audio output driver.  Works with -ac hwmpa
              only.

       v4l2 (requires Linux 2.6.22+ kernel)
              Audio output driver for V4L2 cards with hardware MPEG decoder.

       mpegpes (DVB only)
              Audio output driver for DVB cards that writes the output  to  an
              MPEG-PES file if no DVB card is installed.
                 card=<1-4>
                      DVB card to use if more than one card is present.
                 file=<filename>
                      output filename

       null
              Produces  no  audio  output  but maintains video playback speed.
              Use -nosound for benchmarking.

       pcm
              raw PCM/wave file writer audio output
                 (no)waveheader
                      Include or do not include the wave header (default:  in-
                      cluded).  When not included, raw PCM will be generated.
                 file=<filename>
                      Write the sound to <filename> instead of the default au-
                      diodump.wav.  If nowaveheader is specified, the  default
                      is audiodump.pcm.
                 fast
                      Try  to dump faster than realtime.  Make sure the output
                      does not get truncated (usually  with  "Too  many  video
                      packets  in buffer" message).  It is normal that you get
                      a "Your system is too SLOW to play this!" message.

       plugin
              plugin audio output driver

VIDEO OUTPUT OPTIONS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       -adapter <&lt;value>&gt;
              Set the graphics card that will receive the image.  You can  get
              a  list  of  available  cards  when you run this option with -v.
              Currently only works with the directx video output driver.

       -bpp <&lt;depth>&gt;
              Override the autodetected color depth.  Only  supported  by  the
              fbdev, dga, svga, vesa video output drivers.

       -border
              Play movie with window border and decorations.  Since this is on
              by default, use -noborder to disable the standard window decora-
              tions.  Supported by the directx video output driver.

       -brightness <&lt;-100-100>&gt;
              Adjust  the  brightness  of  the video signal (default: 0).  Not
              supported by all video output drivers.

       -contrast <&lt;-100-100>&gt;
              Adjust the contrast of the video signal (default: 0).  Not  sup-
              ported by all video output drivers.

       -display <&lt;name>&gt; (X11 only)
              Specify the hostname and display number of the X server you want
              to display on.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -display xtest.localdomain:0

       -dr
              Turns on direct rendering (not supported by all codecs and video
              outputs)
              WARNING: May cause OSD/SUB corruption!

       -dxr2 <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt;
              This option is used to control the dxr2 video output driver.

                 ar-mode=<value>
                      aspect  ratio  mode  (0  = normal, 1 = pan-and-scan, 2 =
                      letterbox (default))

                 iec958-encoded
                      Set iec958 output mode to encoded.

                 iec958-decoded
                      Set iec958 output mode to decoded (default).

                 macrovision=<value>
                      macrovision mode (0 = off (default), 1 = agc, 2 = agc  2
                      colorstripe, 3 = agc 4 colorstripe)

                 mute
                      mute sound output

                 unmute
                      unmute sound output

                 ucode=<value>
                      path to the microcode

              TV output

                 75ire
                      enable 7.5 IRE output mode

                 no75ire
                      disable 7.5 IRE output mode (default)

                 bw
                      b/w TV output

                 color
                      color TV output (default)

                 interlaced
                      interlaced TV output (default)

                 nointerlaced
                      disable interlaced TV output

                 norm=<value>
                      TV norm (ntsc (default), pal, pal60, palm, paln, palnc)

                 square-pixel
                      set pixel mode to square

                 ccir601-pixel
                      set pixel mode to ccir601

              overlay

                 cr-left=<0-500>
                      Set the left cropping value (default: 50).

                 cr-right=<0-500>
                      Set the right cropping value (default: 300).

                 cr-top=<0-500>
                      Set the top cropping value (default: 0).

                 cr-bottom=<0-500>
                      Set the bottom cropping value (default: 0).

                 ck-[r|g|b]=<0-255>
                      Set  the  r(ed),  g(reen)  or b(lue) gain of the overlay
                      color-key.

                 ck-[r|g|b]min=<0-255>
                      minimum value for the respective color key

                 ck-[r|g|b]max=<0-255>
                      maximum value for the respective color key

                 ignore-cache
                      Ignore cached overlay settings.

                 update-cache
                      Update cached overlay settings.

                 ol-osd
                      Enable overlay onscreen display.

                 nool-osd
                      Disable overlay onscreen display (default).

                 ol[h|w|x|y]-cor=<-20-20>
                      Adjust the overlay size (h,w) and position (x,y) in case
                      it does not match the window perfectly (default: 0).

                 overlay
                      Activate overlay (default).

                 nooverlay
                      Activate TVout.

                 overlay-ratio=<1-2500>
                      Tune the overlay (default: 1000).

       -fbmode <&lt;modename>&gt; (-vo fbdev only)
              Change  video  mode  to the one that is labeled as <modename> in
              /etc/fb.modes.
              NOTE: VESA framebuffer does not support mode changing.

       -fbmodeconfig <&lt;filename>&gt; (-vo fbdev only)
              Override framebuffer mode  configuration  file  (default:  /etc/
              fb.modes).

       -fs (also see -zoom)
              Fullscreen  playback  (centers  movie,  and  paints  black bands
              around it).  Not supported by all video output drivers.

       -fsmode-dontuse <&lt;0-31>&gt; (OBSOLETE, use the -fs option)
              Try this option if you still experience fullscreen problems.

       -fstype <&lt;type1,type2,...>&gt; (X11 only)
              Specify a priority list of fullscreen modes to be used.  You can
              negate  the modes by prefixing them with '-'.  If you experience
              problems like the fullscreen window being covered by other  win-
              dows try using a different order.
              NOTE: See -fstype help for a full list of available modes.

              The available types are:

                 above
                      Use the _NETWM_STATE_ABOVE hint if available.
                 below
                      Use the _NETWM_STATE_BELOW hint if available.
                 fullscreen
                      Use the _NETWM_STATE_FULLSCREEN hint if available.
                 layer
                      Use the _WIN_LAYER hint with the default layer.
                 layer=<0...15>
                      Use the _WIN_LAYER hint with the given layer number.
                 netwm
                      Force NETWM style.
                 none
                      Do not set fullscreen window layer.
                 stays_on_top
                      Use _NETWM_STATE_STAYS_ON_TOP hint if available.

              EXAMPLE:
                 layer,stays_on_top,above,fullscreen
                      Default  order,  will be used as a fallback if incorrect
                      or unsupported modes are specified.
                 -fullscreen
                      Fixes fullscreen switching on OpenBox 1.x.

       -geometry x[%][:y[%]] or [WxH][+x+y]
              Adjust where the output is on the screen initially.  The x and y
              specifications  are  in pixels measured from the top-left of the
              screen to the top-left of the image being displayed, however  if
              a percentage sign is given after the argument it turns the value
              into a percentage of the screen size in that direction.  It also
              supports the standard X11 -geometry option format.  If an exter-
              nal window is specified using the -wid option, then the x and  y
              coordinates  are  relative  to the top-left corner of the window
              rather than the screen.
              NOTE: This option is only supported by the x11, xmga, xv,  xvmc,
              xvidix, gl, gl2, directx and tdfxfb video output drivers.

              EXAMPLE:
                 50:40
                      Places the window at x=50, y=40.
                 50%:50%
                      Places the window in the middle of the screen.
                 100%
                      Places the window at the middle of the right edge of the
                      screen.
                 100%:100%
                      Places the window at the  bottom  right  corner  of  the
                      screen.

       -guiwid <&lt;window ID>&gt; (also see -wid) (GUI only)
              This tells the GUI to also use an X11 window and stick itself to
              the bottom of the video, which is useful to embed a mini-GUI  in
              a browser (with the MPlayer plugin for instance).

       -hue <&lt;-100-100>&gt;
              Adjust  the hue of the video signal (default: 0).  You can get a
              colored negative of the image with this option.   Not  supported
              by all video output drivers.

       -monitor-dotclock <&lt;range[,range,...]>&gt; (-vo fbdev and vesa only)
              Specify the dotclock or pixelclock range of the monitor.

       -monitor-hfreq <&lt;range[,range,...]>&gt; (-vo fbdev and vesa only)
              Specify the horizontal frequency range of the monitor.

       -monitor-vfreq <&lt;range[,range,...]>&gt; (-vo fbdev and vesa only)
              Specify the vertical frequency range of the monitor.

       -monitoraspect <&lt;ratio>&gt; (also see -aspect)
              Set the aspect ratio of your monitor or TV screen.  A value of 0
              disables a previous setting (e.g. in the  config  file).   Over-
              rides the -monitorpixelaspect setting if enabled.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -monitoraspect 4:3  or 1.3333
                 -monitoraspect 16:9 or 1.7777

       -monitorpixelaspect <&lt;ratio>&gt; (also see -aspect)
              Set  the  aspect  of a single pixel of your monitor or TV screen
              (default: 1).  A value of 1 means  square  pixels  (correct  for
              (almost?) all LCDs).

       -nodouble
              Disables  double buffering, mostly for debugging purposes.  Dou-
              ble buffering fixes flicker by storing two frames in memory, and
              displaying  one while decoding another.  It can affect OSD nega-
              tively, but often removes OSD flickering.

       -nograbpointer
              Do not grab the mouse pointer after a video mode  change  (-vm).
              Useful for multihead setups.

       -nokeepaspect
              Do  not  keep  window  aspect ratio when resizing windows.  Only
              works with the x11, xv, xmga, xvidix, directx video output driv-
              ers.   Furthermore  under  X11  your window manager has to honor
              window aspect hints.

       -ontop
              Makes the player window stay on top of other windows.  Supported
              by  video  output  drivers which use X11, except SDL, as well as
              directx, macosx, quartz, ggi and gl2.

       -panscan <&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt;
              Enables pan-and-scan functionality (cropping the sides of e.g. a
              16:9  movie  to  make it fit a 4:3 display without black bands).
              The range controls how much of the image is cropped.  Only works
              with the xv, xmga, mga, gl, gl2, quartz, macosx and xvidix video
              output drivers.
              NOTE: Values between -1 and 0 are allowed as  well,  but  highly
              experimental and may crash or worse.  Use at your own risk!

       -panscanrange <&lt;-19.0-99.0>&gt; (experimental)
              Change the range of the pan-and-scan functionality (default: 1).
              Positive values mean multiples of the default  range.   Negative
              numbers  mean you can zoom in up to a factor of -panscanrange+1.
              E.g. -panscanrange -3 allows a zoom factor of  up  to  4.   This
              feature  is experimental.  Do not report bugs unless you are us-
              ing -vo gl.

       -refreshrate <&lt;Hz>&gt;
              Set the monitor refreshrate in Hz.  Currently only supported  by
              -vo directx combined with the -vm option.

       -rootwin
              Play  movie  in  the  root window (desktop background).  Desktop
              background images may cover  the  movie  window,  though.   Only
              works with the x11, xv, xmga, xvidix, quartz, macosx and directx
              video output drivers.

       -saturation <&lt;-100-100>&gt;
              Adjust the saturation of the video signal (default: 0).  You can
              get  grayscale  output  with  this option.  Not supported by all
              video output drivers.

       -screenh <&lt;pixels>&gt;
              Specify the vertical screen resolution for video output  drivers
              which  do  not  know  the  screen resolution like fbdev, x11 and
              TVout.

       -screenw <&lt;pixels>&gt;
              Specify the horizontal screen resolution for video output  driv-
              ers  which do not know the screen resolution like fbdev, x11 and
              TVout.

       -stop-xscreensaver (X11 only)
              Turns off xscreensaver at startup and turns it on again on exit.

       -vm
              Try to change to a different video mode.  Supported by the  dga,
              x11, xv, sdl and directx video output drivers.  If used with the
              directx video output driver the  -screenw,  -screenh,  -bpp  and
              -refreshrate options can be used to set the new display mode.

       -vsync
              Enables VBI for the vesa, dfbmga and svga video output drivers.

       -wid <&lt;window ID>&gt; (also see -guiwid) (X11, OpenGL and DirectX only)
              This  tells  MPlayer to attach to an existing window.  Useful to
              embed MPlayer in a browser (e.g. the plugger extension).

       -xineramascreen <&lt;-2-...>&gt; (X11 only)
              In Xinerama configurations (i.e. a  single  desktop  that  spans
              across multiple displays) this option tells MPlayer which screen
              to display the movie on.  A value of -2 means fullscreen  across
              the  whole virtual display (in this case Xinerama information is
              completely ignored), -1 means fullscreen on the display the win-
              dow currently is on.  The initial position set via the -geometry
              option is relative to the specified screen.  Will  usually  only
              work with "-fstype -fullscreen" or "-fstype none".

       -zrbw (-vo zr only)
              Display  in  black and white.  For optimal performance, this can
              be combined with '-lavdopts gray'.

       -zrcrop <&lt;[width]x[height]+[x offset]+[y offset]>&gt; (-vo zr only)
              Select a part of the input image  to  display,  multiple  occur-
              rences of this option switch on cinerama mode.  In cinerama mode
              the movie is distributed over more than one TV  (or  beamer)  to
              create a larger image.  Options appearing after the n-th -zrcrop
              apply to the n-th MJPEG card, each card should at least  have  a
              -zrdev in addition to the -zrcrop.  For examples, see the output
              of -zrhelp and the Zr section of the documentation.

       -zrdev <&lt;device>&gt; (-vo zr only)
              Specify the device special file that belongs to your MJPEG card,
              by default the zr video output driver takes the first v4l device
              it can find.

       -zrfd (-vo zr only)
              Force  decimation:  Decimation,  as  specified  by  -zrhdec  and
              -zrvdec, only happens if the hardware scaler can stretch the im-
              age to its original size.  Use this option to force decimation.

       -zrhdec <&lt;1|2|4>&gt; (-vo zr only)
              Horizontal decimation: Ask the driver to send only every 2nd  or
              4th  line/pixel of the input image to the MJPEG card and use the
              scaler of the MJPEG card to stretch the image  to  its  original
              size.

       -zrhelp (-vo zr only)
              Display  a  list of all -zr* options, their default values and a
              cinerama mode example.

       -zrnorm <&lt;norm>&gt; (-vo zr only)
              Specify the TV norm as PAL or NTSC (default: no change).

       -zrquality <&lt;1-20>&gt; (-vo zr only)
              A number from 1 (best) to 20 (worst) representing the  JPEG  en-
              coding quality.

       -zrvdec <&lt;1|2|4>&gt; (-vo zr only)
              Vertical  decimation:  Ask  the driver to send only every 2nd or
              4th line/pixel of the input image to the MJPEG card and use  the
              scaler  of  the  MJPEG card to stretch the image to its original
              size.

       -zrxdoff <&lt;x display offset>&gt; (-vo zr only)
              If the movie is smaller than the TV screen, this  option  speci-
              fies  the  x  offset from the upper-left corner of the TV screen
              (default: centered).

       -zrydoff <&lt;y display offset>&gt; (-vo zr only)
              If the movie is smaller than the TV screen, this  option  speci-
              fies  the  y  offset from the upper-left corner of the TV screen
              (default: centered).

VIDEO OUTPUT DRIVERS (MPLAYER ONLY)
       Video output drivers are interfaces to different video  output  facili-
       ties.  The syntax is:

       -vo <&lt;driver1[:suboption1[=value]:...],driver2,...[,]>&gt;
              Specify a priority list of video output drivers to be used.

       If  the  list  has a trailing ',' MPlayer will fall back on drivers not
       contained in the list.  Suboptions are optional and can mostly be omit-
       ted.
       NOTE: See -vo help for a list of compiled-in video output drivers.

       EXAMPLE:
                 -vo xmga,xv,
                      Try the Matrox X11 driver, then the Xv driver, then oth-
                      ers.
                 -vo directx:noaccel
                      Uses  the  DirectX  driver  with  acceleration  features
                      turned off.

       Available video output drivers are:

       xv (X11 only)
              Uses  the XVideo extension of XFree86 4.x to enable hardware ac-
              celerated playback.  If you cannot use a hardware specific driv-
              er,  this  is  probably  the best option.  For information about
              what colorkey is used and how it is drawn run  MPlayer  with  -v
              option and look out for the lines tagged with [xv common] at the
              beginning.
                 port=<number>
                      Select a specific XVideo port.
                 ck=<cur|use|set>
                      Select the source from which the colorkey is taken  (de-
                      fault: cur).
                         cur  The  default takes the colorkey currently set in
                              Xv.
                         use  Use but do not set  the  colorkey  from  MPlayer
                              (use -colorkey option to change it).
                         set  Same as use but also sets the supplied colorkey.
                 ck-method=<man|bg|auto>
                      Sets the colorkey drawing method (default: man).
                         man  Draw  the  colorkey manually (reduces flicker in
                              some cases).
                         bg   Set the colorkey as window background.
                         auto Let Xv draw the colorkey.

       x11 (X11 only)
              Shared memory video output driver without hardware  acceleration
              that works whenever X11 is present.

       xover (X11 only)
              Adds  X11  support  to  all  overlay based video output drivers.
              Currently only supported by tdfx_vid.
                 <vo_driver>
                      Select the driver to use as source to overlay on top  of
                      X11.

       xvmc (X11 with -vc ffmpeg12mc only)
              Video output driver that uses the XvMC (X Video Motion Compensa-
              tion) extension of XFree86 4.x to speed up MPEG-1/2 and VCR2 de-
              coding.
                 port=<number>
                      Select a specific XVideo port.
                 (no)benchmark
                      Disables image display.  Necessary for proper benchmark-
                      ing of drivers that change image buffers on monitor  re-
                      trace  only  (nVidia).   Default is not to disable image
                      display (nobenchmark).
                 (no)bobdeint
                      Very simple deinterlacer.  Might not  look  better  than
                      -vf  tfields=1, but it is the only deinterlacer for xvmc
                      (default: nobobdeint).
                 (no)queue
                      Queue frames for display to allow more parallel work  of
                      the  video  hardware.   May add a small (not noticeable)
                      constant A/V desync (default: noqueue).
                 (no)sleep
                      Use sleep function while waiting for rendering to finish
                      (not recommended on Linux) (default: nosleep).
                 ck=cur|use|set
                      Same as -vo xv:ck (see -vo xv).
                 ck-method=man|bg|auto
                      Same as -vo xv:ck-method (see -vo xv).

       dga (X11 only)
              Play video through the XFree86 Direct Graphics Access extension.
              Considered obsolete.

       sdl (SDL only)
              Highly platform independent SDL (Simple Directmedia  Layer)  li-
              brary  video  output  driver.  Since SDL uses its own X11 layer,
              MPlayer X11 options do not have any effect on SDL.
                 driver=<driver>
                      Explicitly choose the SDL driver to use.
                 (no)forcexv
                      Use XVideo through the sdl video output driver (default:
                      forcexv).
                 (no)hwaccel
                      Use hardware accelerated scaler (default: hwaccel).

       vidix
              VIDIX  (VIDeo  Interface  for *niX) is an interface to the video
              acceleration features of different graphics  cards.   Very  fast
              video output driver on cards that support it.
                 <subdevice>
                      Explicitly  choose  the  VIDIX  subdevice driver to use.
                      Available  subdevice  drivers  are  cyberblade,  mach64,
                      mga_crtc2,  mga,  nvidia,  pm2,  pm3,  radeon,  rage128,
                      sis_vid and unichrome.

       xvidix (X11 only)
              X11 frontend for VIDIX
                 <subdevice>
                      same as vidix

       cvidix
              Generic and platform independent VIDIX frontend, can even run in
              a text console with nVidia cards.
                 <subdevice>
                      same as vidix

       winvidix (Windows only)
              Windows frontend for VIDIX
                 <subdevice>
                      same as vidix

       directx (Windows only)
              Video output driver that uses the DirectX interface.
                 noaccel
                      Turns off hardware acceleration.  Try this option if you
                      have display problems.

       quartz (Mac OS X only)
              Mac OS X Quartz video output driver.  Under some  circumstances,
              it  might be more efficient to force a packed YUV output format,
              with e.g. -vf format=yuy2.
                 device_id=<number>
                      Choose the display device to use in fullscreen.
                 fs_res=<width>:<height>
                      Specify the fullscreen resolution (useful on  slow  sys-
                      tems).

       macosx (Mac OS X 10.4 or 10.3.9 with QuickTime 7)
              Mac OS X CoreVideo video output driver
                 device_id=<number>
                      Choose the display device to use in fullscreen.

       fbdev (Linux only)
              Uses the kernel framebuffer to play video.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly  choose  the  fbdev  device name to use (e.g.
                      /dev/fb0) or the name of the VIDIX subdevice if the  de-
                      vice  name  starts with 'vidix' (e.g. 'vidixsis_vid' for
                      the sis driver).

       fbdev2 (Linux only)
              Uses the kernel framebuffer to play video, alternative implemen-
              tation.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the fbdev device name to use (default:
                      /dev/fb0).

       vesa
              Very general video output driver that should work  on  any  VESA
              VBE 2.0 compatible card.
                 (no)dga
                      Turns DGA mode on or off (default: on).
                 neotv_pal
                      Activate the NeoMagic TV out and set it to PAL norm.
                 neotv_ntsc
                      Activate the NeoMagic TV out and set it to NTSC norm.
                 vidix
                      Use the VIDIX driver.
                 lvo:
                      Activate the Linux Video Overlay on top of VESA mode.

       svga
              Play video using the SVGA library.
                 <video mode>
                      Specify  video  mode to use.  The mode can be given in a
                      <width>x<height>x<colors> format, e.g. 640x480x16M or be
                      a graphics mode number, e.g. 84.
                 bbosd
                      Draw OSD into black bands below the movie (slower).
                 native
                      Use  only  native drawing functions.  This avoids direct
                      rendering, OSD and hardware acceleration.
                 retrace
                      Force frame switch on  vertical  retrace.   Usable  only
                      with  -double.  It has the same effect as the -vsync op-
                      tion.
                 sq
                      Try to select a video mode with square pixels.
                 vidix
                      Use svga with VIDIX.

       gl
              OpenGL video output driver, simple version.  Video size must  be
              smaller than the maximum texture size of your OpenGL implementa-
              tion.  Intended to work even with the most basic  OpenGL  imple-
              mentations,  but also makes use of newer extensions, which allow
              support for more colorspaces and direct rendering.   Please  use
              -dr if it works with your OpenGL implementation, since for high-
              er resolutions this provides a big speedup.  The  code  performs
              very  few  checks,  so if a feature does not work, this might be
              because it is not supported by your  card/OpenGL  implementation
              even if you do not get any error message.  Use glxinfo or a sim-
              ilar tool to display the supported OpenGL extensions.
                 (no)scaled-osd
                      Changes the way the OSD behaves when  the  size  of  the
                      window  changes  (default:  disabled).  When enabled be-
                      haves more like the other video output drivers, which is
                      better for fixed-size fonts.  Disabled looks much better
                      with FreeType fonts and uses the borders  in  fullscreen
                      mode.   Does  not work correctly with ass subtitles (see
                      -ass), you can instead render them without  OpenGL  sup-
                      port via -vf ass.
                 osdcolor=<0xRRGGBB>
                      Color for OSD (default: 0xffffff, corresponds to white).
                 rectangle=<0,1,2>
                      Select  usage  of rectangular textures which saves video
                      RAM, but often is slower (default: 0).
                         0: Use power-of-two textures (default).
                         1: Use the GL_ARB_texture_rectangle extension.
                         2: Use the GL_ARB_texture_non_power_of_two extension.
                         In  some  cases  only  supported in software and thus
                         very slow.
                 swapinterval=<n>
                      Minimum interval between two buffer  swaps,  counted  in
                      displayed  frames  (default: 1).  1 is equivalent to en-
                      abling VSYNC, 0 to disabling VSYNC.  Values below 0 will
                      leave it at the system default.  This limits the framer-
                      ate  to  (horizontal  refresh  rate  /   n).    Requires
                      GLX_SGI_swap_control   support   to   work.   With  some
                      (most/all?)   implementations   this   only   works   in
                      fullscreen mode.
                 yuv=<n>
                      Select the type of YUV to RGB conversion.
                         0:  Use  software  conversion  (default).  Compatible
                         with all OpenGL versions.  Provides brightness,  con-
                         trast and saturation control.
                         1:  Use register combiners.  This uses an nVidia-spe-
                         cific extension (GL_NV_register_combiners).  At least
                         three  texture units are needed.  Provides saturation
                         and hue control.  This method is fast but inexact.
                         2: Use a fragment program.   Needs  the  GL_ARB_frag-
                         ment_program  extension  and  at  least three texture
                         units.  Provides brightness, contrast, saturation and
                         hue control.
                         3:  Use a fragment program using the POW instruction.
                         Needs the GL_ARB_fragment_program  extension  and  at
                         least three texture units.  Provides brightness, con-
                         trast, saturation, hue and gamma control.  Gamma  can
                         also  be  set  independently for red, green and blue.
                         Method 4 is usually faster.
                         4: Use a fragment  program  with  additional  lookup.
                         Needs  the  GL_ARB_fragment_program  extension and at
                         least four texture units.  Provides brightness,  con-
                         trast,  saturation, hue and gamma control.  Gamma can
                         also be set independently for red, green and blue.
                         5: Use ATI-specific method (for older  cards).   This
                         uses an ATI-specific extension (GL_ATI_fragment_shad-
                         er - not GL_ARB_fragment_shader!).   At  least  three
                         texture  units  are  needed.  Provides saturation and
                         hue control.  This method is fast but inexact.
                         6: Use a 3D texture  to  do  conversion  via  lookup.
                         Needs  the  GL_ARB_fragment_program  extension and at
                         least four texture units.  Extremely  slow  (software
                         emulation)  on  some (all?) ATI cards since it uses a
                         texture with  border  pixels.   Provides  brightness,
                         contrast,  saturation,  hue and gamma control.  Gamma
                         can also be set  independently  for  red,  green  and
                         blue.   Speed  depends  more  on GPU memory bandwidth
                         than other methods.
                 lscale=<n>
                      Select the scaling function to use for  luminance  scal-
                      ing.  Only valid for yuv modes 2, 3, 4 and 6.
                         0: Use simple linear filtering (default).
                         1: Use bicubic filtering (better quality).  Needs one
                         additional texture unit.  Older  cards  will  not  be
                         able to handle this for chroma at least in fullscreen
                         mode.
                         2: Use cubic filtering in horizontal, linear  filter-
                         ing in vertical direction.  Works on a few more cards
                         than method 1.
                 cscale=<n>
                      Select the scaling function to use for chrominance scal-
                      ing.  For details see lscale.
                 customprog=<filename>
                      Load  a  custom  fragment  program from <filename>.  See
                      TOOLS/edgedect.fp for an example.
                 customtex=<filename>
                      Load a custom  "gamma  ramp"  texture  from  <filename>.
                      This  can  be used in combination with yuv=4 or with the
                      customprog option.
                 (no)customtlin
                      If enabled (default) use GL_LINEAR interpolation, other-
                      wise use GL_NEAREST for customtex texture.
                 (no)customtrect
                      If enabled, use texture_rectangle for customtex texture.
                      Default is disabled.

              Normally there is no reason to use the following  options,  they
              mostly exist for testing purposes.

                 (no)glfinish
                      Call  glFinish() before swapping buffers.  Slower but in
                      some cases more correct output (default: disabled).
                 (no)manyfmts
                      Enables support for more (RGB  and  BGR)  color  formats
                      (default: enabled).  Needs OpenGL version >= 1.2.
                 slice-height=<0-...>
                      Number of lines copied to texture in one piece (default:
                      0).  0 for whole image.
                      NOTE: If YUV colorspace is  used  (see  yuv  suboption),
                      special rules apply:
                         If  the decoder uses slice rendering (see -noslices),
                         this setting has no effect, the size of the slices as
                         provided by the decoder is used.
                         If  the decoder does not use slice rendering, the de-
                         fault is 16.
                 (no)osd
                      Enable or disable support for OSD rendering  via  OpenGL
                      (default: enabled).  This option is for testing; to dis-
                      able the OSD use -osdlevel 0 instead.
                 (no)aspect
                      Enable or disable aspect scaling and  pan-and-scan  sup-
                      port   (default:  enabled).   Disabling  might  increase
                      speed.

       gl2
              OpenGL video output driver, second generation.  Supports OSD and
              videos larger than the maximum texture size.
                 (no)glfinish
                      same as gl (default: enabled)
                 yuv=<n>
                      Select  the  type  of  YUV to RGB conversion.  If set to
                      anything except 0 OSD will be disabled  and  brightness,
                      contrast  and  gamma  setting  is only available via the
                      global X server settings.  Apart from  this  the  values
                      have the same meaning as for -vo gl.

       null
              Produces no video output.  Useful for benchmarking.

       aa
              ASCII art video output driver that works on a text console.  You
              can get a list and an explanation of available  suboptions  exe-
              cuting mplayer -vo aa:help
              NOTE: Driver does not not handle -aspect correctly.
              HINT:  You  probably  have  to  specify -monitorpixelaspect. Try
              mplayer -vo aa -monitorpixelaspect 0.5.

       caca
              Color ASCII art video output driver that works on  a  text  con-
              sole.

       bl
              Video playback using the Blinkenlights UDP protocol.  This driv-
              er is highly hardware specific.
                 <subdevice>
                      Explicitly choose the Blinkenlights subdevice driver  to
                      use.  It is something like arcade:host=localhost:2323 or
                      hdl:file=name1,file=name2.  You must  specify  a  subde-
                      vice.

       ggi
              GGI graphics system video output driver
                 <driver>
                      Explicitly  choose  the  GGI driver to use.  Replace any
                      ',' that would appear in the driver string by a '.'.

       directfb
              Play video using the DirectFB library.
                 (no)input
                      Use the DirectFB instead of the  MPlayer  keyboard  code
                      (default: enabled).
                 buffermode=single|double|triple
                      Double  and  triple  buffering  give best results if you
                      want to avoid tearing issues.  Triple buffering is  more
                      efficient  than  double  buffering  as it does not block
                      MPlayer while waiting for the vertical retrace.   Single
                      buffering should be avoided (default: single).
                 fieldparity=top|bottom
                      Control the output order for interlaced frames (default:
                      disabled).  Valid values are top  =  top  fields  first,
                      bottom = bottom fields first.  This option does not have
                      any effect on progressive film material like  most  MPEG
                      movies  are.  You need to enable this option if you have
                      tearing issues or unsmooth motions  watching  interlaced
                      film material.
                 layer=N
                      Will  force  layer with ID N for playback (default: -1 -
                      auto).
                 dfbopts=<list>
                      Specify a parameter list for DirectFB.

       dfbmga
              Matrox G400/G450/G550 specific video output driver that uses the
              DirectFB  library to make use of special hardware features.  En-
              ables CRTC2 (second head), displaying video independently of the
              first head.
                 (no)input
                      same as directfb (default: disabled)
                 buffermode=single|double|triple
                      same as directfb (default: triple)
                 fieldparity=top|bottom
                      same as directfb
                 (no)bes
                      Enable  the  use of the Matrox BES (backend scaler) (de-
                      fault: disabled).  Gives very  good  results  concerning
                      speed  and  output  quality as interpolated picture pro-
                      cessing is done in hardware.  Works only on the  primary
                      head.
                 (no)spic
                      Make  use of the Matrox sub picture layer to display the
                      OSD (default: enabled).
                 (no)crtc2
                      Turn on TV-out on the second  head  (default:  enabled).
                      The output quality is amazing as it is a full interlaced
                      picture with proper sync to every odd/even field.
                 tvnorm=pal|ntsc|auto
                      Will set the TV norm of the Matrox card without the need
                      for   modifying   /etc/directfbrc  (default:  disabled).
                      Valid norms are pal = PAL, ntsc = NTSC.  Special norm is
                      auto  (auto-adjust  using  PAL/NTSC)  because it decides
                      which norm to use by looking at  the  framerate  of  the
                      movie.

       mga (Linux only)
              Matrox  specific  video  output driver that makes use of the YUV
              back end scaler on Gxxx cards through a kernel module.   If  you
              have a Matrox card, this is the fastest option.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly  choose  the  Matrox  device name to use (de-
                      fault: /dev/mga_vid).

       xmga (Linux, X11 only)
              The mga video output driver, running in an X11 window.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the Matrox device  name  to  use  (de-
                      fault: /dev/mga_vid).

       s3fb (Linux only) (see also -vf yuv2 and -dr)
              S3 Virge specific video output driver.  This driver supports the
              card's YUV conversion and scaling, double buffering  and  direct
              rendering  features.   Use  -vf yuy2 to get hardware-accelerated
              YUY2 rendering, which is much faster than YV12 on this card.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the fbdev device name to use (default:
                      /dev/fb0).

       3dfx (Linux only)
              3dfx-specific  video  output driver that directly uses the hard-
              ware on top of X11.  Only 16 bpp are supported.

       tdfxfb (Linux only)
              This driver employs the tdfxfb framebuffer driver to play movies
              with YUV acceleration on 3dfx cards.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the fbdev device name to use (default:
                      /dev/fb0).

       tdfx_vid (Linux only)
              3dfx-specific video output driver that works in combination with
              the tdfx_vid kernel module.
                 <device>
                      Explicitly choose the device name to use (default: /dev/
                      tdfx_vid).

       dxr2 (also see -dxr2) (DXR2 only)
              Creative DXR2 specific video output driver.
                 <vo_driver>
                      Output video subdriver to use as overlay (x11, xv).

       dxr3 (DXR3 only)
              Sigma Designs em8300 MPEG decoder chip (Creative DXR3, Sigma De-
              signs  Hollywood  Plus)  specific video output driver.  Also see
              the lavc video filter.
                 overlay
                      Activates the overlay instead of TVOut.
                 prebuf
                      Turns on prebuffering.
                 sync
                      Will turn on the new sync-engine.
                 norm=<norm>
                      Specifies the TV norm.
                         0: Does not change current norm (default).
                         1: Auto-adjust using PAL/NTSC.
                         2: Auto-adjust using PAL/PAL-60.
                         3: PAL
                         4: PAL-60
                         5: NTSC

                 <0-3>
                      Specifies the device number to use if you have more than
                      one em8300 card.

       ivtv (IVTV only)
              Conexant  CX23415  (iCompression  iTVC15)  or  Conexant  CX23416
              (iCompression  iTVC16)  MPEG  decoder  chip   (Hauppauge   WinTV
              PVR-150/250/350/500)  specific  video  output driver for TV-Out.
              Also see the lavc video filter.
                 device
                      Explicitly choose the MPEG decoder device  name  to  use
                      (default: /dev/video16).
                 output
                      Explicitly  choose  the TV-Out output to be used for the
                      video signal.

       v4l2 (requires Linux 2.6.22+ kernel)
              Video output driver for V4L2 compliant cards with built-in hard-
              ware MPEG decoder.  Also see the lavc video filter.
                 device
                      Explicitly  choose  the  MPEG decoder device name to use
                      (default: /dev/video16).
                 output
                      Explicitly choose the TV-Out output to be used  for  the
                      video signal.

       mpegpes (DVB only)
              Video  output  driver for DVB cards that writes the output to an
              MPEG-PES file if no DVB card is installed.
                 card=<1-4>
                      Specifies the device number to use if you have more than
                      one  DVB  output card (V3 API only, such as 1.x.y series
                      drivers).
                 <filename>
                      output filename (default: ./grab.mpg)

       zr (also see -zr* and -zrhelp)
              Video output driver  for  a  number  of  MJPEG  capture/playback
              cards.

       zr2 (also see the zrmjpeg video filter)
              Video  output  driver  for  a  number  of MJPEG capture/playback
              cards, second generation.
                 dev=<device>
                      Specifies the video device to use.
                 norm=<PAL|NTSC|SECAM|auto>
                      Specifies the video norm to use (default: auto).
                 (no)prebuf
                      (De)Activate prebuffering, not yet supported.

       md5sum
              Calculate MD5 sums of each frame and write them to a file.  Sup-
              ports RGB24 and YV12 colorspaces.  Useful for debugging.
                 outfile=<value>
                      Specify the output filename (default: ./md5sums).

       yuv4mpeg
              Transforms  the video stream into a sequence of uncompressed YUV
              4:2:0 images and stores it in a  file  (default:  ./stream.yuv).
              The  format  is  the  same as the one employed by mjpegtools, so
              this is useful if you want to process the video with the  mjpeg-
              tools  suite.   It  supports  the YV12, RGB (24 bpp) and BGR (24
              bpp) format.  You can combine it with the  -fixed-vo  option  to
              concatenate files with the same dimensions and fps value.
                 interlaced
                      Write the output as interlaced frames, top field first.
                 interlaced_bf
                      Write  the  output  as  interlaced  frames, bottom field
                      first.
                 file=<filename>
                      Write the output to <filename> instead  of  the  default
                      stream.yuv.

              NOTE: If you do not specify any option the output is progressive
              (i.e. not interlaced).

       gif89a
              Output each frame into a single animated GIF file in the current
              directory.  It supports only RGB format with 24 bpp and the out-
              put is converted to 256 colors.
                 <fps>
                      Float value to specify framerate (default: 5.0).
                 <output>
                      Specify the output filename (default: ./out.gif).

              NOTE: You must specify the framerate before the filename or  the
              framerate will be part of the filename.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer video.nut -vo gif89a:fps=15:output=test.gif

       jpeg
              Output  each  frame  into  a JPEG file in the current directory.
              Each file takes the frame number padded with  leading  zeros  as
              name.
                 [no]progressive
                      Specify  standard  or  progressive JPEG (default: nopro-
                      gressive).
                 [no]baseline
                      Specify use of baseline or not (default: baseline).
                 optimize=<0-100>
                      optimization factor (default: 100)
                 smooth=<0-100>
                      smooth factor (default: 0)
                 quality=<0-100>
                      quality factor (default: 75)
                 outdir=<dirname>
                      Specify the directory to save the  JPEG  files  to  (de-
                      fault: ./).
                 subdirs=<prefix>
                      Create numbered subdirectories with the specified prefix
                      to save the files in instead of the current directory.
                 maxfiles=<value> (subdirs only)
                      Maximum number of files to be  saved  per  subdirectory.
                      Must be equal to or larger than 1 (default: 1000).

       pnm
              Output  each  frame  into  a  PNM file in the current directory.
              Each file takes the frame number padded with  leading  zeros  as
              name.   It  supports  PPM,  PGM and PGMYUV files in both raw and
              ASCII mode.  Also see pnm(5), ppm(5) and pgm(5).
                 ppm
                      Write PPM files (default).
                 pgm
                      Write PGM files.
                 pgmyuv
                      Write PGMYUV files.  PGMYUV is like  PGM,  but  it  also
                      contains  the  U  and V plane, appended at the bottom of
                      the picture.
                 raw
                      Write PNM files in raw mode (default).
                 ascii
                      Write PNM files in ASCII mode.
                 outdir=<dirname>
                      Specify the directory to save the PNM files to (default:
                      ./).
                 subdirs=<prefix>
                      Create numbered subdirectories with the specified prefix
                      to save the files in instead of the current directory.
                 maxfiles=<value> (subdirs only)
                      Maximum number of files to be  saved  per  subdirectory.
                      Must be equal to or larger than 1 (default: 1000).

       png
              Output  each  frame  into  a  PNG file in the current directory.
              Each file takes the frame number padded with  leading  zeros  as
              name.  24bpp RGB and BGR formats are supported.
                 z=<0-9>
                      Specifies the compression level.  0 is no compression, 9
                      is maximum compression.

       tga
              Output each frame into a Targa file in  the  current  directory.
              Each  file  takes  the frame number padded with leading zeros as
              name.  The purpose of this video output driver is to have a sim-
              ple  lossless  image writer to use without any external library.
              It supports the BGR[A] color format, with 15,  24  and  32  bpp.
              You can force a particular format with the format video filter.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer video.nut -vf format=bgr15 -vo tga

DECODING/FILTERING OPTIONS
       -ac <&lt;[-|+]codec1,[-|+]codec2,...[,]>&gt;
              Specify a priority list of audio codecs to be used, according to
              their codec name in codecs.conf.  Use a  '-'  before  the  codec
              name  to  omit it.  Use a '+' before the codec name to force it,
              this will likely crash!  If the list has a trailing ','  MPlayer
              will fall back on codecs not contained in the list.
              NOTE: See -ac help for a full list of available codecs.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ac mp3acm
                      Force the l3codeca.acm MP3 codec.
                 -ac mad,
                      Try libmad first, then fall back on others.
                 -ac hwac3,a52,
                      Try  hardware AC-3 passthrough, software AC-3, then oth-
                      ers.
                 -ac hwdts,
                      Try hardware DTS passthrough, then fall back on others.
                 -ac -ffmp3,
                      Skip FFmpeg's MP3 decoder.

       -af-adv <&lt;force=(0-7):list=(filters)>&gt; (also see -af)
              Specify advanced audio filter options:

                 force=<0-7>
                      Forces the insertion of audio filters to one of the fol-
                      lowing:
                         0: Use completely automatic filter insertion.
                         1: Optimize for accuracy (default).
                         2: Optimize for speed.  Warning: Some features in the
                         audio filters may silently fail, and the sound quali-
                         ty may drop.
                         3: Use no automatic insertion of filters and no opti-
                         mization.  Warning:  It  may  be  possible  to  crash
                         MPlayer using this setting.
                         4:  Use automatic insertion of filters according to 0
                         above, but use floating point processing when  possi-
                         ble.
                         5:  Use automatic insertion of filters according to 1
                         above, but use floating point processing when  possi-
                         ble.
                         6:  Use automatic insertion of filters according to 2
                         above, but use floating point processing when  possi-
                         ble.
                         7: Use no automatic insertion of filters according to
                         3 above, and use floating point processing when  pos-
                         sible.

                 list=<filters>
                      Same as -af.

       -afm <&lt;driver1,driver2,...>&gt;
              Specify  a priority list of audio codec families to be used, ac-
              cording to their codec name in codecs.conf.  Falls back  on  the
              default codecs if none of the given codec families work.
              NOTE: See -afm help for a full list of available codec families.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -afm ffmpeg
                      Try FFmpeg's libavcodec codecs first.
                 -afm acm,dshow
                      Try Win32 codecs first.

       -aspect <&lt;ratio>&gt; (also see -zoom)
              Override  movie  aspect ratio, in case aspect information is in-
              correct or missing in the file being played.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -aspect 4:3  or -aspect 1.3333
                 -aspect 16:9 or -aspect 1.7777

       -noaspect
              Disable automatic movie aspect ratio compensation.

       -field-dominance <&lt;-1-1>&gt;
              Set first field for interlaced content.  Useful for  deinterlac-
              ers  that  double  the framerate: -vf tfields=1, -vf yadif=1 and
              -vo xvmc:bobdeint.
                 -1   auto (default): If the decoder does not export  the  ap-
                      propriate  information,  it  falls  back to 0 (top field
                      first).
                 0    top field first
                 1    bottom field first

       -flip
              Flip image upside-down.

       -lavdopts <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt; (DEBUG CODE)
              Specify libavcodec decoding parameters.  Separate  multiple  op-
              tions with a colon.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -lavdopts gray:skiploopfilter=all:skipframe=nonref

              Available options are:

                 bitexact
                      Only use bit-exact algorithms in all decoding steps (for
                      codec testing).

                 bug=<value>
                      Manually work around encoder bugs.
                         0: nothing
                         1: autodetect bugs (default)
                         2 (msmpeg4v3):  some  old  lavc  generated  msmpeg4v3
                         files (no autodetection)
                         4  (mpeg4):  Xvid  interlacing  bug  (autodetected if
                         fourcc==XVIX)
                         8 (mpeg4): UMP4 (autodetected if fourcc==UMP4)
                         16 (mpeg4): padding bug (autodetected)
                         32 (mpeg4): illegal vlc bug (autodetected per fourcc)
                         64 (mpeg4): Xvid and DivX qpel bug (autodetected  per
                         fourcc/version)
                         128  (mpeg4):  old  standard  qpel  (autodetected per
                         fourcc/version)
                         256 (mpeg4): another qpel bug (autodetected per four-
                         cc/version)
                         512  (mpeg4): direct-qpel-blocksize bug (autodetected
                         per fourcc/version)
                         1024 (mpeg4):  edge  padding  bug  (autodetected  per
                         fourcc/version)

                 debug=<value>
                      Display debugging information.
                         0: disabled
                         1: picture info
                         2: rate control
                         4: bitstream
                         8: macroblock (MB) type
                         16: per-block quantization parameter (QP)
                         32: motion vector
                         0x0040: motion vector visualization (use -noslices)
                         0x0080: macroblock (MB) skip
                         0x0100: startcode
                         0x0200: PTS
                         0x0400: error resilience
                         0x0800: memory management control operations (H.264)
                         0x1000: bugs
                         0x2000:  Visualize quantization parameter (QP), lower
                         QP are tinted greener.
                         0x4000: Visualize block types.

                 ec=<value>
                      Set error concealment strategy.
                         1: Use strong deblock filter for damaged MBs.
                         2: iterative motion vector (MV) search (slow)
                         3: all (default)

                 er=<value>
                      Set error resilience strategy.
                         0: disabled
                         1: careful (Should work with broken encoders.)
                         2: normal (default) (Works with compliant encoders.)
                         3: aggressive (More checks, but might cause  problems
                         even for valid bitstreams.)
                         4: very aggressive

                 fast (MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and H.264 only)
                      Enable optimizations which do not comply to the specifi-
                      cation and might potentially cause problems,  like  sim-
                      pler dequantization, simpler motion compensation, assum-
                      ing use of the default quantization matrix, assuming YUV
                      4:2:0  and  skipping a few checks to detect damaged bit-
                      streams.

                 gray
                      grayscale only decoding (a bit faster than with color)

                 idct=<0-99> (see -lavcopts)
                      For best decoding quality use the  same  IDCT  algorithm
                      for  decoding and encoding.  This may come at a price in
                      accuracy, though.

                 lowres=<number>[,<w>]
                      Decode at lower resolutions.  Low resolution decoding is
                      not supported by all codecs, and it will often result in
                      ugly artifacts.  This is not a bug, but a side effect of
                      not decoding at full resolution.
                         0: disabled
                         1: 1/2 resolution
                         2: 1/4 resolution
                         3: 1/8 resolution
                      If <w> is specified lowres decoding will be used only if
                      the width of the video is major than or equal to <w>.

                 sb=<number> (MPEG-2 only)
                      Skip the given number of macroblock rows at the bottom.

                 st=<number> (MPEG-2 only)
                      Skip the given number of macroblock rows at the top.

                 skiploopfilter=<skipvalue> (H.264 only)
                      Skips the loop filter (AKA deblocking) during H.264  de-
                      coding.  Since the filtered frame is supposed to be used
                      as reference for decoding dependent frames  this  has  a
                      worse  effect  on  quality  than not doing deblocking on
                      e.g. MPEG-2 video.  But at least for high  bitrate  HDTV
                      this  provides  a  big  speedup  with no visible quality
                      loss.

                      <skipvalue> can be either one of the following:
                         none: Never skip.
                         default: Skip useless processing steps (e.g.  0  size
                         packets in AVI).
                         nonref: Skip frames that are not referenced (i.e. not
                         used for decoding  other  frames,  the  error  cannot
                         "build up").
                         bidir: Skip B-Frames.
                         nonkey: Skip all frames except keyframes.
                         all: Skip all frames.

                 skipidct=<skipvalue> (MPEG-1/2 only)
                      Skips  the IDCT step.  This degrades quality a lot of in
                      almost all cases (see skiploopfilter for available  skip
                      values).

                 skipframe=<skipvalue>
                      Skips  decoding  of frames completely.  Big speedup, but
                      jerky motion and sometimes bad artifacts (see  skiploop-
                      filter for available skip values).

                 threads=<1-8> (MPEG-1/2 only)
                      number of threads to use for decoding (default: 1)

                 vismv=<value>
                      Visualize motion vectors.
                         0: disabled
                         1: Visualize forward predicted MVs of P-frames.
                         2: Visualize forward predicted MVs of B-frames.
                         4: Visualize backward predicted MVs of B-frames.

                 vstats
                      Prints   some   statistics  and  stores  them  in  ./vs-
                      tats_*.log.

       -noslices
              Disable drawing video by 16-pixel height  slices/bands,  instead
              draws the whole frame in a single run.  May be faster or slower,
              depending on video card and available cache.  It has effect only
              with libmpeg2 and libavcodec codecs.

       -nosound
              Do not play/encode sound.  Useful for benchmarking.

       -novideo
              Do not play/encode video.  In many cases this will not work, use
              -vc null -vo null instead.

       -pp <&lt;quality>&gt; (also see -vf pp)
              Set the DLL postprocess level.  This option is no longer  usable
              with  -vf pp.  It only works with Win32 DirectShow DLLs with in-
              ternal postprocessing routines.  The valid range of  -pp  values
              varies  by  codec, it is mostly 0-6, where 0=disable, 6=slowest/
              best.

       -pphelp (also see -vf pp)
              Show a summary about the available postprocess filters and their
              usage.

       -ssf <&lt;mode>&gt;
              Specifies software scaler parameters.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vf scale -ssf lgb=3.0
                 lgb=<0-100>
                      gaussian blur filter (luma)
                 cgb=<0-100>
                      gaussian blur filter (chroma)
                 ls=<-100-100>
                      sharpen filter (luma)
                 cs=<-100-100>
                      sharpen filter (chroma)
                 chs=<h>
                      chroma horizontal shifting
                 cvs=<v>
                      chroma vertical shifting

       -stereo <&lt;mode>&gt;
              Select type of MP2/MP3 stereo output.
                 0    stereo
                 1    left channel
                 2    right channel

       -sws <&lt;software scaler type>&gt; (also see -vf scale and -zoom)
              Specify  the software scaler algorithm to be used with the -zoom
              option.  This affects video output drivers which  lack  hardware
              acceleration, e.g. x11.

              Available types are:

                 0    fast bilinear
                 1    bilinear
                 2    bicubic (good quality) (default)
                 3    experimental
                 4    nearest neighbor (bad quality)
                 5    area
                 6    luma bicubic / chroma bilinear
                 7    gauss
                 8    sincR
                 9    lanczos
                 10   natural bicubic spline

              NOTE:  Some  -sws  options  are tunable.  The description of the
              scale video filter has further information.

       -vc <&lt;[-|+]codec1,[-|+]codec2,...[,]>&gt;
              Specify a priority list of video codecs to be used, according to
              their  codec  name  in  codecs.conf.  Use a '-' before the codec
              name to omit it.  Use a '+' before the codec name to  force  it,
              this  will likely crash!  If the list has a trailing ',' MPlayer
              will fall back on codecs not contained in the list.
              NOTE: See -vc help for a full list of available codecs.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vc divx
                      Force Win32/VfW DivX codec, no fallback.
                 -vc -divxds,-divx,
                      Skip Win32 DivX codecs.
                 -vc ffmpeg12,mpeg12,
                      Try libavcodec's MPEG-1/2  codec,  then  libmpeg2,  then
                      others.

       -vfm <&lt;driver1,driver2,...>&gt;
              Specify  a priority list of video codec families to be used, ac-
              cording to their names in codecs.conf.  Falls back  on  the  de-
              fault codecs if none of the given codec families work.
              NOTE: See -vfm help for a full list of available codec families.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vfm ffmpeg,dshow,vfw
                      Try the libavcodec, then Directshow, then VfW codecs and
                      fall back on others, if they do not work.
                 -vfm xanim
                      Try XAnim codecs first.

       -x <&lt;x>&gt; (also see -zoom) (MPlayer only)
              Scale image to width <x> (if software/hardware scaling is avail-
              able).  Disables aspect calculations.

       -xvidopts <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt;
              Specify additional parameters when decoding with Xvid.
              NOTE: Since libavcodec is faster than Xvid you might want to use
              the libavcodec postprocessing filter (-vf pp) and decoder  (-vfm
              ffmpeg) instead.

              Xvid's internal postprocessing filters:
                 deblock-chroma (also see -vf pp)
                      chroma deblock filter
                 deblock-luma (also see -vf pp)
                      luma deblock filter
                 dering-luma (also see -vf pp)
                      luma deringing filter
                 dering-chroma (also see -vf pp)
                      chroma deringing filter
                 filmeffect (also see -vf noise)
                      Adds  artificial  film grain to the video.  May increase
                      perceived quality, while lowering true quality.

              rendering methods:
                 dr2
                      Activate direct rendering method 2.
                 nodr2
                      Deactivate direct rendering method 2.

       -xy <&lt;value>&gt; (also see -zoom)
                 value<=8
                      Scale image by factor <value>.
                 value>8
                      Set width to value and calculate height to keep  correct
                      aspect ratio.

       -y <&lt;y>&gt; (also see -zoom) (MPlayer only)
              Scale  image  to  height  <y>  (if  software/hardware scaling is
              available).  Disables aspect calculations.

       -zoom
              Allow software scaling, where available.  This will allow  scal-
              ing  with  output  drivers (like x11, fbdev) that do not support
              hardware scaling where MPlayer disables scaling by  default  for
              performance reasons.

AUDIO FILTERS
       Audio  filters allow you to modify the audio stream and its properties.
       The syntax is:

       -af <&lt;filter1[=parameter1:parameter2:...],filter2,...>&gt;
              Setup a chain of audio filters.

       NOTE: To get a full list of available audio filters, see -af help.

       Available filters are:

       resample[=srate[:sloppy[:type]]]
              Changes the sample rate of the audio stream.  Can be used if you
              have  a  fixed  frequency sound card or if you are stuck with an
              old sound card that is only capable of max 44.1kHz.  This filter
              is  automatically enabled if necessary.  It only supports 16-bit
              integer and float in native-endian format as input.
              NOTE: With MEncoder, you need to also use -srate <srate>.
                 <srate>
                      output sample frequency in Hz.  The valid range for this
                      parameter  is  8000  to 192000.  If the input and output
                      sample frequency are the same or if  this  parameter  is
                      omitted  the  filter  is automatically unloaded.  A high
                      sample frequency normally improves  the  audio  quality,
                      especially when used in combination with other filters.
                 <sloppy>
                      Allow (1) or disallow (0) the output frequency to differ
                      slightly from the frequency given by  <srate>  (default:
                      1).   Can  be used if the startup of the playback is ex-
                      tremely slow.
                 <type>
                      Selects which resampling method to use.
                         0: linear interpolation (fast, poor quality especial-
                         ly when upsampling)
                         1: polyphase filterbank and integer processing
                         2: polyphase filterbank and floating point processing
                         (slow, best quality)

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af resample=44100:0:0
                      would set the output frequency of the resample filter to
                      44100Hz  using exact output frequency scaling and linear
                      interpolation.

       lavcresample[=srate[:length[:linear[:count[:cutoff]]]]]
              Changes the sample rate  of  the  audio  stream  to  an  integer
              <srate>  in  Hz.  It only supports the 16-bit native-endian for-
              mat.
              NOTE: With MEncoder, you need to also use -srate <srate>.
                 <srate>
                      the output sample rate
                 <length>
                      length of the filter with respect to the lower  sampling
                      rate (default: 16)
                 <linear>
                      if  1 then filters will be linearly interpolated between
                      polyphase entries
                 <count>
                      log2 of the number of polyphase entries (...,  10->1024,
                      11->2048, 12->4096, ...)  (default: 10->1024)
                 <cutoff>
                      cutoff  frequency  (0.0-1.0), default set depending upon
                      filter length

       sweep[=speed]
              Produces a sine sweep.
                 <0.0-1.0>
                      Sine function delta, use very low  values  to  hear  the
                      sweep.

       sinesuppress[=freq:decay]
              Remove  a sine at the specified frequency.  Useful to get rid of
              the 50/60Hz noise on low quality audio equipment.   It  probably
              only works on mono input.
                 <freq>
                      The  frequency  of  the sine which should be removed (in
                      Hz) (default: 50)
                 <decay>
                      Controls the adaptivity (a larger value  will  make  the
                      filter  adapt  to amplitude and phase changes quicker, a
                      smaller value will make the adaptation slower) (default:
                      0.0001).  Reasonable values are around 0.001.

       hrtf[=flag]
              Head-related transfer function: Converts multichannel audio to 2
              channel output for headphones, preserving the spatiality of  the
              sound.

              Flag  Meaning
              m     matrix decoding of the rear channel
              s     2-channel matrix decoding
              0     no matrix decoding (default)

       equalizer=[g1:g2:g3:...:g10]
              10  octave band graphic equalizer, implemented using 10 IIR band
              pass filters.  This means that it works regardless of what  type
              of  audio  is being played back.  The center frequencies for the
              10 bands are:

              No. frequency
              0    31.25 Hz
              1    62.50 Hz
              2   125.00 Hz
              3   250.00 Hz
              4   500.00 Hz
              5    1.00 kHz
              6    2.00 kHz
              7    4.00 kHz
              8    8.00 kHz
              9   16.00 kHz

              If the sample rate of the sound being played is lower  than  the
              center  frequency  for  a frequency band, then that band will be
              disabled.  A known bug with this filter is that the characteris-
              tics  for the uppermost band are not completely symmetric if the
              sample rate is close to the center frequency of that band.  This
              problem  can  be worked around by upsampling the sound using the
              resample filter before it reaches this filter.
                 <g1>:<g2>:<g3>:...:<g10>
                      floating point numbers representing the gain in  dB  for
                      each frequency band (-12-12)

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af equalizer=11:11:10:5:0:-12:0:5:12:12 media.avi
                      Would amplify the sound in the upper and lower frequency
                      region while canceling it almost completely around 1kHz.

       channels=nch[:nr:from1:to1:from2:to2:from3:to3:...]
              Can be used for adding,  removing,  routing  and  copying  audio
              channels.   If  only <nch> is given the default routing is used,
              it works as follows: If the number of output channels is  bigger
              than  the  number  of input channels empty channels are inserted
              (except mixing from mono to stereo, then the mono channel is re-
              peated in both of the output channels).  If the number of output
              channels is smaller than the number of input  channels  the  ex-
              ceeding channels are truncated.
                 <nch>
                      number of output channels (1-6)
                 <nr>
                      number of routes (1-6)
                 <from1:to1:from2:to2:from3:to3:...>
                      Pairs  of  numbers  between 0 and 5 that define where to
                      route each channel.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af channels=4:4:0:1:1:0:2:2:3:3 media.avi
                      Would change the number of channels to 4 and  set  up  4
                      routes that swap channel 0 and channel 1 and leave chan-
                      nel 2 and 3 intact.  Observe that  if  media  containing
                      two  channels  was  played  back, channels 2 and 3 would
                      contain silence but 0 and 1 would still be swapped.
                 mplayer -af channels=6:4:0:0:0:1:0:2:0:3 media.avi
                      Would change the number of channels to 6 and  set  up  4
                      routes  that copy channel 0 to channels 0 to 3.  Channel
                      4 and 5 will contain silence.
                 mplayer -af channels=6:6:0:4:1:0:2:1:3:2:4:3:5:5 media.avi
                      Should make the 6-channel ffdca (DTS) output  work  cor-
                      rectly with ALSA.

       format[=format] (also see -format)
              Convert between different sample formats.  Automatically enabled
              when needed by the sound card or another filter.
                 <format>
                      Sets the desired format.  The  general  form  is  'sbe',
                      where 's' denotes the sign (either 's' for signed or 'u'
                      for unsigned), 'b' denotes the number of bits per sample
                      (16,  24  or  32)  and  'e' denotes the endianness ('le'
                      means little-endian, 'be' big-endian and 'ne' the  endi-
                      anness  of  the  computer MPlayer is running on).  Valid
                      values  (amongst  others)  are:  's16le',  'u32be'   and
                      'u24ne'.   Exceptions  to  this rule that are also valid
                      format specifiers: u8, s8,  floatle,  floatbe,  floatne,
                      mulaw, alaw, mpeg2, ac3 and imaadpcm.

       volume[=v[:sc]]
              Implements  software  volume control.  Use this filter with cau-
              tion since it can reduce the signal to noise ratio of the sound.
              In  most  cases it is best to set the level for the PCM sound to
              max, leave this filter out and control the output level to  your
              speakers  with  the master volume control of the mixer.  In case
              your sound card has a digital PCM mixer  instead  of  an  analog
              one,  and you hear distortion, use the MASTER mixer instead.  If
              there is an external amplifier connected to the  computer  (this
              is  almost always the case), the noise level can be minimized by
              adjusting the master level and the volume knob on the  amplifier
              until the hissing noise in the background is gone.
              This  filter has a second feature: It measures the overall maxi-
              mum sound level and prints out that level  when  MPlayer  exits.
              This  volume estimate can be used for setting the sound level in
              MEncoder such that the maximum dynamic range is utilized.
              NOTE: This filter is not reentrant and can therefore only be en-
              abled once for every audio stream.
                 <v>
                      Sets  the  desired  gain  in  dB for all channels in the
                      stream from -200dB to  +60dB,  where  -200dB  mutes  the
                      sound  completely  and  +60dB equals a gain of 1000 (de-
                      fault: 0).
                 <sc>
                      Turns soft clipping on (1) or  off  (0).   Soft-clipping
                      can  make the sound more smooth if very high volume lev-
                      els are used.  Enable this option if the  dynamic  range
                      of the loudspeakers is very low.
                      WARNING:  This  feature creates distortion and should be
                      considered a last resort.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af volume=10.1:0 media.avi
                      Would amplify the sound by 10.1dB and hard-clip  if  the
                      sound level is too high.

       pan=n[:L00:L01:L02:...L10:L11:L12:...Ln0:Ln1:Ln2:...]
              Mixes channels arbitrarily.  Basically a combination of the vol-
              ume and the channels filter that can be used  to  down-mix  many
              channels  to only a few, e.g. stereo to mono or vary the "width"
              of the center speaker in a surround sound system.   This  filter
              is  hard  to use, and will require some tinkering before the de-
              sired result is obtained.  The number of options for this filter
              depends  on  the  number  of output channels.  An example how to
              downmix a six-channel file to two channels with this filter  can
              be found in the examples section near the end.
                 <n>
                      number of output channels (1-6)
                 <Lij>
                      How much of input channel i is mixed into output channel
                      j (0-1).  So in principle you first have n numbers  say-
                      ing what to do with the first input channel, then n num-
                      bers that act on the second input channel etc.   If  you
                      do not specify any numbers for some input channels, 0 is
                      assumed.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af pan=1:0.5:0.5 media.avi
                      Would down-mix from stereo to mono.
                 mplayer -af pan=3:1:0:0.5:0:1:0.5 media.avi
                      Would give 3 channel output leaving channels 0 and 1 in-
                      tact,  and  mix  channels  0 and 1 into output channel 2
                      (which could be sent to a subwoofer for example).

       sub[=fc:ch]
              Adds a subwoofer channel to the audio stream.   The  audio  data
              used  for  creating  the  subwoofer channel is an average of the
              sound in channel 0 and channel 1.  The resulting sound  is  then
              low-pass  filtered  by a 4th order Butterworth filter with a de-
              fault cutoff frequency of 60Hz and added to a  separate  channel
              in the audio stream.
              Warning: Disable this filter when you are playing DVDs with Dol-
              by Digital 5.1 sound, otherwise this  filter  will  disrupt  the
              sound to the subwoofer.
                 <fc>
                      cutoff  frequency in Hz for the low-pass filter (20Hz to
                      300Hz) (default: 60Hz) For the best result  try  setting
                      the  cutoff frequency as low as possible.  This will im-
                      prove the stereo or surround sound experience.
                 <ch>
                      Determines the channel number in  which  to  insert  the
                      sub-channel  audio.  Channel number can be between 0 and
                      5 (default: 5).  Observe that  the  number  of  channels
                      will automatically be increased to <ch> if necessary.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af sub=100:4 -channels 5 media.avi
                      Would  add  a sub-woofer channel with a cutoff frequency
                      of 100Hz to output channel 4.

       center
              Creates a center channel from the front channels.  May currently
              be  low  quality as it does not implement a high-pass filter for
              proper extraction yet, but averages and halves the channels  in-
              stead.
                 <ch>
                      Determines  the  channel  number  in which to insert the
                      center channel.  Channel number can be between 0  and  5
                      (default:  5).  Observe that the number of channels will
                      automatically be increased to <ch> if necessary.

       surround[=delay]
              Decoder for matrix encoded surround sound like  Dolby  Surround.
              Many  files  with 2 channel audio actually contain matrixed sur-
              round sound.  Requires a sound card supporting at least 4  chan-
              nels.
                 <delay>
                      delay  time in ms for the rear speakers (0 to 1000) (de-
                      fault: 20) This delay should be set as follows: If d1 is
                      the  distance  from  the listening position to the front
                      speakers and d2 is the distance from the listening posi-
                      tion  to the rear speakers, then the delay should be set
                      to 15ms if d1 <= d2 and to 15 + 5*(d1-d2) if d1 > d2.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af surround=15 -channels 4 media.avi
                      Would add surround sound decoding with  15ms  delay  for
                      the sound to the rear speakers.

       delay[=ch1:ch2:...]
              Delays  the  sound  to the loudspeakers such that the sound from
              the different channels arrives at the listening position  simul-
              taneously.  It is only useful if you have more than 2 loudspeak-
              ers.
                 ch1,ch2,...
                      The delay in ms that should be imposed on  each  channel
                      (floating point number between 0 and 1000).

              To calculate the required delay for the different channels do as
              follows:

              1. Measure the distance to the loudspeakers in meters  in  rela-
                 tion  to your listening position, giving you the distances s1
                 to s5 (for a 5.1 system).  There is no point in  compensating
                 for the subwoofer (you will not hear the difference anyway).

              2. Subtract  the  distances  s1 to s5 from the maximum distance,
                 i.e. s[i] = max(s) - s[i]; i = 1...5.

              3. Calculate the required delays in ms as d[i] =  1000*s[i]/342;
                 i = 1...5.

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af delay=10.5:10.5:0:0:7:0 media.avi
                      Would delay front left and right by 10.5ms, the two rear
                      channels and the sub by 0ms and the  center  channel  by
                      7ms.

       export[=mmapped_file[:nsamples]]
              Exports the incoming signal to other processes using memory map-
              ping (mmap()).  Memory mapped areas contain a header:

              int nch                      /*number of channels*/
              int size                     /*buffer size*/
              unsigned long long counter   /*Used to keep sync, updated every
                                             time new data is exported.*/

              The rest is payload (non-interleaved) 16 bit data.
                 <mmapped_file>
                      file to map data to (default:  ~/.mplayer/mplayer-af_ex-
                      port)
                 <nsamples>
                      number of samples per channel (default: 512)

              EXAMPLE:
                 mplayer -af export=/tmp/mplayer-af_export:1024 media.avi
                      Would  export 1024 samples per channel to '/tmp/mplayer-
                      af_export'.

       extrastereo[=mul]
              (Linearly) increases the difference between left and right chan-
              nels which adds some sort of "live" effect to playback.
                 <mul>
                      Sets  the  difference  coefficient  (default: 2.5).  0.0
                      means mono sound (average of both  channels),  with  1.0
                      sound  will be unchanged, with -1.0 left and right chan-
                      nels will be swapped.

       volnorm[=method:target]
              Maximizes the volume without distorting the sound.
                 <method>
                      Sets the used method.
                         1: Use a single sample to smooth the  variations  via
                         the  standard  weighted  mean  over past samples (de-
                         fault).
                         2: Use several samples to smooth the  variations  via
                         the standard weighted mean over past samples.

                 <target>
                      Sets  the  target amplitude as a fraction of the maximum
                      for the sample type (default: 0.25).

       ladspa=file:label[:controls...]
              Load a LADSPA (Linux Audio Developer's Simple Plugin API)  plug-
              in.  This filter is reentrant, so multiple LADSPA plugins can be
              used at once.
                 <file>
                      Specifies  the   LADSPA   plugin   library   file.    If
                      LADSPA_PATH  is set, it searches for the specified file.
                      If it is not set, you  must  supply  a  fully  specified
                      pathname.
                 <label>
                      Specifies the filter within the library.  Some libraries
                      contain only one filter,  but  others  contain  many  of
                      them.   Entering  'help'  here,  will list all available
                      filters within the specified library,  which  eliminates
                      the use of 'listplugins' from the LADSPA SDK.
                 <controls>
                      Controls are zero or more floating point values that de-
                      termine the behavior of the loaded plugin  (for  example
                      delay,  threshold  or gain).  In verbose mode (add -v to
                      the MPlayer command line), all  available  controls  and
                      their valid ranges are printed.  This eliminates the use
                      of 'analyseplugin' from the LADSPA SDK.

       comp
              Compressor/expander filter usable for  microphone  input.   Pre-
              vents artifacts on very loud sound and raises the volume on very
              low sound.  This filter is untested, maybe even unusable.

       gate
              Noise gate filter similar to the comp audio filter.  This filter
              is untested, maybe even unusable.

       karaoke
              Simple  voice  removal  filter exploiting the fact that voice is
              usually recorded with mono gear and later  'center'  mixed  onto
              the  final audio stream.  Beware that this filter will turn your
              signal into mono.  Works well for 2 channel tracks; do not both-
              er trying it on anything but 2 channel stereo.

VIDEO FILTERS
       Video  filters allow you to modify the video stream and its properties.
       The syntax is:

       -vf <&lt;filter1[=parameter1:parameter2:...],filter2,...>&gt;
              Setup a chain of video filters.

       Many parameters are optional and set to default values if omitted.   To
       explicitly use a default value set a parameter to '-1'.  Parameters w:h
       means width x height in pixels, x:y means x;y position counted from the
       upper left corner of the bigger image.
       NOTE: To get a full list of available video filters, see -vf help.

       Video filters are managed in lists.  There are a few commands to manage
       the filter list.

       -vf-add <&lt;filter1[,filter2,...]>&gt;
              Appends the filters given as arguments to the filter list.

       -vf-pre <&lt;filter1[,filter2,...]>&gt;
              Prepends the filters given as arguments to the filter list.

       -vf-del <&lt;index1[,index2,...]>&gt;
              Deletes the filters at the given indexes.  Index  numbers  start
              at  0,  negative  numbers address the end of the list (-1 is the
              last).

       -vf-clr
              Completely empties the filter list.

       With filters that support it, you can access parameters by their name.

       -vf <&lt;filter>&gt;=help
              Prints the parameter names and parameter value ranges for a par-
              ticular filter.

       -vf <&lt;filter=named_parameter1=value1[:named_parameter2=value2:...]>&gt;
              Sets  a  named  parameter to the given value.  Use on and off or
              yes and no to set flag parameters.

       Available filters are:

       crop[=w:h:x:y]
              Crops the given part of the image and discards the rest.  Useful
              to remove black bands from widescreen movies.
                 <w>,<h>
                      Cropped width and height, defaults to original width and
                      height.
                 <x>,<y>
                      Position of the cropped picture, defaults to center.

       cropdetect[=limit:round]
              Calculates necessary cropping parameters and prints  the  recom-
              mended parameters to stdout.
                 <limit>
                      Threshold,  which can be optionally specified from noth-
                      ing (0) to everything (255) (default: 24).
                 <round>
                      Value which the width/height should be divisible by (de-
                      fault:  16).   The  offset  is automatically adjusted to
                      center the video.  Use 2 to  get  only  even  dimensions
                      (needed  for  4:2:2 video).  16 is best when encoding to
                      most video codecs.

       rectangle[=w:h:x:y]
              The plugin responds to the input.conf directive  'change_rectan-
              gle' that takes two parameters.
                 <w>,<h>
                      width  and  height  (default: -1, maximum possible width
                      where boundaries are still visible.)
                 <x>,<y>
                      top left corner position (default: -1,  uppermost  left-
                      most)

       expand[=w:h:x:y:o:a:r]
              Expands  (not  scales)  movie  resolution to the given value and
              places the unscaled original at coordinates x, y.  Can  be  used
              for placing subtitles/OSD in the resulting black bands.

                 <w>,<h>
                      Expanded  width,height (default: original width,height).
                      Negative values for w and h are treated  as  offsets  to
                      the original size.

                      EXAMPLE:
                           expand=0:-50:0:0
                                  Adds  a 50 pixel border to the bottom of the
                                  picture.

                 <x>,<y>
                      position of original image on the  expanded  image  (de-
                      fault: center)

                 <o>
                      OSD/subtitle rendering
                         0: disable (default)
                         1: enable

                 <a>
                      Expands  to  fit  an aspect instead of a resolution (de-
                      fault: 0).

                      EXAMPLE:
                           expand=800:::::4/3
                                  Expands to 800x600,  unless  the  source  is
                                  higher  resolution, in which case it expands
                                  to fill a 4/3 aspect.

                 <r>
                      Rounds up to make both width and height divisible by <r>
                      (default: 1).

       flip (also see -flip)
              Flips the image upside down.

       mirror
              Mirrors the image on the Y axis.

       rotate[=<&lt;0-7>&gt;]
              Rotates  the  image  by 90 degrees and optionally flips it.  For
              values between 4-7 rotation is only done if the  movie  geometry
              is portrait and not landscape.

                 0    Rotate by 90 degrees clockwise and flip (default).

                 1    Rotate by 90 degrees clockwise.

                 2    Rotate by 90 degrees counterclockwise.

                 3    Rotate by 90 degrees counterclockwise and flip.

       scale[=w:h[:ilaced[:chr_drop[:par[:par2[:presize[:noup[:arnd]]]]]]]]
              Scales  the image with the software scaler (slow) and performs a
              YUV<->RGB colorspace conversion (also see -sws).

                 <w>,<h>
                      scaled width/height (default: original width/height)
                      NOTE: If -zoom is used, and underlying filters  (includ-
                      ing  libvo)  are  incapable  of  scaling, it defaults to
                      d_width/d_height!
                          0:   scaled d_width/d_height
                         -1:   original width/height
                         -2:   Calculate w/h using the other dimension and the
                         prescaled aspect ratio.
                         -3:   Calculate w/h using the other dimension and the
                         original aspect ratio.
                         -(n+8): Like -n above, but rounding the dimension  to
                         the closest multiple of 16.

                 <ilaced>
                      Toggle interlaced scaling.
                         0: off (default)
                         1: on

                 <chr_drop>
                      chroma skipping
                         0: Use all available input lines for chroma.
                         1: Use only every 2. input line for chroma.
                         2: Use only every 4. input line for chroma.
                         3: Use only every 8. input line for chroma.

                 <par>[:<par2>] (also see -sws)
                      Set  some  scaling  parameters  depending on the type of
                      scaler selected with -sws.
                         -sws 2 (bicubic):  B (blurring) and C (ringing)
                         0.00:0.60 default
                         0.00:0.75 VirtualDub's "precise bicubic"
                         0.00:0.50 Catmull-Rom spline
                         0.33:0.33 Mitchell-Netravali spline
                         1.00:0.00 cubic B-spline
                         -sws 7 (gaussian): sharpness (0 (soft) - 100 (sharp))
                         -sws 9 (lanczos):  filter length (1-10)

                 <presize>
                      Scale to preset sizes.
                         qntsc:   352x240 (NTSC quarter screen)
                         qpal:    352x288 (PAL quarter screen)
                         ntsc:    720x480 (standard NTSC)
                         pal:     720x576 (standard PAL)
                         sntsc:   640x480 (square pixel NTSC)
                         spal:    768x576 (square pixel PAL)

                 <noup>
                      Disallow upscaling past the original dimensions.
                         0: Allow upscaling (default).
                         1: Disallow upscaling if one  dimension  exceeds  its
                         original value.
                         2: Disallow upscaling if both dimensions exceed their
                         original values.

                 <arnd>
                      Accurate rounding for the vertical scaler, which may  be
                      faster or slower than the default rounding.
                         0: Disable accurate rounding (default).
                         1: Enable accurate rounding.

       dsize[=aspect|w:h:aspect-method:r]
              Changes  the  intended display size/aspect at an arbitrary point
              in the filter chain.  Aspect can be given as a fraction (4/3) or
              floating  point  number  (1.33).  Alternatively, you may specify
              the exact display width and height desired.  Note that this fil-
              ter  does  not do any scaling itself; it just affects what later
              scalers (software or hardware) will do when auto-scaling to cor-
              rect aspect.

                 <w>,<h>
                      New display width and height.  Can also be these special
                      values:
                          0:   original display width and height
                         -1:   original video width and height (default)
                         -2:   Calculate w/h using the other dimension and the
                         original display aspect ratio.
                         -3:   Calculate w/h using the other dimension and the
                         original video aspect ratio.

                 EXAMPLE:
                           dsize=800:-2
                                  Specifies a display  resolution  of  800x600
                                  for  a  4/3  aspect  video, or 800x450 for a
                                  16/9 aspect video.
                 <aspect-method>
                      Modifies width and height according to  original  aspect
                      ratios.
                         -1: Ignore original aspect ratio (default).
                          0: Keep display aspect ratio by using <w> and <h> as
                         maximum resolution.
                          1: Keep display aspect ratio by using <w> and <h> as
                         minimum resolution.
                          2:  Keep  video aspect ratio by using <w> and <h> as
                         maximum resolution.
                          3: Keep video aspect ratio by using <w> and  <h>  as
                         minimum resolution.

                 EXAMPLE:
                           dsize=800:600:0
                                  Specifies  a  display  resolution of at most
                                  800x600, or smaller, in order  to  keep  as-
                                  pect.

                 <r>
                      Rounds up to make both width and height divisible by <r>
                      (default: 1).

       yuy2
              Forces software YV12/I420/422P to YUY2 conversion.   Useful  for
              video cards/drivers with slow YV12 but fast YUY2 support.

       yvu9
              Forces  software YVU9 to YV12 colorspace conversion.  Deprecated
              in favor of the software scaler.

       yuvcsp
              Clamps YUV color values to the CCIR 601 range without doing real
              conversion.

       rgb2bgr[=swap]
              RGB 24/32 <-> BGR 24/32 colorspace conversion.
                 swap
                      Also perform  R <-> B swapping.

       palette
              RGB/BGR 8 -> 15/16/24/32bpp colorspace conversion using palette.

       format[=fourcc]
              Restricts  the  colorspace for the next filter without doing any
              conversion.  Use together with the scale filter for a real  con-
              version.
              NOTE: For a list of available formats see format=fmt=help.
                 <fourcc>
                      format name like rgb15, bgr24, yv12, etc (default: yuy2)

       noformat[=fourcc]
              Restricts  the  colorspace for the next filter without doing any
              conversion.  Unlike the format filter, this will allow any  col-
              orspace except the one you specify.
              NOTE: For a list of available formats see noformat=fmt=help.
                 <fourcc>
                      format name like rgb15, bgr24, yv12, etc (default: yv12)

       pp[=filter1[:option1[:option2...]]/[-]filter2...] (also see -pphelp)
              Enables  the specified chain of postprocessing subfilters.  Sub-
              filters must be separated by '/' and can be disabled by prepend-
              ing  a  '-'.  Each subfilter and some options have a short and a
              long name that can be used interchangeably, i.e.  dr/dering  are
              the  same.   All  subfilters  share  common options to determine
              their scope:
                 a/autoq
                      Automatically switch the subfilter off if the CPU is too
                      slow.
                 c/chrom
                      Do chrominance filtering, too (default).
                 y/nochrom
                      Do luminance filtering only (no chrominance).
                 n/noluma
                      Do chrominance filtering only (no luminance).

              NOTE: -pphelp shows a list of available subfilters.

              Available subfilters are

                 hb/hdeblock[:difference[:flatness]]
                      horizontal deblocking filter
                         <difference>:  Difference  factor where higher values
                         mean more deblocking (default: 32).
                         <flatness>: Flatness  threshold  where  lower  values
                         mean more deblocking (default: 39).

                 vb/vdeblock[:difference[:flatness]]
                      vertical deblocking filter
                         <difference>:  Difference  factor where higher values
                         mean more deblocking (default: 32).
                         <flatness>: Flatness  threshold  where  lower  values
                         mean more deblocking (default: 39).

                 ha/hadeblock[:difference[:flatness]]
                      accurate horizontal deblocking filter
                         <difference>:  Difference  factor where higher values
                         mean more deblocking (default: 32).
                         <flatness>: Flatness  threshold  where  lower  values
                         mean more deblocking (default: 39).

                 va/vadeblock[:difference[:flatness]]
                      accurate vertical deblocking filter
                         <difference>:  Difference  factor where higher values
                         mean more deblocking (default: 32).
                         <flatness>: Flatness  threshold  where  lower  values
                         mean more deblocking (default: 39).

                 The horizontal and vertical deblocking filters share the dif-
                 ference and flatness values so you cannot set different hori-
                 zontal and vertical thresholds.


                 h1/x1hdeblock
                      experimental horizontal deblocking filter

                 v1/x1vdeblock
                      experimental vertical deblocking filter

                 dr/dering
                      deringing filter

                 tn/tmpnoise[:threshold1[:threshold2[:threshold3]]]
                      temporal noise reducer
                         <threshold1>: larger -> stronger filtering
                         <threshold2>: larger -> stronger filtering
                         <threshold3>: larger -> stronger filtering

                 al/autolevels[:f/fullyrange]
                      automatic brightness / contrast correction
                         f/fullyrange: Stretch luminance to (0-255).

                 lb/linblenddeint
                      Linear  blend deinterlacing filter that deinterlaces the
                      given block by filtering all lines with a (1 2  1)  fil-
                      ter.

                 li/linipoldeint
                      Linear  interpolating deinterlacing filter that deinter-
                      laces the given block by  linearly  interpolating  every
                      second line.

                 ci/cubicipoldeint
                      Cubic  interpolating  deinterlacing  filter deinterlaces
                      the given block by cubically interpolating every  second
                      line.

                 md/mediandeint
                      Median  deinterlacing filter that deinterlaces the given
                      block by applying a median filter to every second line.

                 fd/ffmpegdeint
                      FFmpeg deinterlacing filter that deinterlaces the  given
                      block  by  filtering  every second line with a (-1 4 2 4
                      -1) filter.

                 l5/lowpass5
                      Vertically applied FIR lowpass deinterlacing filter that
                      deinterlaces the given block by filtering all lines with
                      a (-1 2 6 2 -1) filter.

                 fq/forceQuant[:quantizer]
                      Overrides the quantizer table from the  input  with  the
                      constant quantizer you specify.
                         <quantizer>: quantizer to use

                 de/default
                      default pp filter combination (hb:a,vb:a,dr:a)

                 fa/fast
                      fast pp filter combination (h1:a,v1:a,dr:a)

                 ac
                      high       quality       pp      filter      combination
                      (ha:a:128:7,va:a,dr:a)

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vf pp=hb/vb/dr/al
                      horizontal and vertical deblocking, deringing and  auto-
                      matic brightness/contrast
                 -vf pp=de/-al
                      default filters without brightness/contrast correction
                 -vf pp=default/tmpnoise:1:2:3
                      Enable default filters & temporal denoiser.
                 -vf pp=hb:y/vb:a
                      Horizontal deblocking on luminance only, and switch ver-
                      tical deblocking on or off  automatically  depending  on
                      available CPU time.

       spp[=quality[:qp[:mode]]]
              Simple  postprocessing  filter  that compresses and decompresses
              the image at several (or - in the case of quality level 6 - all)
              shifts and averages the results.

                 <quality>
                      0-6 (default: 3)

                 <qp>
                      Force  quantization  parameter  (default: 0, use QP from
                      video).

                 <mode>
                      0: hard thresholding (default)
                      1: soft thresholding (better deringing, but blurrier)
                      4: like 0, but also use B-frames' QP (may cause flicker)
                      5: like 1, but also use B-frames' QP (may cause flicker)

       uspp[=quality[:qp]]
              Ultra simple & slow postprocessing filter  that  compresses  and
              decompresses  the  image at several (or - in the case of quality
              level 8 - all) shifts and averages the results.   The  way  this
              differs from the behavior of spp is that uspp actually encodes &
              decodes each case with libavcodec Snow, whereas spp uses a  sim-
              plified intra only 8x8 DCT similar to MJPEG.

                 <quality>
                      0-8 (default: 3)

                 <qp>
                      Force  quantization  parameter  (default: 0, use QP from
                      video).

       fspp[=quality[:qp[:strength[:bframes]]]]
              faster version of the simple postprocessing filter

                 <quality>
                      4-5 (equivalent to spp; default: 4)

                 <qp>
                      Force quantization parameter (default: 0,  use  QP  from
                      video).

                 <-15-32>
                      Filter strength, lower values mean more details but also
                      more artifacts,  while  higher  values  make  the  image
                      smoother but also blurrier (default: 0 - PSNR optimal).

                 <bframes>
                      0: do not use QP from B-frames (default)
                      1: use QP from B-frames too (may cause flicker)

       pp7[=qp[:mode]]
              Variant  of  the  spp  filter, similar to spp=6 with 7 point DCT
              where only the center sample is used after IDCT.

                 <qp>
                      Force quantization parameter (default: 0,  use  QP  from
                      video).

                 <mode>
                      0: hard thresholding
                      1: soft thresholding (better deringing, but blurrier)
                      2: medium thresholding (default, good results)

       qp=equation
              quantization parameter (QP) change filter

                 <equation>
                      some equation like "2+2*sin(PI*qp)"

       geq=equation
              generic equation change filter

                 <equation>
                      Some equation, e.g.  'p(W-X\,Y)' to flip the image hori-
                      zontally.  You can use whitespace to make  the  equation
                      more readable.  There are a couple of constants that can
                      be used in the equation:
                         PI: the number pi
                         E: the number e
                         X / Y: the coordinates of the current sample
                         W / H: width and height of the image
                         SW / SH: width/height scale depending on the current-
                         ly  filtered  plane,  e.g.  1,1  and  0.5,0.5 for YUV
                         4:2:0.
                         p(x,y): returns the value of the  pixel  at  location
                         x/y of the current plane.

       test
              Generate various test patterns.

       rgbtest
              Generate an RGB test pattern useful for detecting RGB vs BGR is-
              sues.  You should see a red, green and blue stripe from  top  to
              bottom.

       lavc[=quality:fps]
              Fast  software YV12 to MPEG-1 conversion with libavcodec for use
              with DVB/DXR3/IVTV/V4L2.

                 <quality>
                      1-31: fixed qscale
                      32-:  fixed bitrate in kbits

                 <fps>
                      force output fps (float value) (default:  0,  autodetect
                      based on height)

       dvbscale[=aspect]
              Set  up  optimal  scaling  for  DVB cards, scaling the x axis in
              hardware and calculating the y axis scaling in software to  keep
              aspect.  Only useful together with expand and scale.

                 <aspect>
                      Control  aspect ratio, calculate as DVB_HEIGHT*ASPECTRA-
                      TIO (default: 576*4/3=768), set  it  to  576*(16/9)=1024
                      for a 16:9 TV.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vf dvbscale,scale=-1:0,expand=-1:576:-1:-1:1,lavc
                      FIXME: Explain what this does.

       noise[=luma[u][t|a][h][p]:chroma[u][t|a][h][p]]
              Adds noise.
                 <0-100>
                      luma noise
                 <0-100>
                      chroma noise
                 u    uniform noise (gaussian otherwise)
                 t    temporal noise (noise pattern changes between frames)
                 a    averaged temporal noise (smoother, but a lot slower)
                 h    high quality (slightly better looking, slightly slower)
                 p    mix random noise with a (semi)regular pattern

       denoise3d[=luma_spatial:chroma_spatial:luma_tmp:chroma_tmp]
              This  filter  aims to reduce image noise producing smooth images
              and making still images really still (This should  enhance  com-
              pressibility.).
                 <luma_spatial>
                      spatial luma strength (default: 4)
                 <chroma_spatial>
                      spatial chroma strength (default: 3)
                 <luma_tmp>
                      luma temporal strength (default: 6)
                 <chroma_tmp>
                      chroma  temporal strength (default: luma_tmp*chroma_spa-
                      tial/luma_spatial)

       hqdn3d[=luma_spatial:chroma_spatial:luma_tmp:chroma_tmp]
              High precision/quality version of the denoise3d filter.  Parame-
              ters and usage are the same.

       eq[=brightness:contrast] (OBSOLETE)
              Software equalizer with interactive controls just like the hard-
              ware equalizer, for cards/drivers that do not support brightness
              and  contrast  controls  in hardware.  Might also be useful with
              MEncoder, either for  fixing  poorly  captured  movies,  or  for
              slightly  reducing  contrast  to  mask artifacts and get by with
              lower bitrates.
                 <-100-100>
                      initial brightness
                 <-100-100>
                      initial contrast

       eq2[=gamma:contrast:brightness:saturation:rg:gg:bg:weight]
              Alternative software equalizer that  uses  lookup  tables  (very
              slow),  allowing  gamma correction in addition to simple bright-
              ness and contrast adjustment.  Note that it uses  the  same  MMX
              optimized  code  as -vf eq if all gamma values are 1.0.  The pa-
              rameters are given as floating point values.
                 <0.1-10>
                      initial gamma value (default: 1.0)
                 <-2-2>
                      initial contrast, where negative values result in a neg-
                      ative image (default: 1.0)
                 <-1-1>
                      initial brightness (default: 0.0)
                 <0-3>
                      initial saturation (default: 1.0)
                 <0.1-10>
                      gamma value for the red component (default: 1.0)
                 <0.1-10>
                      gamma value for the green component (default: 1.0)
                 <0.1-10>
                      gamma value for the blue component (default: 1.0)
                 <0-1>
                      The weight parameter can be used to reduce the effect of
                      a high gamma value on bright image areas, e.g. keep them
                      from getting overamplified and just plain white.  A val-
                      ue of 0.0 turns the gamma correction all  the  way  down
                      while 1.0 leaves it at its full strength (default: 1.0).

       hue[=hue:saturation]
              Software equalizer with interactive controls just like the hard-
              ware equalizer, for cards/drivers that do not  support  hue  and
              saturation controls in hardware.
                 <-180-180>
                      initial hue (default: 0.0)
                 <-100-100>
                      initial  saturation,  where  negative values result in a
                      negative chroma (default: 1.0)

       halfpack[=f]
              Convert planar YUV 4:2:0 to half-height packed  4:2:2,  downsam-
              pling luma but keeping all chroma samples.  Useful for output to
              low-resolution display devices when hardware downscaling is poor
              quality  or  is  not available.  Can also be used as a primitive
              luma-only deinterlacer with very low CPU usage.
                 <f>
                      By default, halfpack averages pairs of lines when  down-
                      sampling.  Any value different from 0 or 1 gives the de-
                      fault (averaging) behavior.
                         0: Only use even lines when downsampling.
                         1: Only use odd lines when downsampling.

       ilpack[=mode]
              When interlaced video is stored in YUV 4:2:0 formats, chroma in-
              terlacing does not line up properly due to vertical downsampling
              of the chroma channels.  This filter packs the planar 4:2:0 data
              into  YUY2  (4:2:2) format with the chroma lines in their proper
              locations, so that in any given scanline, the  luma  and  chroma
              data both come from the same field.
                 <mode>
                      Select the sampling mode.
                         0: nearest-neighbor sampling, fast but incorrect
                         1: linear interpolation (default)

       harddup
              Only useful with MEncoder.  If harddup is used when encoding, it
              will force duplicate frames to be encoded in the  output.   This
              uses  slightly  more  space, but is necessary for output to MPEG
              files or if you plan to demux and remux the video  stream  after
              encoding.   Should  be  placed  at or near the end of the filter
              chain unless you have a good reason to do otherwise.

       softskip
              Only useful with MEncoder.  Softskip moves  the  frame  skipping
              (dropping) step of encoding from before the filter chain to some
              point during the filter chain.  This allows filters  which  need
              to  see  all frames (inverse telecine, temporal denoising, etc.)
              to function properly.  Should be placed after the filters  which
              need  to  see  all frames and before any subsequent filters that
              are CPU-intensive.

       decimate[=max:hi:lo:frac]
              Drops frames that do not differ greatly from the previous  frame
              in  order  to  reduce framerate.  The main use of this filter is
              for very-low-bitrate encoding (e.g. streaming  over  dialup  mo-
              dem), but it could in theory be used for fixing movies that were
              inverse-telecined incorrectly.
                 <max>
                      Sets the maximum number of consecutive frames which  can
                      be  dropped  (if  positive), or the minimum interval be-
                      tween dropped frames (if negative).
                 <hi>,<lo>,<frac>
                      A frame is a candidate for dropping  if  no  8x8  region
                      differs  by  more  than  a threshold of <hi>, and if not
                      more than <frac> portion (1  meaning  the  whole  image)
                      differs  by  more  than  a threshold of <lo>.  Values of
                      <hi> and <lo> are for 8x8 pixel blocks and represent ac-
                      tual  pixel value differences, so a threshold of 64 cor-
                      responds to 1 unit of difference for each pixel, or  the
                      same spread out differently over the block.

       dint[=sense:level]
              The  drop-deinterlace  (dint) filter detects and drops the first
              from a set of interlaced video frames.
                 <0.0-1.0>
                      relative difference between neighboring pixels (default:
                      0.1)
                 <0.0-1.0>
                      What  part of the image has to be detected as interlaced
                      to drop the frame (default: 0.15).

       lavcdeint (OBSOLETE)
              FFmpeg deinterlacing filter, same as -vf pp=fd

       kerndeint[=thresh[:map[:order[:sharp[:twoway]]]]]
              Donald Graft's adaptive kernel deinterlacer.  Deinterlaces parts
              of a video if a configurable threshold is exceeded.
                 <0-255>
                      threshold (default: 10)
                 <map>
                         0: Ignore pixels exceeding the threshold (default).
                         1: Paint pixels exceeding the threshold white.

                 <order>
                         0: Leave fields alone (default).
                         1: Swap fields.

                 <sharp>
                         0: Disable additional sharpening (default).
                         1: Enable additional sharpening.

                 <twoway>
                         0: Disable twoway sharpening (default).
                         1: Enable twoway sharpening.

       unsharp[=l|cWxH:amount[:l|cWxH:amount]]
              unsharp mask / gaussian blur

                 l
                      Apply effect on luma component.

                 c
                      Apply effect on chroma components.

                 <width>x<height>
                      width and height of the matrix, odd sized in both direc-
                      tions (min = 3x3, max = 13x11 or  11x13,  usually  some-
                      thing between 3x3 and 7x7)

                 amount
                      Relative amount of sharpness/blur to add to the image (a
                      sane range should be -1.5-1.5).
                         <0: blur
                         >0: sharpen

       swapuv
              Swap U & V plane.

       il[=d|i][s][:[d|i][s]]
              (De)interleaves lines.  The goal of this filter is  to  add  the
              ability  to process interlaced images pre-field without deinter-
              lacing them.  You can filter your interlaced DVD and play it  on
              a  TV  without  breaking  the  interlacing.  While deinterlacing
              (with the postprocessing filter) removes interlacing permanently
              (by  smoothing,  averaging, etc) deinterleaving splits the frame
              into 2 fields (so called half  pictures),  so  you  can  process
              (filter) them independently and then re-interleave them.
                 d    deinterleave (placing one above the other)
                 i    interleave
                 s    swap fields (exchange even & odd lines)

       fil[=i|d]
              (De)interleaves  lines.   This  filter is very similar to the il
              filter but much faster, the main disadvantage is  that  it  does
              not  always  work.  Especially if combined with other filters it
              may produce randomly messed up images, so be happy if  it  works
              but  do not complain if it does not for your combination of fil-
              ters.
                 d    Deinterleave fields, placing them side by side.
                 i    Interleave fields again (reversing the effect of fil=d).

       field[=n]
              Extracts a single field from an interlaced  image  using  stride
              arithmetic  to  avoid wasting CPU time.  The optional argument n
              specifies whether to extract the even or the odd field  (depend-
              ing on whether n is even or odd).

       detc[=var1=value1:var2=value2:...]
              Attempts  to  reverse the 'telecine' process to recover a clean,
              non-interlaced stream at film framerate.  This was the first and
              most  primitive  inverse telecine filter to be added to MPlayer/
              MEncoder.  It works by latching onto the  telecine  3:2  pattern
              and  following  it  as long as possible.  This makes it suitable
              for perfectly-telecined material, even in the presence of a fair
              degree  of  noise,  but  it will fail in the presence of complex
              post-telecine edits.  Development on this filter  is  no  longer
              taking  place, as ivtc, pullup, and filmdint are better for most
              applications.  The following arguments (see syntax above) may be
              used to control detc's behavior:

                 <dr>
                      Set the frame dropping mode.
                         0:  Do not drop frames to maintain fixed output fram-
                         erate (default).
                         1: Always drop a frame when there have been no  drops
                         or telecine merges in the past 5 frames.
                         2:  Always  maintain  exact 5:4 input to output frame
                         ratio.
                         NOTE: Use mode 1 or 2 with MEncoder.

                 <am>
                      Analysis mode.
                         0: Fixed pattern with initial frame number  specified
                         by <fr>.
                         1: aggressive search for telecine pattern (default)

                 <fr>
                      Set initial frame number in sequence.  0-2 are the three
                      clean progressive frames; 3 and 4 are the two interlaced
                      frames.   The  default,  -1,  means 'not in telecine se-
                      quence'.  The number specified here is the type for  the
                      imaginary previous frame before the movie starts.

                 <t0>, <t1>, <t2>, <t3>
                      Threshold values to be used in certain modes.

       ivtc[=1]
              Experimental  'stateless'  inverse telecine filter.  Rather than
              trying to lock on to a pattern like the detc filter  does,  ivtc
              makes  its  decisions  independently  for each frame.  This will
              give much better results for material that has  undergone  heavy
              editing after telecine was applied, but as a result it is not as
              forgiving of noisy input, for example TV capture.  The  optional
              parameter  (ivtc=1)  corresponds to the dr=1 option for the detc
              filter, and should be used with MEncoder but not  with  MPlayer.
              As  with  detc,  you  must  specify the correct output framerate
              (-ofps 24000/1001) when using MEncoder.  Further development  on
              ivtc  has  stopped, as the pullup and filmdint filters appear to
              be much more accurate.

       pullup[=jl:jr:jt:jb:sb:mp]
              Third-generation pulldown reversal  (inverse  telecine)  filter,
              capable of handling mixed hard-telecine, 24000/1001 fps progres-
              sive, and 30000/1001 fps progressive content.  The pullup filter
              is  designed to be much more robust than detc or ivtc, by taking
              advantage of future context in making its decisions.  Like ivtc,
              pullup  is  stateless  in the sense that it does not lock onto a
              pattern to follow, but it instead looks forward to the following
              fields  in  order  to  identify  matches and rebuild progressive
              frames.  It is still under development, but believed to be quite
              accurate.

                 jl, jr, jt, and jb
                      These  options set the amount of "junk" to ignore at the
                      left, right, top, and bottom of the image, respectively.
                      Left/right  are  in  units of 8 pixels, while top/bottom
                      are in units of 2 lines.  The default  is  8  pixels  on
                      each side.

                 sb (strict breaks)
                      Setting  this  option  to  1  will reduce the chances of
                      pullup generating an occasional mismatched frame, but it
                      may  also  cause  an  excessive  number  of frames to be
                      dropped during high motion sequences.  Conversely,  set-
                      ting it to -1 will make pullup match fields more easily.
                      This may help processing of video where there is  slight
                      blurring between the fields, but may also cause there to
                      be interlaced frames in the output.

                 mp (metric plane)
                      This option may be set to 1 or 2 to use a  chroma  plane
                      instead  of  the  luma plane for doing pullup's computa-
                      tions.  This may improve accuracy on very  clean  source
                      material,  but more likely will decrease accuracy, espe-
                      cially if there is chroma noise (rainbow effect) or  any
                      grayscale  video.   The  main purpose of setting mp to a
                      chroma plane is to reduce CPU load and make  pullup  us-
                      able in realtime on slow machines.

              NOTE:  Always follow pullup with the softskip filter when encod-
              ing to ensure that pullup is able to see each frame.  Failure to
              do  so will lead to incorrect output and will usually crash, due
              to design limitations in the codec/filter layer.

       filmdint[=options]
              Inverse telecine filter, similar to the pullup filter above.  It
              is designed to handle any pulldown pattern, including mixed soft
              and hard telecine and limited support for movies that are slowed
              down  or sped up from their original framerate for TV.  Only the
              luma plane is used to find the frame breaks.  If a field has  no
              match,  it is deinterlaced with simple linear approximation.  If
              the source is MPEG-2, this must be the first filter to allow ac-
              cess to the field-flags set by the MPEG-2 decoder.  Depending on
              the source MPEG, you may be fine ignoring this advice,  as  long
              as  you  do not see lots of "Bottom-first field" warnings.  With
              no options it does normal inverse telecine, and should  be  used
              together  with  mencoder -fps 30000/1001 -ofps 24000/1001.  When
              this filter is used with mplayer, it will result  in  an  uneven
              framerate during playback, but it is still generally better than
              using pp=lb or no deinterlacing at all.  Multiple options can be
              specified separated by /.

                 crop=<w>:<h>:<x>:<y>
                      Just  like  the  crop  filter,  but faster, and works on
                      mixed hard and soft telecined content as well as when  y
                      is  not  a multiple of 4.  If x or y would require crop-
                      ping fractional pixels from the chroma planes, the  crop
                      area  is extended.  This usually means that x and y must
                      be even.

                 io=<ifps>:<ofps>
                      For each ifps input frames the filter will  output  ofps
                      frames.    The  ratio  of  ifps/ofps  should  match  the
                      -fps/-ofps ratio.  This could be used to  filter  movies
                      that  are broadcast on TV at a frame rate different from
                      their original framerate.

                 luma_only=<n>
                      If n is nonzero, the chroma plane is  copied  unchanged.
                      This  is  useful for YV12 sampled TV, which discards one
                      of the chroma fields.

                 mmx2=<n>
                      On x86, if n=1, use MMX2 optimized  functions,  if  n=2,
                      use 3DNow!  optimized functions, otherwise, use plain C.
                      If this option is not specified, MMX2 and 3DNow! are au-
                      to-detected, use this option to override auto-detection.

                 fast=<n>
                      The  larger n will speed up the filter at the expense of
                      accuracy.  The default value is n=3.  If  n  is  odd,  a
                      frame  immediately following a frame marked with the RE-
                      PEAT_FIRST_FIELD MPEG flag is assumed to be progressive,
                      thus  filter  will  not spend any time on soft-telecined
                      MPEG-2 content.  This is the only effect of this flag if
                      MMX2 or 3DNow! is available.  Without MMX2 and 3DNow, if
                      n=0 or 1, the same calculations will be used as with n=2
                      or  3.   If  n=2 or 3, the number of luma levels used to
                      find the frame breaks is reduced from 256 to 128,  which
                      results in a faster filter without losing much accuracy.
                      If n=4 or 5, a faster, but  much  less  accurate  metric
                      will  be  used  to  find the frame breaks, which is more
                      likely to misdetect high vertical detail  as  interlaced
                      content.

                 verbose=<n>
                      If  n  is  nonzero,  print the detailed metrics for each
                      frame.  Useful for debugging.

                 dint_thres=<n>
                      Deinterlace threshold.  Used  during  de-interlacing  of
                      unmatched  frames.   Larger value means less deinterlac-
                      ing, use n=256 to  completely  turn  off  deinterlacing.
                      Default is n=8.

                 comb_thres=<n>
                      Threshold  for  comparing  a top and bottom fields.  De-
                      faults to 128.

                 diff_thres=<n>
                      Threshold to detect temporal change of a field.  Default
                      is 128.

                 sad_thres=<n>
                      Sum of Absolute Difference threshold, default is 64.

       softpulldown
              This  filter  works  only  correct with MEncoder and acts on the
              MPEG-2 flags used for soft 3:2 pulldown (soft telecine).  If you
              want  to  use  the ivtc or detc filter on movies that are partly
              soft telecined, inserting this filter before  them  should  make
              them more reliable.

       divtc[=options]
              Inverse   telecine  for  deinterlaced  video.   If  3:2-pulldown
              telecined video has lost one of the fields  or  is  deinterlaced
              using  a method that keeps one field and interpolates the other,
              the result is a juddering video that has every fourth frame  du-
              plicated.  This filter is intended to find and drop those dupli-
              cates and restore the original film framerate.  When using  this
              filter, you must specify -ofps that is 4/5 of the fps of the in-
              put file and place the softskip later in  the  filter  chain  to
              make  sure  that divtc sees all the frames.  Two different modes
              are available: One pass mode is the default and is  straightfor-
              ward  to  use,  but has the disadvantage that any changes in the
              telecine phase (lost frames or bad edits) cause momentary judder
              until the filter can resync again.  Two pass mode avoids this by
              analyzing the whole video beforehand so  it  will  have  forward
              knowledge  about  the  phase changes and can resync at the exact
              spot.  These passes do not correspond to pass one and two of the
              encoding  process.   You must run an extra pass using divtc pass
              one before the actual  encoding  throwing  the  resulting  video
              away.   Use  -nosound -ovc raw -o /dev/null to avoid wasting CPU
              power for this pass.  You may add  something  like  crop=2:2:0:0
              after  divtc  to speed things up even more.  Then use divtc pass
              two for the actual encoding.  If you use multiple encoder  pass-
              es, use divtc pass two for all of them.  The options are:

                 pass=1|2
                      Use two pass mode.

                 file=<filename>
                      Set   the  two  pass  log  filename  (default:  "framed-
                      iff.log").

                 threshold=<value>
                      Set the minimum strength the telecine pattern must  have
                      for the filter to believe in it (default: 0.5).  This is
                      used to avoid recognizing false pattern from  the  parts
                      of the video that are very dark or very still.

                 window=<numframes>
                      Set  the number of past frames to look at when searching
                      for pattern (default: 30).  Longer window  improves  the
                      reliability  of  the  pattern search, but shorter window
                      improves  the  reaction  time  to  the  changes  in  the
                      telecine  phase.   This  only affects the one pass mode.
                      The two pass mode currently uses fixed window  that  ex-
                      tends to both future and past.

                 phase=0|1|2|3|4
                      Sets  the  initial telecine phase for one pass mode (de-
                      fault: 0).  The two pass mode can see the future, so  it
                      is able to use the correct phase from the beginning, but
                      one pass mode can only guess.  It  catches  the  correct
                      phase  when  it finds it, but this option can be used to
                      fix the possible juddering at the beginning.  The  first
                      pass of the two pass mode also uses this, so if you save
                      the output from the first pass, you get  constant  phase
                      result.

                 deghost=<value>
                      Set  the  deghosting threshold (0-255 for one pass mode,
                      -255-255 for two pass mode,  default  0).   If  nonzero,
                      deghosting  mode  is  used.   This is for video that has
                      been deinterlaced by blending the  fields  together  in-
                      stead  of dropping one of the fields.  Deghosting ampli-
                      fies any compression artifacts in the blended frames, so
                      the  parameter  value  is used as a threshold to exclude
                      those pixels from deghosting that differ from the previ-
                      ous  frame  less than specified value.  If two pass mode
                      is used, then negative value can be  used  to  make  the
                      filter  analyze  the  whole  video  in  the beginning of
                      pass-2 to determine whether it needs deghosting  or  not
                      and then select either zero or the absolute value of the
                      parameter.  Specify this option for pass-2, it makes  no
                      difference on pass-1.

       phase[=t|b|p|a|u|T|B|A|U][:v]
              Delay interlaced video by one field time so that the field order
              changes.  The intended use is to fix PAL movies that  have  been
              captured  with  the  opposite  field  order to the film-to-video
              transfer.  The options are:

                 t    Capture field order  top-first,  transfer  bottom-first.
                      Filter will delay the bottom field.

                 b    Capture  bottom-first,  transfer top-first.  Filter will
                      delay the top field.

                 p    Capture and transfer with the same  field  order.   This
                      mode  only exists for the documentation of the other op-
                      tions to refer to, but if you actually  select  it,  the
                      filter will faithfully do nothing ;-)

                 a    Capture  field  order  determined automatically by field
                      flags, transfer opposite.  Filter selects among t and  b
                      modes  on  a frame by frame basis using field flags.  If
                      no field information is available, then this works  just
                      like u.

                 u    Capture  unknown  or varying, transfer opposite.  Filter
                      selects among t and b on a frame by frame basis by  ana-
                      lyzing  the  images  and  selecting the alternative that
                      produces best match between the fields.

                 T    Capture top-first, transfer unknown or varying.   Filter
                      selects among t and p using image analysis.

                 B    Capture bottom-first, transfer unknown or varying.  Fil-
                      ter selects among b and p using image analysis.

                 A    Capture determined by field flags, transfer  unknown  or
                      varying.   Filter  selects  among t, b and p using field
                      flags and image analysis.  If no  field  information  is
                      available, then this works just like U.  This is the de-
                      fault mode.

                 U    Both capture and transfer unknown  or  varying.   Filter
                      selects among t, b and p using image analysis only.

                 v    Verbose  operation.   Prints  the selected mode for each
                      frame and the average squared difference between  fields
                      for t, b, and p alternatives.

       telecine[=start]
              Apply 3:2 'telecine' process to increase framerate by 20%.  This
              most likely will not work correctly with MPlayer, but it can  be
              used   with  'mencoder  -fps  30000/1001  -ofps  30000/1001  -vf
              telecine'.  Both fps options  are  essential!   (A/V  sync  will
              break  if  they  are wrong.)  The optional start parameter tells
              the filter where in the telecine pattern to start (0-3).

       tinterlace[=mode]
              Temporal field interlacing - merge pairs of frames into  an  in-
              terlaced  frame,  halving  the framerate.  Even frames are moved
              into the upper field, odd frames to the lower field.   This  can
              be  used  to  fully reverse the effect of the tfields filter (in
              mode 0).  Available modes are:
                 0    Move odd frames into the upper field, even into the low-
                      er field, generating a full-height frame at half framer-
                      ate.
                 1    Only output odd frames, even frames are dropped;  height
                      unchanged.
                 2    Only  output even frames, odd frames are dropped; height
                      unchanged.
                 3    Expand each frame to  full  height,  but  pad  alternate
                      lines with black; framerate unchanged.
                 4    Interleave  even  lines  from even frames with odd lines
                      from odd frames.  Height unchanged at half framerate.

       tfields[=mode[:field_dominance]]
              Temporal field separation - split fields into  frames,  doubling
              the  output  framerate.   Like the telecine filter, tfields will
              only work properly with MEncoder, and only if both -fps and -of-
              ps are set to the desired (double) framerate!
                 <mode>
                      0: Leave fields unchanged (will jump/flicker).
                      1:  Interpolate missing lines. (The algorithm used might
                      not be so good.)
                      2: Translate fields by 1/4 pixel with linear  interpola-
                      tion (no jump).
                      4: Translate fields by 1/4 pixel with 4tap filter (high-
                      er quality) (default).
                 <field_dominance> (DEPRECATED)
                      -1: auto (default) Only works if the decoder exports the
                      appropriate  information and no other filters which dis-
                      card that information come before tfields in the  filter
                      chain, otherwise it falls back to 0 (top field first).
                      0: top field first
                      1: bottom field first
                      NOTE:  This  option will possibly be removed in a future
                      version.  Use -field-dominance instead.

       yadif=[mode[:field_dominance]]
              Yet another deinterlacing filter
                 <mode>
                      0: Output 1 frame for each frame.
                      1: Output 1 frame for each field.
                      2: Like 0 but skips spatial interlacing check.
                      3: Like 1 but skips spatial interlacing check.
                 <field_dominance> (DEPRECATED)
                      Operates like tfields.
                      NOTE: This option will possibly be removed in  a  future
                      version.  Use -field-dominance instead.

       mcdeint=[mode[:parity[:qp]]]
              Motion  compensating deinterlacer.  It needs one field per frame
              as input and must  thus  be  used  together  with  tfields=1  or
              yadif=1/3 or equivalent.
                 <mode>
                      0: fast
                      1: medium
                      2: slow, iterative motion estimation
                      3: extra slow, like 2 plus multiple reference frames
                 <parity>
                      0  or  1 selects which field to use (note: no autodetec-
                      tion yet!).
                 <qp>
                      Higher values should result in a smoother motion  vector
                      field but less optimal individual vectors.

       boxblur=radius:power[:radius:power]
              box blur
                 <radius>
                      blur filter strength
                 <power>
                      number of filter applications

       sab=radius:pf:colorDiff[:radius:pf:colorDiff]
              shape adaptive blur
                 <radius>
                      blur filter strength (~0.1-4.0) (slower if larger)
                 <pf>
                      prefilter strength (~0.1-2.0)
                 <colorDiff>
                      maximum difference between pixels to still be considered
                      (~0.1-100.0)

       smartblur=radius:strength:threshold[:radius:strength:threshold]
              smart blur
                 <radius>
                      blur filter strength (~0.1-5.0) (slower if larger)
                 <strength>
                      blur (0.0-1.0) or sharpen (-1.0-0.0)
                 <threshold>
                      filter all (0), filter flat areas (0-30) or filter edges
                      (-30-0)

       perspective=x0:y0:x1:y1:x2:y2:x3:y3:t
              Correct  the  perspective  of movies not filmed perpendicular to
              the screen.
                 <x0>,<y0>,...
                      coordinates of the top left,  top  right,  bottom  left,
                      bottom right corners
                 <t>
                      linear (0) or cubic resampling (1)

       2xsai
              Scale and smooth the image with the 2x scale and interpolate al-
              gorithm.

       1bpp
              1bpp bitmap to YUV/BGR 8/15/16/32 conversion

       down3dright[=lines]
              Reposition and resize stereoscopic images.  Extracts both stereo
              fields  and  places them side by side, resizing them to maintain
              the original movie aspect.
                 <lines>
                      number of lines to select from the middle of  the  image
                      (default: 12)

       bmovl=hidden:opaque:fifo
              The bitmap overlay filter reads bitmaps from a FIFO and displays
              them on top of the movie, allowing some transformations  on  the
              image.   Also see TOOLS/bmovl-test.c for a small bmovl test pro-
              gram.
                 <hidden>
                      Set the default value of the 'hidden'  flag  (0=visible,
                      1=hidden).
                 <opaque>
                      Set  the default value of the 'opaque' flag (0=transpar-
                      ent, 1=opaque).
                 <fifo>
                      path/filename  for  the  FIFO  (named  pipe   connecting
                      'mplayer -vf bmovl' to the controlling application)

              FIFO commands are:
                 RGBA32 width height xpos ypos alpha clear
                      followed by width*height*4 Bytes of raw RGBA32 data.
                 ABGR32 width height xpos ypos alpha clear
                      followed by width*height*4 Bytes of raw ABGR32 data.
                 RGB24 width height xpos ypos alpha clear
                      followed by width*height*3 Bytes of raw RGB24 data.
                 BGR24 width height xpos ypos alpha clear
                      followed by width*height*3 Bytes of raw BGR24 data.
                 ALPHA width height xpos ypos alpha
                      Change alpha transparency of the specified area.
                 CLEAR width height xpos ypos
                      Clear area.
                 OPAQUE
                      Disable  all alpha transparency.  Send "ALPHA 0 0 0 0 0"
                      to enable it again.
                 HIDE
                      Hide bitmap.
                 SHOW
                      Show bitmap.

              Arguments are:
                 <width>, <height>
                      image/area size
                 <xpos>, <ypos>
                      Start blitting at position x/y.
                 <alpha>
                      Set alpha difference.  If you set this to -255  you  can
                      then  send  a sequence of ALPHA-commands to set the area
                      to -225, -200, -175 etc for a nice fade-in-effect! ;)
                         0:    same as original
                         255:  Make everything opaque.
                         -255: Make everything transparent.

                 <clear>
                      Clear the framebuffer before blitting.
                         0: The image will just be blitted on top of  the  old
                         one,  so you do not need to send 1.8MB of RGBA32 data
                         every time a small part of the screen is updated.
                         1: clear

       framestep=I|[i]step
              Renders only every nth frame or every intra frame (keyframe).

              If you call the filter with I (uppercase) as the parameter, then
              only keyframes are rendered.  For DVDs it generally means one in
              every 15/12 frames (IBBPBBPBBPBBPBB), for  AVI  it  means  every
              scene  change or every keyint value (see -lavcopts keyint= value
              if you use MEncoder to encode the video).

              When a keyframe is found, an 'I!' string followed by  a  newline
              character  is  printed, leaving the current line of MPlayer/MEn-
              coder output on the screen, because it  contains  the  time  (in
              seconds)  and frame number of the keyframe (You can use this in-
              formation to split the AVI.).

              If you call the filter with a numeric parameter 'step' then only
              one in every 'step' frames is rendered.

              If  you put an 'i' (lowercase) before the number then an 'I!' is
              printed (like the I parameter).

              If you give only the i then nothing is done to the frames,  only
              I! is printed.

       tile=xtiles:ytiles:output:start:delta
              Tile  a  series  of  images into a single, bigger image.  If you
              omit a parameter or use a value less than 0,  then  the  default
              value  is  used.   You can also stop when you are satisfied (...
              -vf tile=10:5 ...).  It is probably a good idea to put the scale
              filter before the tile :-)

              The parameters are:

                 <xtiles>
                      number of tiles on the x axis (default: 5)
                 <ytiles>
                      number of tiles on the y axis (default: 5)
                 <output>
                      Render  the  tile  when  'output'  number  of frames are
                      reached, where 'output' should be  a  number  less  than
                      xtile  *  ytile.   Missing  tiles  are  left blank.  You
                      could, for example, write an 8 * 7 tile every 50  frames
                      to have one image every 2 seconds @ 25 fps.
                 <start>
                      outer border thickness in pixels (default: 2)
                 <delta>
                      inner border thickness in pixels (default: 4)

       delogo[=x:y:w:h:t]
              Suppresses  a  TV  station logo by a simple interpolation of the
              surrounding pixels.  Just set a rectangle covering the logo  and
              watch it disappear (and sometimes something even uglier appear -
              your mileage may vary).
                 <x>,<y>
                      top left corner of the logo
                 <w>,<h>
                      width and height of the cleared rectangle
                 <t>  Thickness of the fuzzy edge of the rectangle (added to w
                      and  h).   When set to -1, a green rectangle is drawn on
                      the screen to simplify finding the right x,y,w,h parame-
                      ters.

       remove-logo=/path/to/logo_bitmap_file_name.pgm
              Suppresses  a  TV station logo, using a PGM or PPM image file to
              determine which pixels comprise the logo.  The width and  height
              of  the  image  file  must match those of the video stream being
              processed.  Uses the filter image and a circular blur  algorithm
              to remove the logo.

                 /path/to/logo_bitmap_file_name.pgm
                      [path] + filename of the filter image.

       zrmjpeg[=options]
              Software YV12 to MJPEG encoder for use with the zr2 video output
              device.

                 maxheight=<h>|maxwidth=<w>
                      These options set the maximum width and  height  the  zr
                      card can handle (the MPlayer filter layer currently can-
                      not query those).

                 {dc10+,dc10,buz,lml33}-{PAL|NTSC}
                      Use these options to set maxwidth and maxheight automat-
                      ically to the values known for card/mode combo.  For ex-
                      ample, valid options are:  dc10-PAL  and  buz-NTSC  (de-
                      fault: dc10+PAL)

                 color|bw
                      Select  color  or  black  and white encoding.  Black and
                      white encoding is faster.  Color is the default.

                 hdec={1,2,4}
                      Horizontal decimation 1, 2 or 4.

                 vdec={1,2,4}
                      Vertical decimation 1, 2 or 4.

                 quality=1-20
                      Set JPEG compression quality [BEST] 1 - 20 [VERY BAD].

                 fd|nofd
                      By default, decimation is only performed  if  the  Zoran
                      hardware  can  upscale the resulting MJPEG images to the
                      original size.  The option fd instructs  the  filter  to
                      always perform the requested decimation (ugly).

       screenshot
              Allows  acquiring screenshots of the movie using slave mode com-
              mands that can be bound to keypresses.  See the slave mode docu-
              mentation  and  the  INTERACTIVE  CONTROL  section  for details.
              Files named 'shotNNNN.png' will be saved in the working directo-
              ry,  using  the  first available number - no files will be over-
              written.  The filter has no overhead when not used  and  accepts
              an arbitrary colorspace, so it is safe to add it to the configu-
              ration file.

       ass
              Moves SSA/ASS subtitle rendering to an arbitrary  point  in  the
              filter chain.  Only useful with the -ass option.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -vf ass,screenshot
                      Moves  SSA/ASS  rendering  before the screenshot filter.
                      Screenshots taken this way will contain subtitles.

       blackframe[=amount:threshold]
              Detect frames that are (almost) completely black.  Can be useful
              to detect chapter transitions or commercials.  Output lines con-
              sist of the frame number of the detected frame,  the  percentage
              of  blackness,  the  frame type and the frame number of the last
              encountered keyframe.

                 <amount>
                      Percentage of the pixels  that  have  to  be  below  the
                      threshold (default: 98).

                 <threshold>
                      Threshold  below which a pixel value is considered black
                      (default: 32).

GENERAL ENCODING OPTIONS (MENCODER ONLY)
       -audio-delay <&lt;any floating-point number>&gt;
              Delays either audio or video by setting a  delay  field  in  the
              header  (default: 0.0).  This does not delay either stream while
              encoding, but the player will see the delay field and compensate
              accordingly.  Positive values delay the audio, and negative val-
              ues delay the video.  Note that this is the  exact  opposite  of
              the -delay option.  For example, if a video plays correctly with
              -delay 0.2, you can fix the video with MEncoder by using -audio-
              delay -0.2.

              Currently,  this  option  only works with the default muxer (-of
              avi).  If you are using a different muxer,  then  you  must  use
              -delay instead.

       -audio-density <&lt;1-50>&gt;
              Number  of  audio  chunks per second (default is 2 for 0.5s long
              audio chunks).
              NOTE: CBR only, VBR ignores this as it puts each packet in a new
              chunk.

       -audio-preload <&lt;0.0-2.0>&gt;
              Sets up the audio buffering time interval (default: 0.5s).

       -fafmttag <&lt;format>&gt;
              Can be used to override the audio format tag of the output file.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -fafmttag 0x55
                      Will  have  the  output file contain 0x55 (mp3) as audio
                      format tag.

       -ffourcc <&lt;fourcc>&gt;
              Can be used to override the video fourcc of the output file.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ffourcc div3
                      Will have the output file contain 'div3' as video  four-
                      cc.

       -force-avi-aspect <&lt;0.2-3.0>&gt;
              Override the aspect stored in the AVI OpenDML vprp header.  This
              can be used to change the aspect ratio with '-ovc copy'.

       -frameno-file <&lt;filename>&gt; (DEPRECATED)
              Specify the name of the audio  file  with  framenumber  mappings
              created  in  the first (audio only) pass of a special three pass
              encoding mode.
              NOTE: Using this mode will most likely give you A-V desync.   Do
              not  use  it.   It  is kept for backwards compatibility only and
              will possibly be removed in a future version.

       -hr-edl-seek
              Use a more precise, but much slower method for  skipping  areas.
              Areas  marked  for  skipping  are  not  seeked over, instead all
              frames are decoded, but only the necessary frames  are  encoded.
              This allows starting at non-keyframe boundaries.
              NOTE: Not guaranteed to work right with '-ovc copy'.

       -info <&lt;option1:option2:...>&gt; (AVI only)
              Specify the info header of the resulting AVI file.

              Available options are:

                 help
                      Show this description.

                 name=<value>
                      title of the work

                 artist=<value>
                      artist or author of the work

                 genre=<value>
                      original work category

                 subject=<value>
                      contents of the work

                 copyright=<value>
                      copyright information

                 srcform=<value>
                      original format of the digitized material

                 comment=<value>
                      general comments about the work

       -noautoexpand
              Do  not automatically insert the expand filter into the MEncoder
              filter chain.  Useful to control at which point  of  the  filter
              chain  subtitles  are  rendered when hardcoding subtitles onto a
              movie.

       -noencodedups
              Do not attempt to encode duplicate frames in  duplicate;  always
              output  zero-byte  frames  to  indicate  duplicates.   Zero-byte
              frames will be written anyway unless a filter or encoder capable
              of  doing duplicate encoding is loaded.  Currently the only such
              filter is harddup.

       -noodml (-of avi only)
              Do not write OpenDML index for AVI files >1GB.

       -noskip
              Do not skip frames.

       -o <&lt;filename>&gt;
              Outputs to the given filename.
              If you want a default output filename, you can put  this  option
              in the MEncoder config file.

       -oac <&lt;codec name>&gt;
              Encode with the given audio codec (no default set).
              NOTE: Use -oac help to get a list of available audio codecs.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -oac copy
                      no encoding, just streamcopy
                 -oac pcm
                      Encode to uncompressed PCM.
                 -oac mp3lame
                      Encode to MP3 (using LAME).
                 -oac lavc
                      Encode with a libavcodec codec.

       -of <&lt;format>&gt; (BETA CODE!)
              Encode to the specified container format (default: AVI).
              NOTE: Use -of help to get a list of available container formats.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -of avi
                      Encode to AVI.
                 -of mpeg
                      Encode to MPEG (also see -mpegopts).
                 -of lavf
                      Encode with libavformat muxers (also see -lavfopts).
                 -of rawvideo
                      raw video stream (no muxing - one video stream only)
                 -of rawaudio
                      raw audio stream (no muxing - one audio stream only)

       -ofps <&lt;fps>&gt;
              Specify  a  frames  per  second (fps) value for the output file,
              which can be different from that of the source  material.   Must
              be  set  for  variable  fps  (ASF,  some  MOV)  and  progressive
              (30000/1001 fps telecined MPEG) files.

       -ovc <&lt;codec name>&gt;
              Encode with the given video codec (no default set).
              NOTE: Use -ovc help to get a list of available video codecs.

              EXAMPLE:
                 -ovc copy
                      no encoding, just streamcopy
                 -ovc raw
                      Encode to an arbitrary  uncompressed  format  (use  '-vf
                      format' to select).
                 -ovc lavc
                      Encode with a libavcodec codec.

       -passlogfile <&lt;filename>&gt;
              Dump first pass information to <filename> instead of the default
              divx2pass.log in two pass encoding mode.

       -skiplimit <&lt;value>&gt;
              Specify the maximum number of frames that may be  skipped  after
              encoding one frame (-noskiplimit for unlimited).

       -vobsubout <&lt;basename>&gt;
              Specify  the  basename for the output .idx and .sub files.  This
              turns off subtitle rendering in the encoded movie and diverts it
              to VOBsub subtitle files.

       -vobsuboutid <&lt;langid>&gt;
              Specify  the  language  two letter code for the subtitles.  This
              overrides what is read from the DVD or the .ifo file.

       -vobsuboutindex <&lt;index>&gt;
              Specify the index of the subtitles in the output files (default:
              0).

CODEC SPECIFIC ENCODING OPTIONS (MENCODER ONLY)
       You  can specify codec specific encoding parameters using the following
       syntax:

       -<&lt;codec>&gt;opts <&lt;option1[=value],option2,...>&gt;

       Where <codec> may be: lavc, xvidenc, lame, toolame, twolame, nuv, xvfw,
       faac, x264enc, mpeg, lavf.

   lame (-lameopts)
       help
              get help

       vbr=<&lt;0-4>&gt;
              variable bitrate method
                 0    cbr
                 1    mt
                 2    rh (default)
                 3    abr
                 4    mtrh

       abr
              average bitrate

       cbr
              constant bitrate Also forces CBR mode encoding on subsequent ABR
              presets modes.

       br=<&lt;0-1024>&gt;
              bitrate in kbps (CBR and ABR only)

       q=<&lt;0-9>&gt;
              quality (0 - highest, 9 - lowest) (VBR only)

       aq=<&lt;0-9>&gt;
              algorithmic quality (0 - best/slowest, 9 - worst/fastest)

       ratio=<&lt;1-100>&gt;
              compression ratio

       vol=<&lt;0-10>&gt;
              audio input gain

       mode=<&lt;0-3>&gt;
              (default: auto)
                 0    stereo
                 1    joint-stereo
                 2    dualchannel
                 3    mono

       padding=<&lt;0-2>&gt;
                 0    none
                 1    all
                 2    adjust

       fast
              Switch on faster encoding on subsequent VBR presets modes.  This
              results in slightly lower quality and higher bitrates.

       highpassfreq=<&lt;freq>&gt;
              Set a highpass filtering frequency in Hz.  Frequencies below the
              specified one will be cut off.  A value of -1 will disable  fil-
              tering, a value of 0 will let LAME choose values automatically.

       lowpassfreq=<&lt;freq>&gt;
              Set  a lowpass filtering frequency in Hz.  Frequencies above the
              specified one will be cut off.  A value of -1 will disable  fil-
              tering, a value of 0 will let LAME choose values automatically.

       preset=<&lt;value>&gt;
              preset values

                 help
                      Print  additional  options and information about presets
                      settings.

                 medium
                      VBR encoding, good quality, 150-180 kbps bitrate range

                 standard
                      VBR encoding, high quality, 170-210 kbps bitrate range

                 extreme
                      VBR encoding, very high quality,  200-240  kbps  bitrate
                      range

                 insane
                      CBR encoding, highest preset quality, 320 kbps bitrate

                 <8-320>
                      ABR encoding at average given kbps bitrate

              EXAMPLES:
                 fast:preset=standard
                      suitable  for  most  people and most music types and al-
                      ready quite high quality
                 cbr:preset=192
                      Encode with ABR presets at a 192  kbps  forced  constant
                      bitrate.
                 preset=172
                      Encode with ABR presets at a 172 kbps average bitrate.
                 preset=extreme
                      for  people  with  extremely  good  hearing  and similar
                      equipment

   toolame and twolame (-toolameopts and -twolameopts respectively)
       br=<&lt;32-384>&gt;
              In CBR mode this parameter indicates the bitrate in  kbps,  when
              in  VBR  mode  it is the minimum bitrate allowed per frame.  VBR
              mode will not work with a value below 112.

       vbr=<&lt;-50-50>&gt; (VBR only)
              variability range; if negative the encoder  shifts  the  average
              bitrate towards the lower limit, if positive towards the higher.
              When set to 0 CBR is used (default).

       maxvbr=<&lt;32-384>&gt; (VBR only)
              maximum bitrate allowed per frame, in kbps

       mode=<&lt;stereo | jstereo | mono | dual>&gt;
              (default: mono for 1-channel audio, stereo otherwise)

       psy=<&lt;-1-4>&gt;
              psychoacoustic model (default: 2)

       errprot=<&lt;0 | 1>&gt;
              Include error protection.

       debug=<&lt;0-10>&gt;
              debug level

   faac (-faacopts)
       br=<&lt;bitrate>&gt;
              average bitrate in kbps (mutually exclusive with quality)

       quality=<&lt;1-1000>&gt;
              quality mode, the higher the better (mutually exclusive with br)

       object=<&lt;1-4>&gt;
              object type complexity
                 1    MAIN (default)
                 2    LOW
                 3    SSR
                 4    LTP (extremely slow)

       mpeg=<&lt;2|4>&gt;
              MPEG version (default: 4)

       tns
              Enables temporal noise shaping.

       cutoff=<&lt;0-sampling_rate/2>&gt;
              cutoff frequency (default: sampling_rate/2)

       raw
              Stores the bitstream as raw payload with extradata in  the  con-
              tainer  header  (default:  0,  corresponds to ADTS).  Do not set
              this flag if not explicitly required or you will not be able  to
              remux the audio stream later on.

   lavc (-lavcopts)
       Many  libavcodec (lavc for short) options are tersely documented.  Read
       the source for full details.

       EXAMPLE:
                 vcodec=msmpeg4:vbitrate=1800:vhq:keyint=250

       acodec=<&lt;value>&gt;
              audio codec (default: mp2)
                 ac3
                      Dolby Digital (AC-3)
                 adpcm_*
                      Adaptive PCM formats - see the  HTML  documentation  for
                      details.
                 flac
                      Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC)
                 g726
                      G.726 ADPCM
                 libamr_nb
                      3GPP Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) narrow-band
                 libamr_wb
                      3GPP Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) wide-band
                 libfaac
                      Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) - using FAAC
                 libmp3lame
                      MPEG-1 audio layer 3 (MP3) - using LAME
                 mp2
                      MPEG-1 audio layer 2 (MP2)
                 pcm_*
                      PCM formats - see the HTML documentation for details.
                 roq_dpcm
                      Id Software RoQ DPCM
                 sonic
                      experimental simple lossy codec
                 sonicls
                      experimental simple lossless codec
                 vorbis
                      Vorbis
                 wmav1
                      Windows Media Audio v1
                 wmav2
                      Windows Media Audio v2

       abitrate=<&lt;value>&gt;
              audio bitrate in kbps (default: 224)

       atag=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Use the specified Windows audio format tag (e.g. atag=0x55).

       bit_exact
              Use  only  bit  exact  algorithms (except (I)DCT).  Additionally
              bit_exact disables several optimizations and thus should only be
              used  for  regression  tests,  which need binary identical files
              even if the encoder version changes.  This also  suppresses  the
              user_data  header in MPEG-4 streams.  Do not use this option un-
              less you know exactly what you are doing.

       threads=<&lt;1-8>&gt;
              Maximum number of threads to  use  (default:  1).   May  have  a
              slight negative effect on motion estimation.

       vcodec=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Employ the specified codec (default: mpeg4).
                 asv1
                      ASUS Video v1
                 asv2
                      ASUS Video v2
                 dvvideo
                      Sony Digital Video
                 ffv1
                      FFmpeg's lossless video codec
                 ffvhuff
                      nonstandard 20% smaller HuffYUV using YV12
                 flv
                      Sorenson H.263 used in Flash Video
                 h261
                      H.261
                 h263
                      H.263
                 h263p
                      H.263+
                 huffyuv
                      HuffYUV
                 libtheora
                      Theora
                 libx264
                      x264 H.264/AVC MPEG-4 Part 10
                 libxvid
                      Xvid MPEG-4 Part 2 (ASP)
                 ljpeg
                      Lossless JPEG
                 mjpeg
                      Motion JPEG
                 mpeg1video
                      MPEG-1 video
                 mpeg2video
                      MPEG-2 video
                 mpeg4
                      MPEG-4 (DivX 4/5)
                 msmpeg4
                      DivX 3
                 msmpeg4v2
                      MS MPEG4v2
                 roqvideo
                      ID Software RoQ Video
                 rv10
                      an old RealVideo codec
                 snow (also see: vstrict)
                      FFmpeg's experimental wavelet-based codec
                 svq1
                      Apple Sorenson Video 1
                 wmv1
                      Windows Media Video, version 1 (AKA WMV7)
                 wmv2
                      Windows Media Video, version 2 (AKA WMV8)

       vqmin=<&lt;1-31>&gt;
              minimum quantizer (pass 1/2)

                 1    Not  recommended  (much larger file, little quality dif-
                      ference and weird side effects: msmpeg4,  h263  will  be
                      very low quality, ratecontrol will be confused resulting
                      in lower quality and some decoders will not be  able  to
                      decode it).

                 2    Recommended  for  normal  mpeg4/mpeg1video encoding (de-
                      fault).

                 3    Recommended for h263(p)/msmpeg4.  The reason for prefer-
                      ring  3 over 2 is that 2 could lead to overflows.  (This
                      will be fixed for h263(p) by changing the quantizer  per
                      MB in the future, msmpeg4 cannot be fixed as it does not
                      support that.)

       lmin=<&lt;0.01-255.0>&gt;
              Minimum frame-level Lagrange  multiplier  for  ratecontrol  (de-
              fault: 2.0).  Lavc will rarely use quantizers below the value of
              lmin.  Lowering lmin will make lavc more likely to choose  lower
              quantizers  for  some  frames,  but  not lower than the value of
              vqmin.  Likewise, raising lmin will make  lavc  less  likely  to
              choose  low  quantizers,  even if vqmin would have allowed them.
              You probably want to set  lmin  approximately  equal  to  vqmin.
              When  adaptive  quantization  is  in use, changing lmin/lmax may
              have less of an effect; see mblmin/mblmax.

       lmax=<&lt;0.01-255.0>&gt;
              maximum Lagrange multiplier for ratecontrol (default: 31.0)

       mblmin=<&lt;0.01-255.0>&gt;
              Minimum macroblock-level  Lagrange  multiplier  for  ratecontrol
              (default:2.0).  This parameter affects adaptive quantization op-
              tions like qprd, lumi_mask, etc..

       mblmax=<&lt;0.01-255.0>&gt;
              Maximum macroblock-level  Lagrange  multiplier  for  ratecontrol
              (default: 31.0).

       vqscale=<&lt;0-31>&gt;
              Constant  quantizer  / constant  quality encoding (selects fixed
              quantizer mode).  A lower value means better quality but  larger
              files (default: -1).  In case of snow codec, value 0 means loss-
              less encoding.  Since the other codecs do not support this, vqs-
              cale=0 will have an undefined effect.  1 is not recommended (see
              vqmin for details).

       vqmax=<&lt;1-31>&gt;
              Maximum quantizer (pass 1/2), 10-31 should be a sane range  (de-
              fault: 31).

       mbqmin=<&lt;1-31>&gt;
              obsolete, use vqmin

       mbqmax=<&lt;1-31>&gt;
              obsolete, use vqmax

       vqdiff=<&lt;1-31>&gt;
              maximum  quantizer difference between consecutive I- or P-frames
              (pass 1/2) (default: 3)

       vmax_b_frames=<&lt;0-4>&gt;
              maximum number of B-frames between non-B-frames:
                 0    no B-frames (default)
                 0-2  sane range for MPEG-4

       vme=<&lt;0-5>&gt;
              motion estimation method.  Available methods are:
                 0    none (very low quality)
                 1    full (slow, currently unmaintained and disabled)
                 2    log (low quality, currently unmaintained and disabled)
                 3    phods (low quality, currently unmaintained and disabled)
                 4    EPZS: size=1 diamond, size can be adjusted with the *dia
                      options (default)
                 5    X1 (experimental, currently aliased to EPZS)
                 8    iter (iterative overlapped block, only used in snow)

              NOTE: 0-3 currently ignores the amount of bits spent, so quality
              may be low.

       me_range=<&lt;0-9999>&gt;
              motion estimation search range (default: 0 (unlimited))

       mbd=<&lt;0-2>&gt; (see also *cmp, qpel)
              Macroblock decision algorithm (high quality mode),  encode  each
              macro  block in all modes and choose the best.  This is slow but
              results in better quality and file size.  When mbd is set  to  1
              or  2, the value of mbcmp is ignored when comparing macroblocks.
              If any comparison setting (precmp, subcmp,  cmp,  or  mbcmp)  is
              nonzero,  however,  a  slower  but better half-pel motion search
              will be used, regardless of what mbd is set to.  If qpel is set,
              quarter-pel motion search will be used regardless.
                 0    Use comparison function given by mbcmp (default).
                 1    Select the MB mode which needs the fewest bits (=vhq).
                 2    Select the MB mode which has the best rate distortion.

       vhq
              Same as mbd=1, kept for compatibility reasons.

       v4mv
              Allow 4 motion vectors per macroblock (slightly better quality).
              Works better if used with mbd>0.

       obmc
              overlapped block motion compensation (H.263+)

       loop
              loop filter (H.263+) note, this is broken

       inter_threshold <&lt;-1000-1000>&gt;
              Does absolutely nothing at the moment.

       keyint=<&lt;0-300>&gt;
              maximum interval between keyframes in frames  (default:  250  or
              one  keyframe  every  ten seconds in a 25fps movie.  This is the
              recommended default for MPEG-4).  Most  codecs  require  regular
              keyframes  in order to limit the accumulation of mismatch error.
              Keyframes are also needed for seeking, as seeking is only possi-
              ble  to  a  keyframe  - but keyframes need more space than other
              frames, so larger numbers here mean slightly smaller  files  but
              less  precise  seeking.  0 is equivalent to 1, which makes every
              frame a keyframe.  Values >300 are not recommended as the quali-
              ty might be bad depending upon decoder, encoder and luck.  It is
              a common for MPEG-1/2 to use values <=30.

       sc_threshold=<&lt;-1000000000-1000000000>&gt;
              Threshold for scene change detection.  A keyframe is inserted by
              libavcodec  when it detects a scene change.  You can specify the
              sensitivity of the  detection  with  this  option.   -1000000000
              means   there  is  a  scene  change  detected  at  every  frame,
              1000000000 means no scene changes are detected (default: 0).

       sc_factor=<&lt;any positive integer>&gt;
              Causes frames with higher quantizers to be more likely to  trig-
              ger  a scene change detection and make libavcodec use an I-frame
              (default: 1).  1-16 is a sane range.  Values between 2 and 6 may
              yield  increasing  PSNR (up to approximately 0.04 dB) and better
              placement of I-frames in high-motion scenes.  Higher values than
              6 may give very slightly better PSNR (approximately 0.01 dB more
              than sc_factor=6), but noticably worse visual quality.

       vb_strategy=<&lt;0-2>&gt; (pass one only)
              strategy to choose between I/P/B-frames:
                 0    Always use the maximum number of B-frames (default).
                 1    Avoid B-frames in high motion scenes.  See the  b_sensi-
                      tivity option to tune this strategy.
                 2    Places  B-frames more or less optimally to yield maximum
                      quality (slower).  You may want to reduce the speed  im-
                      pact of this option by tuning the option brd_scale.

       b_sensitivity=<&lt;any integer greater than 0>&gt;
              Adjusts  how sensitively vb_strategy=1 detects motion and avoids
              using B-frames (default: 40).  Lower sensitivities  will  result
              in  more  B-frames.   Using more B-frames usually improves PSNR,
              but too many B-frames can hurt quality  in  high-motion  scenes.
              Unless there is an extremely high amount of motion, b_sensitivi-
              ty can safely be lowered below the default; 10 is  a  reasonable
              value in most cases.

       brd_scale=<&lt;0-10>&gt;
              Downscales  frames  for  dynamic  B-frame decision (default: 0).
              Each time brd_scale is increased by one,  the  frame  dimensions
              are  divided  by  two, which improves speed by a factor of four.
              Both dimensions of the fully downscaled frame must be even  num-
              bers, so brd_scale=1 requires the original dimensions to be mul-
              tiples of four, brd_scale=2 requires multiples  of  eight,  etc.
              In  other  words, the dimensions of the original frame must both
              be divisible by 2^(brd_scale+1) with no remainder.

       bidir_refine=<&lt;0-4>&gt;
              Refine the two motion vectors used in bidirectional macroblocks,
              rather  than  re-using  vectors  from  the  forward and backward
              searches.  This option has no effect without B-frames.
                 0    Disabled (default).
                 1-4  Use a wider search (larger values are slower).

       vpass=<&lt;1-3>&gt;
              Activates internal two (or more) pass mode, only specify if  you
              wish to use two (or more) pass encoding.
                 1    first pass (also see turbo)
                 2    second pass
                 3    Nth  pass (second and subsequent passes of N-pass encod-
                      ing)
              Here is how it works, and how to use it:
              The first pass (vpass=1) writes the statistics file.  You  might
              want  to  deactivate  some CPU-hungry options, like "turbo" mode
              does.
              In two pass mode, the second pass (vpass=2) reads the statistics
              file and bases ratecontrol decisions on it.
              In  N-pass  mode,  the second pass (vpass=3, that is not a typo)
              does both: It first reads the statistics, then overwrites  them.
              You  might  want  to  backup  divx2pass.log before doing this if
              there is any possibility that you will have to cancel  MEncoder.
              You can use all encoding options, except very CPU-hungry options
              like "qns".
              You can run this same pass over and over to refine  the  encode.
              Each  subsequent  pass will use the statistics from the previous
              pass to improve.  The final pass can include any CPU-hungry  en-
              coding options.
              If  you  want  a  2  pass  encode,  use  first vpass=1, and then
              vpass=2.
              If you want a 3 or more pass encode, use vpass=1 for  the  first
              pass and then vpass=3 and then vpass=3 again and again until you
              are satisfied with the encode.

              huffyuv:
                 pass 1
                      Saves statistics.
                 pass 2
                      Encodes with an optimal Huffman table based upon statis-
                      tics from the first pass.

       turbo (two pass only)
              Dramatically speeds up pass one using faster algorithms and dis-
              abling CPU-intensive options.  This will probably reduce  global
              PSNR  a  little  bit (around 0.01dB) and change individual frame
              type and PSNR a little bit more (up to 0.03dB).

       aspect=<&lt;x/y>&gt;
              Store movie aspect internally, just like with MPEG files.   Much
              nicer  than  rescaling,  because quality is not decreased.  Only
              MPlayer will play these files correctly, other players will dis-
              play  them with wrong aspect.  The aspect parameter can be given
              as a ratio or a floating point number.

              EXAMPLE:
                 aspect=16/9 or aspect=1.78

       autoaspect
              Same as the aspect option, but  automatically  computes  aspect,
              taking into account all the adjustments (crop/expand/scale/etc.)
              made in the filter chain.  Does not incur a performance penalty,
              so you can safely leave it always on.

       vbitrate=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Specify bitrate (pass 1/2) (default: 800).
              WARNING: 1kbit = 1000 bits
                 4-16000
                      (in kbit)
                 16001-24000000
                      (in bit)

       vratetol=<&lt;value>&gt;
              approximated file size tolerance in kbit.  1000-100000 is a sane
              range.  (warning: 1kbit = 1000 bits) (default: 8000)
              NOTE: vratetol should not be too large during the second pass or
              there might be problems if vrc_(min|max)rate is used.

       vrc_maxrate=<&lt;value>&gt;
              maximum bitrate in kbit/sec (pass 1/2) (default: 0, unlimited)

       vrc_minrate=<&lt;value>&gt;
              minimum bitrate in kbit/sec (pass 1/2) (default: 0, unlimited)

       vrc_buf_size=<&lt;value>&gt;
              buffer size in kbit (pass 1/2).  For MPEG-1/2 this also sets the
              vbv buffer size, use 327 for VCD, 917 for SVCD and 1835 for DVD.

       vrc_buf_aggressivity
              currently useless

       vrc_strategy
              Ratecontrol method.  Note that some of the ratecontrol-affecting
              options will have no effect if vrc_strategy is not set to 0.
                 0    Use internal lavc ratecontrol (default).
                 1    Use Xvid ratecontrol (experimental; requires MEncoder to
                      be compiled with support for Xvid 1.1 or higher).

       vb_qfactor=<&lt;-31.0-31.0>&gt;
              quantizer factor between B- and  non-B-frames  (pass  1/2)  (de-
              fault: 1.25)

       vi_qfactor=<&lt;-31.0-31.0>&gt;
              quantizer  factor  between  I-  and non-I-frames (pass 1/2) (de-
              fault: 0.8)

       vb_qoffset=<&lt;-31.0-31.0>&gt;
              quantizer offset between B- and  non-B-frames  (pass  1/2)  (de-
              fault: 1.25)

       vi_qoffset=<&lt;-31.0-31.0>&gt;
              (pass 1/2) (default: 0.0)
              if v{b|i}_qfactor > 0
              I/B-frame  quantizer  =  P-frame  quantizer  *  v{b|i}_qfactor +
              v{b|i}_qoffset
              else
              do normal ratecontrol (do not lock to  next  P-frame  quantizer)
              and set q= -q * v{b|i}_qfactor + v{b|i}_qoffset
              HINT:  To do constant quantizer encoding with different quantiz-
              ers for I/P- and B-frames you can  use:  lmin=  <ip_quant>:lmax=
              <ip_quant>:vb_qfactor= <b_quant/ip_quant>.

       vqblur=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt; (pass one)
              Quantizer  blur  (default:  0.5), larger values will average the
              quantizer more over time (slower change).
                 0.0  Quantizer blur disabled.
                 1.0  Average the quantizer over all previous frames.

       vqblur=<&lt;0.0-99.0>&gt; (pass two)
              Quantizer gaussian blur (default: 0.5), larger values will aver-
              age the quantizer more over time (slower change).

       vqcomp=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt;
              Quantizer  compression, vrc_eq depends upon this (pass 1/2) (de-
              fault: 0.5).  For instance, assuming the  default  rate  control
              equation  is  used,  if vqcomp=1.0, the ratecontrol allocates to
              each frame the number of bits needed to encode them all  at  the
              same QP.  If vqcomp=0.0, the ratecontrol allocates the same num-
              ber of bits to each frame, i.e. strict CBR.  NOTE: Those are ex-
              treme  settings  and  should  never be used.  Perceptual quality
              will be optimal somewhere in between these two extremes.

       vrc_eq=<&lt;equation>&gt;
              main ratecontrol equation (pass 1/2)

                 1
                      constant bitrate

                 tex
                      constant quality

                 1+(tex/avgTex-1)*qComp
                      approximately the equation of the old ratecontrol code

                 tex^qComp
                      with qcomp 0.5 or something like that (default)

              infix operators:

                 +,-,*,/,^

              variables:

                 tex
                      texture complexity

                 iTex,pTex
                      intra, non-intra texture complexity

                 avgTex
                      average texture complexity

                 avgIITex
                      average intra texture complexity in I-frames

                 avgPITex
                      average intra texture complexity in P-frames

                 avgPPTex
                      average non-intra texture complexity in P-frames

                 avgBPTex
                      average non-intra texture complexity in B-frames

                 mv
                      bits used for motion vectors

                 fCode
                      maximum length of motion vector in log2 scale

                 iCount
                      number of intra macroblocks / number of macroblocks

                 var
                      spatial complexity

                 mcVar
                      temporal complexity

                 qComp
                      qcomp from the command line

                 isI, isP, isB
                      Is 1 if picture type is I/P/B else 0.

                 Pi,E
                      See your favorite math book.

              functions:

                 max(a,b),min(a,b)
                      maximum / minimum

                 gt(a,b)
                      is 1 if a>b, 0 otherwise

                 lt(a,b)
                      is 1 if a<b, 0 otherwise

                 eq(a,b)
                      is 1 if a==b, 0 otherwise

                 sin, cos, tan, sinh, cosh, tanh, exp, log, abs

       vrc_override=<&lt;options>&gt;
              User specified quality for specific parts (ending, credits, ...)
              (pass 1/2).  The options are <start-frame>, <end-frame>, <quali-
              ty>[/<start-frame>, <end-frame>, <quality>[/...]]:
                 quality (2-31)
                      quantizer
                 quality (-500-0)
                      quality correction in %

       vrc_init_cplx=<&lt;0-1000>&gt;
              initial complexity (pass 1)

       vrc_init_occupancy=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt;
              initial buffer occupancy, as a  fraction  of  vrc_buf_size  (de-
              fault: 0.9)

       vqsquish=<&lt;0|1>&gt;
              Specify  how  to  keep the quantizer between qmin and qmax (pass
              1/2).
                 0    Use clipping.
                 1    Use a nice differentiable function (default).

       vlelim=<&lt;-1000-1000>&gt;
              Sets single coefficient  elimination  threshold  for  luminance.
              Negative values will also consider the DC coefficient (should be
              at least -4 or lower for encoding at quant=1):
                 0    disabled (default)
                 -4   JVT recommendation

       vcelim=<&lt;-1000-1000>&gt;
              Sets single coefficient elimination threshold  for  chrominance.
              Negative values will also consider the DC coefficient (should be
              at least -4 or lower for encoding at quant=1):
                 0    disabled (default)
                 7    JVT recommendation

       vstrict=<&lt;-2|-1|0|1>&gt;
              strict standard compliance
                 0    disabled
                 1    Only recommended if you want to feed the output into the
                      MPEG-4 reference decoder.
                 -1   Allow libavcodec specific extensions (default).
                 -2   Enables  experimental  codecs and features which may not
                      be playable with future MPlayer versions (snow).

       vdpart
              Data partitioning.  Adds 2 Bytes per video packet, improves  er-
              ror-resistance  when transferring over unreliable channels (e.g.
              streaming over the internet).  Each video packet will be encoded
              in 3 separate partitions:
                 1. MVs
                      movement
                 2. DC coefficients
                      low res picture
                 3. AC coefficients
                      details
              MV  &  DC  are  most important, losing them looks far worse than
              losing the AC and the 1. & 2. partition.   (MV  &  DC)  are  far
              smaller  than the 3. partition (AC) meaning that errors will hit
              the AC partition much more often than the MV  &  DC  partitions.
              Thus,  the picture will look better with partitioning than with-
              out, as without partitioning an error will trash AC/DC/MV equal-
              ly.

       vpsize=<&lt;0-10000>&gt; (also see vdpart)
              Video packet size, improves error-resistance.
                 0
                      disabled (default)
                 100-1000
                      good choice

       ss
              slice structured mode for H.263+

       gray
              grayscale only encoding (faster)

       vfdct=<&lt;0-10>&gt;
              DCT algorithm
                 0    Automatically select a good one (default).
                 1    fast integer
                 2    accurate integer
                 3    MMX
                 4    mlib
                 5    AltiVec
                 6    floating point AAN

       idct=<&lt;0-99>&gt;
              IDCT algorithm
              NOTE:  To  the best of our knowledge all these IDCTs do pass the
              IEEE1180 tests.
                 0    Automatically select a good one (default).
                 1    JPEG reference integer
                 2    simple
                 3    simplemmx
                 4    libmpeg2mmx (inaccurate, do not use  for  encoding  with
                      keyint >100)
                 5    ps2
                 6    mlib
                 7    arm
                 8    AltiVec
                 9    sh4
                 10   simplearm
                 11   H.264
                 12   VP3
                 13   IPP
                 14   xvidmmx
                 15   CAVS
                 16   simplearmv5te
                 17   simplearmv6

       lumi_mask=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt;
              Luminance  masking is a 'psychosensory' setting that is supposed
              to make use of the fact that the human eye tends to notice fewer
              details  in very bright parts of the picture.  Luminance masking
              compresses bright areas stronger than medium ones,  so  it  will
              save bits that can be spent again on other frames, raising over-
              all subjective quality, while possibly reducing PSNR.
              WARNING: Be careful, overly large values  can  cause  disastrous
              things.
              WARNING:  Large  values might look good on some monitors but may
              look horrible on other monitors.
                 0.0
                      disabled (default)
                 0.0-0.3
                      sane range

       dark_mask=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt;
              Darkness masking is a 'psychosensory' setting that  is  supposed
              to make use of the fact that the human eye tends to notice fewer
              details in very dark parts of  the  picture.   Darkness  masking
              compresses dark areas stronger than medium ones, so it will save
              bits that can be spent again on other  frames,  raising  overall
              subjective quality, while possibly reducing PSNR.
              WARNING:  Be  careful,  overly large values can cause disastrous
              things.
              WARNING: Large values might look good on some monitors  but  may
              look horrible on other monitors / TV / TFT.
                 0.0
                      disabled (default)
                 0.0-0.3
                      sane range

       tcplx_mask=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt;
              Temporal  complexity masking (default: 0.0 (disabled)).  Imagine
              a scene with a bird flying across the  whole  scene;  tcplx_mask
              will  raise  the  quantizers of the bird's macroblocks (thus de-
              creasing their quality), as the human eye usually does not  have
              time  to  see  all  the  bird's  details.  Be warned that if the
              masked object stops (e.g. the bird lands) it is likely  to  look
              horrible  for  a short period of time, until the encoder figures
              out that the object is not moving and needs refined blocks.  The
              saved  bits will be spent on other parts of the video, which may
              increase subjective quality, provided that tcplx_mask  is  care-
              fully chosen.

       scplx_mask=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt;
              Spatial  complexity masking.  Larger values help against blocki-
              ness, if no deblocking filter is used  for  decoding,  which  is
              maybe not a good idea.
              Imagine a scene with grass (which usually has great spatial com-
              plexity), a blue sky and a  house;  scplx_mask  will  raise  the
              quantizers of the grass' macroblocks, thus decreasing its quali-
              ty, in order to spend more bits on the sky and the house.
              HINT: Crop any black borders completely as they will reduce  the
              quality of the macroblocks (also applies without scplx_mask).
                 0.0
                      disabled (default)
                 0.0-0.5
                      sane range

              NOTE: This setting does not have the same effect as using a cus-
              tom matrix that would compress high frequencies harder,  as  sc-
              plx_mask  will reduce the quality of P blocks even if only DC is
              changing.  The result of scplx_mask will probably  not  look  as
              good.

       p_mask=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt; (also see vi_qfactor)
              Reduces  the quality of inter blocks.  This is equivalent to in-
              creasing the quality of intra blocks, because the  same  average
              bitrate  will be distributed by the rate controller to the whole
              video sequence (default: 0.0  (disabled)).   p_mask=1.0  doubles
              the bits allocated to each intra block.

       border_mask=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt;
              border-processing  for  MPEG-style  encoders.  Border processing
              increases the quantizer for  macroblocks  which  are  less  than
              1/5th  of  the  frame  width/height  away from the frame border,
              since they are often visually less important.

       naq
              Normalize  adaptive  quantization  (experimental).   When  using
              adaptive quantization (*_mask), the average per-MB quantizer may
              no longer match the requested frame-level quantizer.   Naq  will
              attempt  to  adjust the per-MB quantizers to maintain the proper
              average.

       ildct
              Use interlaced DCT.

       ilme
              Use interlaced motion estimation (mutually exclusive with qpel).

       alt
              Use alternative scantable.

       top=<&lt;-1-1>&gt;
                 -1   automatic
                 0    bottom field first
                 1    top field first

       format=<&lt;value>&gt;
                 YV12
                      default
                 444P
                      for ffv1
                 422P
                      for HuffYUV, lossless JPEG, dv and ffv1
                 411P
                      for lossless JPEG, dv and ffv1
                 YVU9
                      for lossless JPEG, ffv1 and svq1
                 BGR32
                      for lossless JPEG and ffv1

       pred
              (for HuffYUV)
                 0    left prediction
                 1    plane/gradient prediction
                 2    median prediction

       pred
              (for lossless JPEG)
                 0    left prediction
                 1    top prediction
                 2    topleft prediction
                 3    plane/gradient prediction
                 6    mean prediction

       coder
              (for ffv1)
                 0    vlc coding (Golomb-Rice)
                 1    arithmetic coding (CABAC)

       context
              (for ffv1)
                 0    small context model
                 1    large context model

              (for ffvhuff)
                 0    predetermined Huffman tables (builtin or two pass)
                 1    adaptive Huffman tables

       qpel
              Use quarter pel motion  compensation  (mutually  exclusive  with
              ilme).
              HINT: This seems only useful for high bitrate encodings.

       mbcmp=<&lt;0-2000>&gt;
              Sets  the  comparison  function for the macroblock decision, has
              only an effect if mbd=0.
                 0 (SAD)
                      sum of absolute differences, fast (default)
                 1 (SSE)
                      sum of squared errors
                 2 (SATD)
                      sum of absolute Hadamard transformed differences
                 3 (DCT)
                      sum of absolute DCT transformed differences
                 4 (PSNR)
                      sum of squared quantization errors (avoid, low quality)
                 5 (BIT)
                      number of bits needed for the block
                 6 (RD)
                      rate distortion optimal, slow
                 7 (ZERO)
                      0
                 8 (VSAD)
                      sum of absolute vertical differences
                 9 (VSSE)
                      sum of squared vertical differences
                 10 (NSSE)
                      noise preserving sum of squared differences
                 11 (W53)
                      5/3 wavelet, only used in snow
                 12 (W97)
                      9/7 wavelet, only used in snow
                 +256
                      Also use chroma, currently  does  not  work  (correctly)
                      with B-frames.

       ildctcmp=<&lt;0-2000>&gt;
              Sets  the  comparison  function for interlaced DCT decision (see
              mbcmp for available comparison functions).

       precmp=<&lt;0-2000>&gt;
              Sets the comparison function for motion estimation pre pass (see
              mbcmp for available comparison functions) (default: 0).

       cmp=<&lt;0-2000>&gt;
              Sets the comparison function for full pel motion estimation (see
              mbcmp for available comparison functions) (default: 0).

       subcmp=<&lt;0-2000>&gt;
              Sets the comparison function for sub pel motion estimation  (see
              mbcmp for available comparison functions) (default: 0).

       skipcmp=<&lt;0-2000>&gt;
              FIXME: Document this.

       nssew=<&lt;0-1000000>&gt;
              This setting controls NSSE weight, where larger weights will re-
              sult in more noise.  0 NSSE is identical to  SSE  You  may  find
              this  useful  if  you  prefer to keep some noise in your encoded
              video rather than filtering it away  before  encoding  (default:
              8).

       predia=<&lt;-99-6>&gt;
              diamond type and size for motion estimation pre-pass

       dia=<&lt;-99-6>&gt;
              Diamond  type & size for motion estimation.  Motion search is an
              iterative process.  Using a small diamond  does  not  limit  the
              search  to  finding only small motion vectors.  It is just some-
              what more likely to stop before finding  the  very  best  motion
              vector,  especially when noise is involved.  Bigger diamonds al-
              low a wider search for the best motion vector, thus  are  slower
              but result in better quality.
              Big  normal diamonds are better quality than shape-adaptive dia-
              monds.
              Shape-adaptive diamonds are a good tradeoff  between  speed  and
              quality.
              NOTE:  The  sizes of the normal diamonds and shape adaptive ones
              do not have the same meaning.

                 -3   shape adaptive (fast) diamond with size 3

                 -2   shape adaptive (fast) diamond with size 2

                 -1   uneven multi-hexagon search (slow)

                 1    normal size=1 diamond (default) =EPZS type diamond
                            0
                           000
                            0

                 2    normal size=2 diamond
                            0
                           000
                          00000
                           000
                            0

       trell
              Trellis searched quantization.  This will find the  optimal  en-
              coding  for  each  8x8  block.  Trellis searched quantization is
              quite simply an optimal quantization in the PSNR versus  bitrate
              sense  (Assuming  that  there would be no rounding errors intro-
              duced by the IDCT, which is obviously not the case.).  It simply
              finds a block for the minimum of error and lambda*bits.
                 lambda
                      quantization parameter (QP) dependent constant
                 bits
                      amount of bits needed to encode the block
                 error
                      sum of squared errors of the quantization

       cbp
              Rate  distorted  optimal  coded  block pattern.  Will select the
              coded block pattern which minimizes  distortion  +  lambda*rate.
              This can only be used together with trellis quantization.

       mv0
              Try  to  encode each MB with MV=<0,0> and choose the better one.
              This has no effect if mbd=0.

       mv0_threshold=<&lt;any non-negative integer>&gt;
              When surrounding motion vectors are <0,0> and the motion estima-
              tion  score  of  the  current  block is less than mv0_threshold,
              <0,0> is used for the motion vector and further  motion  estima-
              tion is skipped (default: 256).  Lowering mv0_threshold to 0 can
              give a slight (0.01dB) PSNR increase and possibly make  the  en-
              coded video look slightly better; raising mv0_threshold past 320
              results in diminished PSNR and visual  quality.   Higher  values
              speed up encoding very slightly (usually less than 1%, depending
              on the other options used).
              NOTE: This option does not require mv0 to be enabled.

       qprd (mbd=2 only)
              rate distorted optimal quantization parameter (QP) for the given
              lambda of each macroblock

       last_pred=<&lt;0-99>&gt;
              amount of motion predictors from the previous frame
                 0    (default)
                 a    Will  use 2a+1 x 2a+1 macroblock square of motion vector
                      predictors from the previous frame.

       preme=<&lt;0-2>&gt;
              motion estimation pre-pass
                 0    disabled
                 1    only after I-frames (default)
                 2    always

       subq=<&lt;1-8>&gt;
              subpel refinement quality (for qpel) (default: 8 (high quality))
              NOTE: This has a significant effect on speed.

       refs=<&lt;1-8>&gt;
              number of reference frames to consider for  motion  compensation
              (Snow only) (default: 1)

       psnr
              print  the PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio) for the whole video
              after encoding and store the per frame PSNR in  a  file  with  a
              name  like  'psnr_hhmmss.log'.  Returned values are in dB (deci-
              bel), the higher the better.

       mpeg_quant
              Use MPEG quantizers instead of H.263.

       aic
              Enable AC prediction for MPEG-4 or advanced intra prediction for
              H.263+.  This will improve quality very slightly (around 0.02 dB
              PSNR) and slow down encoding very slightly (about 1%).
              NOTE: vqmin should be 8 or larger for H.263+ AIC.

       aiv
              alternative inter vlc for H.263+

       umv
              unlimited MVs (H.263+ only) Allows encoding of arbitrarily  long
              MVs.

       ibias=<&lt;-256-256>&gt;
              intra  quantizer  bias (256 equals 1.0, MPEG style quantizer de-
              fault: 96, H.263 style quantizer default: 0)
              NOTE: The H.263 MMX quantizer cannot handle positive biases (set
              vfdct=1 or 2), the MPEG MMX quantizer cannot handle negative bi-
              ases (set vfdct=1 or 2).

       pbias=<&lt;-256-256>&gt;
              inter quantizer bias (256 equals 1.0, MPEG style  quantizer  de-
              fault: 0, H.263 style quantizer default: -64)
              NOTE: The H.263 MMX quantizer cannot handle positive biases (set
              vfdct=1 or 2), the MPEG MMX quantizer cannot handle negative bi-
              ases (set vfdct=1 or 2).
              HINT:  A  more positive bias (-32 - -16 instead of -64) seems to
              improve the PSNR.

       nr=<&lt;0-100000>&gt;
              Noise reduction, 0 means disabled.  0-600 is a useful range  for
              typical  content,  but you may want to turn it up a bit more for
              very noisy content (default: 0).   Given  its  small  impact  on
              speed, you might want to prefer to use this over filtering noise
              away with video filters like denoise3d or hqdn3d.

       qns=<&lt;0-3>&gt;
              Quantizer noise shaping.  Rather than choosing  quantization  to
              most closely match the source video in the PSNR sense, it choos-
              es quantization such that noise (usually ringing) will be masked
              by  similar-frequency  content  in the image.  Larger values are
              slower but may not result  in  better  quality.   This  can  and
              should be used together with trellis quantization, in which case
              the trellis quantization (optimal for constant weight)  will  be
              used as startpoint for the iterative search.
                 0    disabled (default)
                 1    Only lower the absolute value of coefficients.
                 2    Only  change coefficients before the last non-zero coef-
                      ficient + 1.
                 3    Try all.

       inter_matrix=<&lt;comma separated matrix>&gt;
              Use custom inter matrix.  It needs a comma separated  string  of
              64 integers.

       intra_matrix=<&lt;comma separated matrix>&gt;
              Use  custom  intra matrix.  It needs a comma separated string of
              64 integers.

       vqmod_amp
              experimental quantizer modulation

       vqmod_freq
              experimental quantizer modulation

       dc
              intra DC  precision  in  bits  (default:  8).   If  you  specify
              vcodec=mpeg2video this value can be 8, 9, 10 or 11.

       cgop (also see sc_threshold)
              Close  all GOPs.  Currently it only works if scene change detec-
              tion is disabled (sc_threshold=1000000000).

       (no)lowdelay
              Sets the low delay flag for MPEG-1/2 (disables B-frames).

       vglobal=<&lt;0-3>&gt;
              Control writing global video headers.
                 0    Codec decides where to write global headers (default).
                 1    Write global  headers  only  in  extradata  (needed  for
                      .mp4/MOV/NUT).
                 2    Write global headers only in front of keyframes.
                 3    Combine 1 and 2.

       aglobal=<&lt;0-3>&gt;
              Same as vglobal for audio headers.

       level=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Set  CodecContext  Level.   Use  31  or  41  to  play video on a
              Playstation 3.

       skip_exp=<&lt;0-1000000>&gt;
              FIXME: Document this.

       skip_factor=<&lt;0-1000000>&gt;
              FIXME: Document this.

       skip_threshold=<&lt;0-1000000>&gt;
              FIXME: Document this.

   nuv (-nuvopts)
       Nuppel video is based on RTJPEG and LZO.  By default frames  are  first
       encoded with RTJPEG and then compressed with LZO, but it is possible to
       disable either or both of the two passes.  As a result, you can in fact
       output  raw  i420, LZO compressed i420, RTJPEG, or the default LZO com-
       pressed RTJPEG.
       NOTE: The nuvrec documentation contains some advice and examples  about
       the settings to use for the most common TV encodings.

       c=<&lt;0-20>&gt;
              chrominance threshold (default: 1)

       l=<&lt;0-20>&gt;
              luminance threshold (default: 1)

       lzo
              Enable LZO compression (default).

       nolzo
              Disable LZO compression.

       q=<&lt;3-255>&gt;
              quality level (default: 255)

       raw
              Disable RTJPEG encoding.

       rtjpeg
              Enable RTJPEG encoding (default).

   xvidenc (-xvidencopts)
       There are three modes available: constant bitrate (CBR), fixed quantiz-
       er and two pass.

       pass=<&lt;1|2>&gt;
              Specify the pass in two pass mode.

       turbo (two pass only)
              Dramatically speeds up pass one using faster algorithms and dis-
              abling  CPU-intensive options.  This will probably reduce global
              PSNR a little bit and change individual frame type  and  PSNR  a
              little bit more.

       bitrate=<&lt;value>&gt; (CBR or two pass mode)
              Sets  the  bitrate  to  be  used in kbits/second if <16000 or in
              bits/second if >16000.  If <value> is negative,  Xvid  will  use
              its  absolute  value as the target size (in kBytes) of the video
              and compute the associated bitrate automagically  (default:  687
              kbits/s).

       fixed_quant=<&lt;1-31>&gt;
              Switch  to  fixed quantizer mode and specify the quantizer to be
              used.

       zones=<&lt;zone0>&gt;[/<&lt;zone1>&gt;[/...]] (CBR or two pass mode)
              User specified quality  for  specific  parts  (ending,  credits,
              ...).   Each  zone  is <start-frame>,<mode>,<value> where <mode>
              may be
                 q    Constant quantizer override, where value=<2.0-31.0> rep-
                      resents the quantizer value.
                 w    Ratecontrol  weight  override,  where  value=<0.01-2.00>
                      represents the quality correction in %.

              EXAMPLE:
                 zones=90000,q,20
                      Encodes all frames starting with frame 90000 at constant
                      quantizer 20.
                 zones=0,w,0.1/10001,w,1.0/90000,q,20
                      Encode  frames  0-10000  at  10%  bitrate, encode frames
                      90000 up to the end at constant quantizer 20.  Note that
                      the  second zone is needed to delimit the first zone, as
                      without it everything up until frame 89999 would be  en-
                      coded at 10% bitrate.

       me_quality=<&lt;0-6>&gt;
              This option controls the motion estimation subsystem.  The high-
              er the value, the more precise the  estimation  should  be  (de-
              fault:  6).  The more precise the motion estimation is, the more
              bits can be saved.  Precision is gained at the  expense  of  CPU
              time so decrease this setting if you need realtime encoding.

       (no)qpel
              MPEG-4  uses a half pixel precision for its motion search by de-
              fault.  The standard proposes a mode where encoders are  allowed
              to  use quarter pixel precision.  This option usually results in
              a sharper image.  Unfortunately it has a great impact on bitrate
              and sometimes the higher bitrate use will prevent it from giving
              a better image quality at a fixed bitrate.  It is better to test
              with  and  without this option and see whether it is worth acti-
              vating.

       (no)gmc
              Enable Global Motion Compensation,  which  makes  Xvid  generate
              special  frames (GMC-frames) which are well suited for Pan/Zoom/
              Rotating images.  Whether or not the use  of  this  option  will
              save bits is highly dependent on the source material.

       (no)trellis
              Trellis  Quantization  is a kind of adaptive quantization method
              that saves bits by modifying quantized coefficients to make them
              more compressible by the entropy encoder.  Its impact on quality
              is good, and if VHQ uses too much CPU for you, this setting  can
              be  a  good  alternative to save a few bits (and gain quality at
              fixed bitrate) at a lesser cost than with VHQ (default: on).

       (no)cartoon
              Activate this if your encoded sequence is an anime/cartoon.   It
              modifies  some Xvid internal thresholds so Xvid takes better de-
              cisions on frame types and motion vectors for flat looking  car-
              toons.

       (no)chroma_me
              The  usual  motion  estimation algorithm uses only the luminance
              information to find the best motion vector.   However  for  some
              video  material,  using  the  chroma planes can help find better
              vectors.  This setting toggles the use of chroma planes for  mo-
              tion estimation (default: on).

       (no)chroma_opt
              Enable a chroma optimizer prefilter.  It will do some extra mag-
              ic on color information to minimize the stepped-stairs effect on
              edges.   It  will improve quality at the cost of encoding speed.
              It reduces PSNR by nature, as the mathematical deviation to  the
              original picture will get bigger, but the subjective image qual-
              ity will raise.  Since it  works  with  color  information,  you
              might want to turn it off when encoding in grayscale.

       (no)hq_ac
              Activates  high-quality  prediction of AC coefficients for intra
              frames from neighbor blocks (default: on).

       vhq=<&lt;0-4>&gt;
              The motion search algorithm is based on a search  in  the  usual
              color  domain  and  tries to find a motion vector that minimizes
              the difference between  the  reference  frame  and  the  encoded
              frame.  With this setting activated, Xvid will also use the fre-
              quency domain (DCT) to search for a motion vector that minimizes
              not  only the spatial difference but also the encoding length of
              the block.  Fastest to slowest:
                 0    off
                 1    mode decision (inter/intra MB) (default)
                 2    limited search
                 3    medium search
                 4    wide search

       (no)lumi_mask
              Adaptive quantization allows the macroblock quantizers  to  vary
              inside  each  frame.   This is a 'psychosensory' setting that is
              supposed to make use of the fact that the human eye tends to no-
              tice  fewer  details  in  very bright and very dark parts of the
              picture.  It compresses those areas more  strongly  than  medium
              ones,  which  will  save  bits  that can be spent again on other
              frames, raising overall subjective quality and possibly reducing
              PSNR.

       (no)grayscale
              Make  Xvid  discard  chroma  planes  so  the  encoded  video  is
              grayscale only.  Note that this does not speed up  encoding,  it
              just  prevents  chroma data from being written in the last stage
              of encoding.

       (no)interlacing
              Encode the fields of interlaced video material.  Turn  this  op-
              tion on for interlaced content.
              NOTE: Should you rescale the video, you would need an interlace-
              aware   resizer,   which   you    can    activate    with    -vf
              scale=<width>:<height>:1.

       min_iquant=<&lt;0-31>&gt;
              minimum I-frame quantizer (default: 2)

       max_iquant=<&lt;0-31>&gt;
              maximum I-frame quantizer (default: 31)

       min_pquant=<&lt;0-31>&gt;
              minimum P-frame quantizer (default: 2)

       max_pquant=<&lt;0-31>&gt;
              maximum P-frame quantizer (default: 31)

       min_bquant=<&lt;0-31>&gt;
              minimum B-frame quantizer (default: 2)

       max_bquant=<&lt;0-31>&gt;
              maximum B-frame quantizer (default: 31)

       min_key_interval=<&lt;value>&gt; (two pass only)
              minimum interval between keyframes (default: 0)

       max_key_interval=<&lt;value>&gt;
              maximum interval between keyframes (default: 10*fps)

       quant_type=<&lt;h263|mpeg>&gt;
              Sets  the type of quantizer to use.  For high bitrates, you will
              find that MPEG quantization preserves more detail.  For low  bi-
              trates,  the  smoothing of H.263 will give you less block noise.
              When using custom matrices, MPEG quantization must be used.

       quant_intra_matrix=<&lt;filename>&gt;
              Load a custom intra matrix file.  You can build such a file with
              xvid4conf's matrix editor.

       quant_inter_matrix=<&lt;filename>&gt;
              Load a custom inter matrix file.  You can build such a file with
              xvid4conf's matrix editor.

       keyframe_boost=<&lt;0-1000>&gt; (two pass mode only)
              Shift some bits from the pool for other  frame  types  to  intra
              frames,  thus improving keyframe quality.  This amount is an ex-
              tra percentage, so a value of 10 will give  your  keyframes  10%
              more bits than normal (default: 0).

       kfthreshold=<&lt;value>&gt; (two pass mode only)
              Works  together  with  kfreduction.  Determines the minimum dis-
              tance below which you consider that two  frames  are  considered
              consecutive  and  treated  differently  according to kfreduction
              (default: 10).

       kfreduction=<&lt;0-100>&gt; (two pass mode only)
              The above two settings  can  be  used  to  adjust  the  size  of
              keyframes  that  you consider too close to the first (in a row).
              kfthreshold sets the range in which keyframes are  reduced,  and
              kfreduction determines the bitrate reduction they get.  The last
              I-frame will get treated normally (default: 30).

       max_bframes=<&lt;0-4>&gt;
              Maximum number of B-frames to put between  I/P-frames  (default:
              2).

       bquant_ratio=<&lt;0-1000>&gt;
              quantizer  ratio between B- and non-B-frames, 150=1.50 (default:
              150)

       bquant_offset=<&lt;-1000-1000>&gt;
              quantizer offset between B- and non-B-frames, 100=1.00 (default:
              100)

       bf_threshold=<&lt;-255-255>&gt;
              This setting allows you to specify what priority to place on the
              use of B-frames.  The higher the value, the higher the probabil-
              ity  of B-frames being used (default: 0).  Do not forget that B-
              frames usually have a higher quantizer, and therefore aggressive
              production of B-frames may cause worse visual quality.

       (no)closed_gop
              This  option  tells  Xvid  to close every GOP (Group Of Pictures
              bounded by two I-frames), which makes GOPs independent from each
              other.   This just implies that the last frame of the GOP is ei-
              ther a P-frame or a N-frame but not a B-frame.  It is usually  a
              good idea to turn this option on (default: on).

       (no)packed
              This  option  is meant to solve frame-order issues when encoding
              to container formats like AVI that cannot cope with out-of-order
              frames.  In practice, most decoders (both software and hardware)
              are able to deal with frame-order themselves, and may  get  con-
              fused  when this option is turned on, so you can safely leave if
              off, unless you really know what you are doing.
              WARNING: This will generate an illegal bitstream, and  will  not
              be decodable by ISO-MPEG-4 decoders except DivX/libavcodec/Xvid.
              WARNING: This will also store a fake DivX version in the file so
              the bug autodetection of some decoders might be confused.

       frame_drop_ratio=<&lt;0-100>&gt; (max_bframes=0 only)
              This setting allows the creation  of  variable  framerate  video
              streams.   The  value of the setting specifies a threshold under
              which, if the difference of the following frame to the  previous
              frame is below or equal to this threshold, a frame gets not cod-
              ed (a so called n-vop is placed in the  stream).   On  playback,
              when reaching an n-vop the previous frame will be displayed.
              WARNING:  Playing with this setting may result in a jerky video,
              so use it at your own risks!

       rc_reaction_delay_factor=<&lt;value>&gt;
              This parameter controls the number of frames the CBR  rate  con-
              troller will wait before reacting to bitrate changes and compen-
              sating for them to obtain a constant bitrate over  an  averaging
              range of frames.

       rc_averaging_period=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Real  CBR  is hard to achieve.  Depending on the video material,
              bitrate can be variable, and hard to  predict.   Therefore  Xvid
              uses  an averaging period for which it guarantees a given amount
              of bits (minus a small variation).  This settings expresses  the
              "number  of frames" for which Xvid averages bitrate and tries to
              achieve CBR.

       rc_buffer=<&lt;value>&gt;
              size of the rate control buffer

       curve_compression_high=<&lt;0-100>&gt;
              This setting allows Xvid to take a certain  percentage  of  bits
              away  from  high  bitrate  scenes  and give them back to the bit
              reservoir.  You could also use this if you have a clip  with  so
              many  bits allocated to high-bitrate scenes that the low(er)-bi-
              trate scenes start to look bad (default: 0).

       curve_compression_low=<&lt;0-100>&gt;
              This setting allows Xvid to give a certain percentage  of  extra
              bits  to  the low bitrate scenes, taking a few bits from the en-
              tire clip.  This might come in handy if you have a  few  low-bi-
              trate scenes that are still blocky (default: 0).

       overflow_control_strength=<&lt;0-100>&gt;
              During  pass one of two pass encoding, a scaled bitrate curve is
              computed.  The difference between that expected  curve  and  the
              result  obtained during encoding is called overflow.  Obviously,
              the two pass rate controller tries to compensate for that  over-
              flow,  distributing  it over the next frames.  This setting con-
              trols how much of the overflow is distributed every  time  there
              is  a  new  frame.   Low values allow lazy overflow control, big
              rate bursts are compensated for more slowly (could lead to  lack
              of  precision for small clips).  Higher values will make changes
              in bit redistribution more abrupt, possibly too  abrupt  if  you
              set it too high, creating artifacts (default: 5).
              NOTE:  This setting impacts quality a lot, play with it careful-
              ly!

       max_overflow_improvement=<&lt;0-100>&gt;
              During the frame bit allocation, overflow control  may  increase
              the frame size.  This parameter specifies the maximum percentage
              by which the overflow control is allowed to increase  the  frame
              size, compared to the ideal curve allocation (default: 5).

       max_overflow_degradation=<&lt;0-100>&gt;
              During  the  frame bit allocation, overflow control may decrease
              the frame size.  This parameter specifies the maximum percentage
              by  which  the overflow control is allowed to decrease the frame
              size, compared to the ideal curve allocation (default: 5).

       container_frame_overhead=<&lt;0...>&gt;
              Specifies a frame average overhead per frame, in bytes.  Most of
              the time users express their target bitrate for video w/o taking
              care of the video container overhead.  This small  but  (mostly)
              constant overhead can cause the target file size to be exceeded.
              Xvid allows users to set the amount of overhead  per  frame  the
              container  generates  (give only an average per frame).  0 has a
              special meaning, it lets Xvid use its own  default  values  (de-
              fault: 24 - AVI average overhead).

       profile=<&lt;profile_name>&gt;
              Restricts options and VBV (peak bitrate over a short period) ac-
              cording to the Simple, Advanced Simple and DivX  profiles.   The
              resulting videos should be playable on standalone players adher-
              ing to these profile specifications.
                 unrestricted
                      no restrictions (default)
                 sp0
                      simple profile at level 0
                 sp1
                      simple profile at level 1
                 sp2
                      simple profile at level 2
                 sp3
                      simple profile at level 3
                 asp0
                      advanced simple profile at level 0
                 asp1
                      advanced simple profile at level 1
                 asp2
                      advanced simple profile at level 2
                 asp3
                      advanced simple profile at level 3
                 asp4
                      advanced simple profile at level 4
                 asp5
                      advanced simple profile at level 5
                 dxnhandheld
                      DXN handheld profile
                 dxnportntsc
                      DXN portable NTSC profile
                 dxnportpal
                      DXN portable PAL profile
                 dxnhtntsc
                      DXN home theater NTSC profile
                 dxnhtpal
                      DXN home theater PAL profile
                 dxnhdtv
                      DXN HDTV profile
              NOTE: These profiles should be used in conjunction with  an  ap-
              propriate -ffourcc.  Generally DX50 is applicable, as some play-
              ers do not recognize Xvid but most recognize DivX.

       par=<&lt;mode>&gt;
              Specifies the Pixel Aspect Ratio mode (not to be  confused  with
              DAR,  the  Display Aspect Ratio).  PAR is the ratio of the width
              and height of a single pixel.  So both are  related  like  this:
              DAR = PAR * (width/height).
              MPEG-4  defines 5 pixel aspect ratios and one extended one, giv-
              ing the opportunity to specify a specific pixel aspect ratio.  5
              standard modes can be specified:
                 vga11
                      It is the usual PAR for PC content.  Pixels are a square
                      unit.
                 pal43
                      PAL standard 4:3 PAR.  Pixels are rectangles.
                 pal169
                      same as above
                 ntsc43
                      same as above
                 ntsc169
                      same as above (Do not forget to give the exact ratio.)
                 ext
                      Allows you to specify your own pixel aspect  ratio  with
                      par_width and par_height.
              NOTE:  In  general,  setting  aspect  and  autoaspect options is
              enough.

       par_width=<&lt;1-255>&gt; (par=ext only)
              Specifies the width of the custom pixel aspect ratio.

       par_height=<&lt;1-255>&gt; (par=ext only)
              Specifies the height of the custom pixel aspect ratio.

       aspect=<&lt;x/y | f (float value)>&gt;
              Store movie aspect internally, just like MPEG files.  Much nicer
              solution  than  rescaling,  because  quality  is  not decreased.
              MPlayer and a few others players will play these files  correct-
              ly,  others will display them with the wrong aspect.  The aspect
              parameter can be given as a ratio or a floating point number.

       (no)autoaspect
              Same as the aspect option, but  automatically  computes  aspect,
              taking into account all the adjustments (crop/expand/scale/etc.)
              made in the filter chain.

       psnr
              Print the PSNR (peak signal to noise ratio) for the whole  video
              after  encoding  and  store  the per frame PSNR in a file with a
              name like 'psnr_hhmmss.log' in the current directory.   Returned
              values are in dB (decibel), the higher the better.

       debug
              Save  per-frame  statistics  in ./xvid.dbg. (This is not the two
              pass control file.)

       The following option is only available in Xvid 1.1.x.

       bvhq=<&lt;0|1>&gt;
              This setting allows vector candidates for B-frames  to  be  used
              for the encoding chosen using a rate distortion optimized opera-
              tor, which is what is done for P-frames by the vhq option.  This
              produces  nicer-looking  B-frames while incurring almost no per-
              formance penalty (default: 1).

       The following option is only available in the 1.2.x version of Xvid.

       threads=<&lt;0-n>&gt;
              Create n threads to run the motion estimation (default: 0).  The
              maximum number of threads that can be used is the picture height
              divided by 16.

   x264enc (-x264encopts)
       bitrate=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Sets the average bitrate to be used  in  kbits/second  (default:
              off).  Since local bitrate may vary, this average may be inaccu-
              rate for very short videos (see ratetol).  Constant bitrate  can
              be  achieved  by combining this with vbv_maxrate, at significant
              reduction in quality.

       qp=<&lt;0-51>&gt;
              This selects the quantizer to use for P-frames.  I- and B-frames
              are  offset  from this value by ip_factor and pb_factor, respec-
              tively.  20-40 is a useful range.  Lower values result in better
              fidelity,  but higher bitrates.  0 is lossless.  Note that quan-
              tization in H.264 works  differently  from  MPEG-1/2/4:  H.264's
              quantization parameter (QP) is on a logarithmic scale.  The map-
              ping is approximately H264QP = 12 + 6*log2(MPEGQP).   For  exam-
              ple, MPEG at QP=2 is equivalent to H.264 at QP=18.

       crf=<&lt;1.0-50.0>&gt;
              Enables  constant  quality  mode,  and selects the quality.  The
              scale is similar to QP.  Like the bitrate-based modes, this  al-
              lows  each frame to use a different QP based on the frame's com-
              plexity.

       pass=<&lt;1-3>&gt;
              Enable 2 or 3-pass mode.  It is recommended to always encode  in
              2  or  3-pass  mode as it leads to a better bit distribution and
              improves overall quality.
                 1    first pass
                 2    second pass (of two pass encoding)
                 3    Nth pass (second and third passes of three  pass  encod-
                      ing)
              Here is how it works, and how to use it:
              The  first  pass  (pass=1)  collects statistics on the video and
              writes them to a file.  You might want to deactivate  some  CPU-
              hungry options, apart from the ones that are on by default.
              In  two pass mode, the second pass (pass=2) reads the statistics
              file and bases ratecontrol decisions on it.
              In three pass mode, the second pass (pass=3, that is not a typo)
              does  both: It first reads the statistics, then overwrites them.
              You can use all encoding options,  except  very  CPU-hungry  op-
              tions.
              The  third  pass (pass=3) is the same as the second pass, except
              that it has the second pass' statistics to work from.   You  can
              use all encoding options, including CPU-hungry ones.
              The  first pass may use either average bitrate or constant quan-
              tizer.  ABR is recommended, since it does not require guessing a
              quantizer.  Subsequent passes are ABR, and must specify bitrate.

       turbo=<&lt;0-2>&gt;
              Fast  first  pass  mode.  During the first pass of a two or more
              pass encode it is possible to gain speed by disabling  some  op-
              tions with negligible or even no impact on the final pass output
              quality.
                 0    disabled (default)
                 1    Reduce subq, frameref and disable some  inter-macroblock
                      partition analysis modes.
                 2    Reduce  subq  and frameref to 1, use a diamond ME search
                      and disable all partition analysis modes.
              Level 1 can increase first pass speed up to 2x with no change in
              the  global  PSNR  of  the final pass compared to a full quality
              first pass.
              Level 2 can increase first pass speed up to 4x  with  about  +/-
              0.05dB change in the global PSNR of the final pass compared to a
              full quality first pass.

       keyint=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Sets maximum interval between IDR-frames (default: 250).  Larger
              values  save  bits, thus improve quality, at the cost of seeking
              precision.  Unlike MPEG-1/2/4, H.264 does not  suffer  from  DCT
              drift with large values of keyint.

       keyint_min=<&lt;1-keyint/2>&gt;
              Sets  minimum  interval  between  IDR-frames  (default: 25).  If
              scenecuts appear within this interval, they are still encoded as
              I-frames, but do not start a new GOP.  In H.264, I-frames do not
              necessarily bound a closed GOP because it is allowable for a  P-
              frame  to  be predicted from more frames than just the one frame
              before it (also see frameref).  Therefore, I-frames are not nec-
              essarily seekable.  IDR-frames restrict subsequent P-frames from
              referring to any frame prior to the IDR-frame.

       scenecut=<&lt;-1-100>&gt;
              Controls how aggressively to  insert  extra  I-frames  (default:
              40).   With  small  values  of  scenecut, the codec often has to
              force an I-frame when it would exceed keyint.   Good  values  of
              scenecut may find a better location for the I-frame.  Large val-
              ues use more I-frames than necessary,  thus  wasting  bits.   -1
              disables scene-cut detection, so I-frames are inserted only once
              every other keyint frames, even if a scene-cut  occurs  earlier.
              This  is not recommended and wastes bitrate as scenecuts encoded
              as P-frames are just as big as I-frames, but do  not  reset  the
              "keyint counter".

       frameref=<&lt;1-16>&gt;
              Number  of previous frames used as predictors in B- and P-frames
              (default: 1).  This is effective in anime,  but  in  live-action
              material  the improvements usually drop off very rapidly above 6
              or so reference frames.  This has no effect on  decoding  speed,
              but does increase the memory needed for decoding.  Some decoders
              can only handle a maximum of 15 reference frames.

       bframes=<&lt;0-16>&gt;
              maximum number of consecutive B-frames between I-  and  P-frames
              (default: 0)

       (no)b_adapt
              Automatically  decides  when to use B-frames and how many, up to
              the maximum specified above (default: on).  If  this  option  is
              disabled, then the maximum number of B-frames is used.

       b_bias=<&lt;-100-100>&gt;
              Controls  the  decision  performed  by b_adapt.  A higher b_bias
              produces more B-frames (default: 0).

       (no)b_pyramid
              Allows B-frames to be used as references  for  predicting  other
              frames.   For example, consider 3 consecutive B-frames: I0 B1 B2
              B3 P4.  Without this option, B-frames follow the same pattern as
              MPEG-[124].   So they are coded in the order I0 P4 B1 B2 B3, and
              all the B-frames are predicted from I0 and P4.   With  this  op-
              tion,  they  are  coded  as  I0  P4 B2 B1 B3.  B2 is the same as
              above, but B1 is predicted from I0 and B2, and B3  is  predicted
              from  B2 and P4.  This usually results in slightly improved com-
              pression, at almost no speed cost.  However, this is an  experi-
              mental  option:  it  is not fully tuned and may not always help.
              Requires bframes >= 2.  Disadvantage: increases  decoding  delay
              to 2 frames.

       (no)deblock
              Use  deblocking  filter  (default: on).  As it takes very little
              time compared to its quality gain, it is not recommended to dis-
              able it.

       deblock=<&lt;-6-6>&gt;,<&lt;-6-6>&gt;
              The  first  parameter  is  AlphaC0  (default:  0).  This adjusts
              thresholds for the H.264 in-loop deblocking filter.  First, this
              parameter  adjusts  the maximum amount of change that the filter
              is allowed to cause on any one pixel.  Secondly, this  parameter
              affects  the threshold for difference across the edge being fil-
              tered.  A positive value reduces blocking  artifacts  more,  but
              will also smear details.
              The second parameter is Beta (default: 0).  This affects the de-
              tail threshold.  Very detailed blocks are  not  filtered,  since
              the smoothing caused by the filter would be more noticeable than
              the original blocking.
              The default behavior of the filter almost always achieves  opti-
              mal quality, so it is best to either leave it alone, or make on-
              ly small adjustments.  However, if your source material  already
              has  some  blocking  or noise which you would like to remove, it
              may be a good idea to turn it up a little bit.

       (no)cabac
              Use CABAC (Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding)  (default:
              on).  Slightly slows down encoding and decoding, but should save
              10-15% bitrate.  Unless you are looking for decoding speed,  you
              should not disable it.

       qp_min=<&lt;1-51>&gt; (ABR or two pass)
              Minimum  quantizer,  10-30  seems to be a useful range (default:
              10).

       qp_max=<&lt;1-51>&gt; (ABR or two pass)
              maximum quantizer (default: 51)

       qp_step=<&lt;1-50>&gt; (ABR or two pass)
              maximum value by which the quantizer may  be  incremented/decre-
              mented between frames (default: 4)

       ratetol=<&lt;0.1-100.0>&gt; (ABR or two pass)
              allowed  variance  in average bitrate (no particular units) (de-
              fault: 1.0)

       vbv_maxrate=<&lt;value>&gt; (ABR or two pass)
              maximum local bitrate, in kbits/second (default: disabled)

       vbv_bufsize=<&lt;value>&gt; (ABR or two pass)
              averaging period for vbv_maxrate, in kbits (default: none,  must
              be specified if vbv_maxrate is enabled)

       vbv_init=<&lt;0.0-1.0>&gt; (ABR or two pass)
              initial buffer occupancy, as a fraction of vbv_bufsize (default:
              0.9)

       ip_factor=<&lt;value>&gt;
              quantizer factor between I- and P-frames (default: 1.4)

       pb_factor=<&lt;value>&gt;
              quantizer factor between P- and B-frames (default: 1.3)

       qcomp=<&lt;0-1>&gt; (ABR or two pass)
              quantizer compression (default: 0.6).  A lower value  makes  the
              bitrate  more constant, while a higher value makes the quantiza-
              tion parameter more constant.

       cplx_blur=<&lt;0-999>&gt; (two pass only)
              Temporal blur of the estimated frame  complexity,  before  curve
              compression  (default:  20).   Lower  values allow the quantizer
              value to jump around more, higher values force it to  vary  more
              smoothly.   cplx_blur ensures that each I-frame has quality com-
              parable to the following P-frames, and ensures that  alternating
              high  and  low complexity frames (e.g. low fps animation) do not
              waste bits on fluctuating quantizer.

       qblur=<&lt;0-99>&gt; (two pass only)
              Temporal blur of the quantization parameter,  after  curve  com-
              pression (default: 0.5).  Lower values allow the quantizer value
              to jump around more, higher values force it to vary more smooth-
              ly.

       zones=<&lt;zone0>&gt;[/<&lt;zone1>&gt;[/...]]
              User  specified  quality  for  specific  parts (ending, credits,
              ...).  Each zone is <start-frame>,<end-frame>,<option> where op-
              tion may be
                 q=<0-51>
                      quantizer
                 b=<0.01-100.0>
                      bitrate multiplier
              NOTE: The quantizer option is not strictly enforced.  It affects
              only the planning stage of ratecontrol, and is still subject  to
              overflow compensation and qp_min/qp_max.

       direct_pred=<&lt;name>&gt;
              Determines  the  type  of motion prediction used for direct mac-
              roblocks in B-frames.
                 none Direct macroblocks are not used.
                 spatial
                      Motion vectors are extrapolated from neighboring blocks.
                      (default)
                 temporal
                      Motion  vectors  are  interpolated from the following P-
                      frame.
                 auto The codec selects between spatial and temporal for  each
                      frame.
              Spatial  and temporal are approximately the same speed and PSNR,
              the choice between them depends on the video content.   Auto  is
              slightly  better,  but slower.  Auto is most effective when com-
              bined with multipass.  direct_pred=none is both slower and lower
              quality.

       (no)weight_b
              Use weighted prediction in B-frames.  Without this option, bidi-
              rectionally predicted macroblocks give equal weight to each ref-
              erence  frame.   With this option, the weights are determined by
              the temporal position of the B-frame relative to the references.
              Requires bframes > 1.

       partitions=<&lt;list>&gt;
              Enable     some     optional    macroblock    types    (default:
              p8x8,b8x8,i8x8,i4x4).
                 p8x8 Enable types p16x8, p8x16, p8x8.
                 p4x4 Enable types p8x4, p4x8, p4x4.  p4x4 is recommended only
                      with subq >= 5, and only at low resolutions.
                 b8x8 Enable types b16x8, b8x16, b8x8.
                 i8x8 Enable  type  i8x8.  i8x8 has no effect unless 8x8dct is
                      enabled.
                 i4x4 Enable type i4x4.
                 all  Enable all of the above types.
                 none Disable all of the above types.
              Regardless of this option, macroblock types p16x16, b16x16,  and
              i16x16 are always enabled.
              The  idea is to find the type and size that best describe a cer-
              tain area of the picture.  For example, a global pan  is  better
              represented by 16x16 blocks, while small moving objects are bet-
              ter represented by smaller blocks.

       (no)8x8dct
              Adaptive spatial transform size: allows  macroblocks  to  choose
              between  4x4 and 8x8 DCT.  Also allows the i8x8 macroblock type.
              Without this option, only 4x4 DCT is used.

       me=<&lt;name>&gt;
              Select fullpixel motion estimation algorithm.
                 dia  diamond search, radius 1 (fast)
                 hex  hexagon search, radius 2 (default)
                 umh  uneven multi-hexagon search (slow)
                 esa  exhaustive search (very slow, and no better than umh)

       me_range=<&lt;4-64>&gt;
              radius of exhaustive or multi-hexagon  motion  search  (default:
              16)

       subq=<&lt;1-7>&gt;
              Adjust subpel refinement quality.  This parameter controls qual-
              ity versus speed tradeoffs involved in the motion estimation de-
              cision  process.   subq=5  can  compress  up  to 10% better than
              subq=1.
                 1    Runs fullpixel precision motion estimation on all candi-
                      date  macroblock  types.   Then  selects  the best type.
                      Then refines the motion of that type to fast quarterpix-
                      el precision (fastest).
                 2    Runs halfpixel precision motion estimation on all candi-
                      date macroblock types.   Then  selects  the  best  type.
                      Then refines the motion of that type to fast quarterpix-
                      el precision.
                 3    As 2, but uses a slower quarterpixel refinement.
                 4    Runs fast quarterpixel precision  motion  estimation  on
                      all  candidate  macroblock types.  Then selects the best
                      type.  Then finishes  the  quarterpixel  refinement  for
                      that type.
                 5    Runs  best quality quarterpixel precision motion estima-
                      tion on all candidate macroblock types, before selecting
                      the best type (default).
                 6    Enables rate-distortion optimization of macroblock types
                      in I- and P-frames.
                 7    Enables rate-distortion optimization of  motion  vectors
                      and intra modes. (best)
              In the above, "all candidates" does not exactly mean all enabled
              types: 4x4, 4x8, 8x4 are tried only if 8x8 is better than 16x16.

       (no)chroma_me
              Takes into account chroma  information  during  subpixel  motion
              search (default: enabled).  Requires subq>=5.

       (no)mixed_refs
              Allows each 8x8 or 16x8 motion partition to independently select
              a reference frame.  Without this option, a whole macroblock must
              use the same reference.  Requires frameref>1.

       (no)brdo
              Enables  rate-distortion  optimization of macroblock types in B-
              frames.  Requires subq>=6.

       (no)bime
              Refine the two motion vectors used in bidirectional macroblocks,
              rather  than  re-using  vectors  from  the  forward and backward
              searches.  This option has no effect without B-frames.

       trellis=<&lt;0-2>&gt;
              rate-distortion optimal quantization
                 0    disabled (default)
                 1    enabled only for the final encode
                 2    enabled  during  all  mode  decisions  (slow,   requires
                      subq>=6)

       deadzone_inter=<&lt;0-32>&gt;
              Set  the  size  of the inter luma quantization deadzone for non-
              trellis quantization (default: 21).  Lower values help  to  pre-
              serve fine details and film grain (typically useful for high bi-
              trate/quality encode), while higher values help filter out these
              details  to  save  bits  that  can  be spent again on other mac-
              roblocks and frames (typically useful  for  bitrate-starved  en-
              codes).   It  is  recommended  that  you start by tweaking dead-
              zone_intra before changing this parameter.

       deadzone_intra=<&lt;0-32>&gt;
              Set the size of the intra luma quantization  deadzone  for  non-
              trellis  quantization  (default:  11).  This option has the same
              effect as deadzone_inter except that it  affects  intra  frames.
              It  is recommended that you start by tweaking this parameter be-
              fore changing deadzone_inter.

       (no)fast_pskip
              Performs early skip detection in  P-frames  (default:  enabled).
              This  usually  improves  speed  at no cost, but it can sometimes
              produce artifacts in areas with no details, like sky.

       (no)dct_decimate
              Eliminate dct blocks in P-frames containing only a small  single
              coefficient  (default: enabled).  This will remove some details,
              so it will save bits that can be spent again  on  other  frames,
              hopefully  raising  overall subjective quality.  If you are com-
              pressing non-anime content with a high target bitrate,  you  may
              want to disable this to preserve as much detail as possible.

       nr=<&lt;0-100000>&gt;
              Noise  reduction,  0 means disabled.  100-1000 is a useful range
              for typical content, but you may want to turn it up a  bit  more
              for  very noisy content (default: 0).  Given its small impact on
              speed, you might want to prefer to use this over filtering noise
              away with video filters like denoise3d or hqdn3d.

       chroma_qp_offset=<&lt;-12-12>&gt;
              Use  a different quantizer for chroma as compared to luma.  Use-
              ful values are in the range <-2-2> (default: 0).

       cqm=<&lt;flat|jvt|<&lt;filename>&gt;>&gt;
              Either uses a predefined custom quantization matrix or  loads  a
              JM format matrix file.
                 flat
                      Use the predefined flat 16 matrix (default).
                 jvt
                      Use the predefined JVT matrix.
                 <filename>
                      Use the provided JM format matrix file.
              NOTE: Windows CMD.EXE users may experience problems with parsing
              the command line if they attempt to use all the CQM lists.  This
              is  due to a command line length limitation.  In this case it is
              recommended the lists be put into a JM format CQM file and load-
              ed as specified above.

       cqm4iy=<&lt;list>&gt; (also see cqm)
              Custom  4x4  intra luminance matrix, given as a list of 16 comma
              separated values in the 1-255 range.

       cqm4ic=<&lt;list>&gt; (also see cqm)
              Custom 4x4 intra chrominance matrix, given as a list of 16 comma
              separated values in the 1-255 range.

       cqm4py=<&lt;list>&gt; (also see cqm)
              Custom  4x4  inter luminance matrix, given as a list of 16 comma
              separated values in the 1-255 range.

       cqm4pc=<&lt;list>&gt; (also see cqm)
              Custom 4x4 inter chrominance matrix, given as a list of 16 comma
              separated values in the 1-255 range.

       cqm8iy=<&lt;list>&gt; (also see cqm)
              Custom  8x8  intra luminance matrix, given as a list of 64 comma
              separated values in the 1-255 range.

       cqm8py=<&lt;list>&gt; (also see cqm)
              Custom 8x8 inter luminance matrix, given as a list of  64  comma
              separated values in the 1-255 range.

       level_idc=<&lt;10-51>&gt;
              Set  the  bitstream's  level  as defined by annex A of the H.264
              standard (default: 51 - Level 5.1).  This is  used  for  telling
              the decoder what capabilities it needs to support.  Use this pa-
              rameter only if you know what it means, and you have a  need  to
              set it.

       threads=<&lt;0-16>&gt;
              Spawn  threads  to encode in parallel on multiple CPUs (default:
              1).  This has a slight penalty to  compression  quality.   0  or
              'auto'  tells  x264 to detect how many CPUs you have and pick an
              appropriate number of threads.

       (no)global_header
              Causes SPS and PPS to appear only once, at the beginning of  the
              bitstream  (default:  disabled).  Some players, such as the Sony
              PSP, require the use of this option.  The default behavior caus-
              es SPS and PPS to repeat prior to each IDR frame.

       (no)interlaced
              Treat the video content as interlaced.

       log=<&lt;-1-3>&gt;
              Adjust the amount of logging info printed to the screen.
                 -1   none
                  0   Print errors only.
                  1   warnings
                  2   PSNR  and other analysis statistics when the encode fin-
                      ishes (default)
                  3   PSNR, QP, frametype, size, and other statistics for  ev-
                      ery frame

       (no)psnr
              Print signal-to-noise ratio statistics.
              NOTE:  The  'Y',  'U', 'V', and 'Avg' PSNR fields in the summary
              are not mathematically sound (they are  simply  the  average  of
              per-frame  PSNRs).   They are kept only for comparison to the JM
              reference codec.  For all other purposes, please use either  the
              'Global' PSNR, or the per-frame PSNRs printed by log=3.

       (no)ssim
              Print  the Structural Similarity Metric results.  This is an al-
              ternative to PSNR, and may be better correlated  with  the  per-
              ceived quality of the compressed video.

       (no)visualize
              Enable x264 visualizations during encoding.  If the x264 on your
              system supports it, a new window will be opened during  the  en-
              coding  process,  in which x264 will attempt to present an over-
              view of how each frame gets encoded.  Each block type on the vi-
              sualized movie will be colored as follows:
                 red/pink
                      intra block
                 blue
                      inter block
                 green
                      skip block
                 yellow
                      B-block
              This  feature  can  be  considered  experimental  and subject to
              change.  In particular, it depends on x264 being  compiled  with
              visualizations  enabled.   Note  that  as  of writing this, x264
              pauses after encoding and visualizing each  frame,  waiting  for
              the  user  to press a key, at which point the next frame will be
              encoded.

   xvfw (-xvfwopts)
       Encoding with Video for Windows codecs is mostly  obsolete  unless  you
       wish to encode to some obscure fringe codec.

       codec=<&lt;name>&gt;
              The name of the binary codec file with which to encode.

       compdata=<&lt;file>&gt;
              The name of the codec settings file (like firstpass.mcf) created
              by vfw2menc.

   MPEG muxer (-mpegopts)
       The MPEG muxer can generate 5 types of streams, each of which has  rea-
       sonable default parameters that the user can override.  Generally, when
       generating MPEG files, it is advisable to disable MEncoder's frame-skip
       code  (see  -noskip, -mc as well as the harddup and softskip video fil-
       ters).

       EXAMPLE:
                 format=mpeg2:tsaf:vbitrate=8000

       format=<&lt;mpeg1 | mpeg2 | xvcd | xsvcd | dvd | pes1 | pes2>&gt;
              stream format (default: mpeg2).  pes1 and pes2 are  very  broken
              formats  (no  pack header and no padding), but VDR uses them; do
              not choose them unless you know exactly what you are doing.

       size=<&lt;up to 65535>&gt;
              Pack size in bytes, do not change unless you know  exactly  what
              you are doing (default: 2048).

       muxrate=<&lt;int>&gt;
              Nominal  muxrate  in  kbit/s  used in the pack headers (default:
              1800 kb/s).  Will be updated as necessary in the case  of  'for-
              mat=mpeg1' or 'mpeg2'.

       tsaf
              Sets  timestamps  on  all  frames, if possible; recommended when
              format=dvd.  If dvdauthor complains with a message like "..audio
              sector  out  of  range...", you probably did not enable this op-
              tion.

       interleaving2
              Uses a better algorithm to interleave audio and  video  packets,
              based  on  the  principle that the muxer will always try to fill
              the stream with the largest percentage of free space.

       vdelay=<&lt;1-32760>&gt;
              Initial video delay time, in milliseconds (default: 0),  use  it
              if  you  want  to delay video with respect to audio.  It doesn't
              work with :drop.

       adelay=<&lt;1-32760>&gt;
              Initial audio delay time, in milliseconds (default: 0),  use  it
              if you want to delay audio with respect to video.

       drop
              When used with vdelay the muxer drops the part of audio that was
              anticipated.

       vwidth, vheight=<&lt;1-4095>&gt;
              Set the video width and height when video is MPEG-1/2.

       vpswidth, vpsheight=<&lt;1-4095>&gt;
              Set pan and scan video width and height when video is MPEG-2.

       vaspect=<&lt;1 | 4/3 | 16/9 | 221/100>&gt;
              Sets the display aspect ratio for MPEG-2 video.  Do not  use  it
              on  MPEG-1  or  the  resulting  aspect  ratio will be completely
              wrong.

       vbitrate=<&lt;int>&gt;
              Sets the video bitrate in kbit/s for MPEG-1/2 video.

       vframerate=<&lt;24000/1001 | 24 | 25 | 30000/1001 | 30 | 50 | 60000/1001  |
       60 >&gt;
              Sets  the framerate for MPEG-1/2 video.  This option will be ig-
              nored if used with the telecine option.

       telecine
              Enables 3:2 pulldown soft telecine mode: The muxer will make the
              video stream look like it was encoded at 30000/1001 fps.  It on-
              ly  works  with  MPEG-2  video  when  the  output  framerate  is
              24000/1001  fps,  convert it with -ofps if necessary.  Any other
              framerate is incompatible with this option.

       film2pal
              Enables FILM to PAL and NTSC to PAL soft telecine mode: The mux-
              er  will  make  the  video stream look like it was encoded at 25
              fps.  It only works with MPEG-2 video when the output  framerate
              is 24000/1001 fps, convert it with -ofps if necessary.  Any oth-
              er framerate is incompatible with this option.

       tele_src and tele_dest
              Enables arbitrary telecining  using  Donand  Graft's  DGPulldown
              code.   You need to specify the original and the desired framer-
              ate; the muxer will make the video stream look like it  was  en-
              coded at the desired framerate.  It only works with MPEG-2 video
              when the input framerate is smaller than  the  output  framerate
              and the framerate increase is <= 1.5.

              EXAMPLE:
                 tele_src=25,tele_dest=30000/1001
                      PAL to NTSC telecining

       vbuf_size=<&lt;40-1194>&gt;
              Sets  the size of the video decoder's buffer, expressed in kilo-
              bytes.  Specify it only if the bitrate of the  video  stream  is
              too  high  for  the chosen format and if you know perfectly well
              what you are doing.  A too high value may lead to an  unplayable
              movie, depending on the player's capabilities.  When muxing HDTV
              video a value of 400 should suffice.

       abuf_size=<&lt;4-64>&gt;
              Sets the size of the audio decoder's buffer, expressed in  kilo-
              bytes.  The same principle as for vbuf_size applies.

   FFmpeg libavformat demuxers (-lavfdopts)
       analyzeduration=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Maximum length in seconds to analyze the stream properties.

       format=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Force a specific libavformat demuxer.

       probesize=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Maximum  amount of data to probe during the detection phase.  In
              the case of MPEG-TS this value identifies the maximum number  of
              TS packets to scan.

   FFmpeg libavformat muxers (-lavfopts) (also see -of lavf)
       delay=<&lt;value>&gt;
              Currently  only  meaningful  for  MPEG[12]: Maximum allowed dis-
              tance, in seconds, between the reference  timer  of  the  output
              stream  (SCR)  and  the  decoding timestamp (DTS) for any stream
              present (demux to decode delay).  Default is 0.7 (as mandated by
              the  standards  defined  by MPEG).  Higher values require larger
              buffers and must not be used.

       format=<&lt;container_format>&gt;
              Override which container format to mux into (default: autodetect
              from output file extension).
                 mpg
                      MPEG-1 systems and MPEG-2 PS
                 asf
                      Advanced Streaming Format
                 avi
                      Audio Video Interleave file
                 wav
                      Waveform Audio
                 swf
                      Macromedia Flash
                 flv
                      Macromedia Flash video files
                 rm
                      RealAudio and RealVideo
                 au
                      SUN AU format
                 nut
                      NUT open container format (experimental)
                 mov
                      QuickTime
                 mp4
                      MPEG-4 format
                 dv
                      Sony Digital Video container

       muxrate=<&lt;rate>&gt;
              Nominal  bitrate of the multiplex, in bits per second; currently
              it is meaningful only for MPEG[12].   Sometimes  raising  it  is
              necessary in order to avoid "buffer underflows".

       packetsize=<&lt;size>&gt;
              Size,  expressed  in bytes, of the unitary packet for the chosen
              format.  When muxing to  MPEG[12]  implementations  the  default
              values are: 2324 for [S]VCD, 2048 for all others formats.

       preload=<&lt;distance>&gt;
              Currently  only  meaningful  for  MPEG[12]: Initial distance, in
              seconds, between the reference timer of the output stream  (SCR)
              and  the  decoding timestamp (DTS) for any stream present (demux
              to decode delay).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       There are a number of environment variables that can be used to control
       the behavior of MPlayer and MEncoder.

       MPLAYER_CHARSET (also see -msgcharset)
              Convert  console messages to the specified charset (default: au-
              todetect).  A value of "noconv" means no conversion.

       MPLAYER_HOME
              Directory where MPlayer looks for user settings.

       MPLAYER_VERBOSE (also see -v and -msglevel)
              Set the initial verbosity level across all message modules  (de-
              fault:  0).  The resulting verbosity corresponds to that of -ms-
              glevel 5 plus the value of MPLAYER_VERBOSE.

   libaf:
       LADSPA_PATH
              If LADSPA_PATH is set, it searches for the specified  file.   If
              it  is  not  set,  you  must  supply a fully specified pathname.
              FIXME: This is also mentioned in the ladspa section.

   libdvdcss:
       DVDCSS_CACHE
              Specify a directory in which to store title  key  values.   This
              will  speed up descrambling of DVDs which are in the cache.  The
              DVDCSS_CACHE directory is created if it does not  exist,  and  a
              subdirectory  is created named after the DVD's title or manufac-
              turing date.  If DVDCSS_CACHE is not set or is empty,  libdvdcss
              will  use  the  default  value which is "${HOME}/.dvdcss/" under
              Unix and "C:\Documents and Settings\$USER\Application Data\dvdc-
              ss\" under Win32.  The special value "off" disables caching.

       DVDCSS_METHOD
              Sets  the  authentication  and  decryption method that libdvdcss
              will use to read scrambled discs.  Can be one of title,  key  or
              disc.
                 key
                      is the default method.  libdvdcss will use a set of cal-
                      culated player keys to try and get the disc  key.   This
                      can  fail  if  the  drive  does not recognize any of the
                      player keys.
                 disc
                      is a fallback method when key has  failed.   Instead  of
                      using player keys, libdvdcss will crack the disc key us-
                      ing a brute force algorithm.  This process is CPU inten-
                      sive and requires 64 MB of memory to store temporary da-
                      ta.
                 title
                      is the fallback when all other methods have failed.   It
                      does  not rely on a key exchange with the DVD drive, but
                      rather uses a crypto attack to guess the title key.   On
                      rare cases this may fail because there is not enough en-
                      crypted data on the disc to perform  a  statistical  at-
                      tack,  but  in  the other hand it is the only way to de-
                      crypt a DVD stored on a hard disc, or  a  DVD  with  the
                      wrong region on an RPC2 drive.

       DVDCSS_RAW_DEVICE
              Specify  the raw device to use.  Exact usage will depend on your
              operating system, the Linux utility to set  up  raw  devices  is
              raw(8)  for  instance.   Please note that on most operating sys-
              tems, using a raw device requires highly aligned buffers:  Linux
              requires a 2048 bytes alignment (which is the size of a DVD sec-
              tor).

       DVDCSS_VERBOSE
              Sets the libdvdcss verbosity level.
                 0    Outputs no messages at all.
                 1    Outputs error messages to stderr.
                 2    Outputs error messages and debug messages to stderr.

       DVDREAD_NOKEYS
              Skip retrieving all keys on startup.  Currently disabled.

       HOME   FIXME: Document this.

   libao2:
       AO_SUN_DISABLE_SAMPLE_TIMING
              FIXME: Document this.

       AUDIODEV
              FIXME: Document this.

       AUDIOSERVER
              Specifies the Network Audio System server to which the nas audio
              output  driver  should  connect and the transport that should be
              used.  If unset DISPLAY is used instead.  The transport  can  be
              one  of  tcp  and  unix.   Syntax  is tcp/<somehost>:<someport>,
              <somehost>:<instancenumber> or [unix]:<instancenumber>.  The NAS
              base port is 8000 and <instancenumber> is added to that.

              EXAMPLES:
                 AUDIOSERVER=somehost:0
                      Connect to NAS server on somehost using default port and
                      transport.
                 AUDIOSERVER=tcp/somehost:8000
                      Connect to NAS server on somehost listening on TCP  port
                      8000.
                 AUDIOSERVER=(unix)?:0
                      Connect to NAS server instance 0 on localhost using unix
                      domain sockets.

       DISPLAY
              FIXME: Document this.

   vidix:
       VIDIX_CRT
              FIXME: Document this.

   osdep:
       TERM   FIXME: Document this.

   libvo:
       DISPLAY
              FIXME: Document this.

       FRAMEBUFFER
              FIXME: Document this.

       HOME   FIXME: Document this.

   libmpdemux:
       HOME   FIXME: Document this.

       HOMEPATH
              FIXME: Document this.

       http_proxy
              FIXME: Document this.

       LOGNAME
              FIXME: Document this.

       USERPROFILE
              FIXME: Document this.

   libmpcodecs:
       XANIM_MOD_DIR
              FIXME: Document this.

   GUI:
       CHARSET
              FIXME: Document this.

       DISPLAY
              FIXME: Document this.

       HOME   FIXME: Document this.

   libavformat:
       AUDIO_FLIP_LEFT
              FIXME: Document this.

       BKTR_DEV
              FIXME: Document this.

       BKTR_FORMAT
              FIXME: Document this.

       BKTR_FREQUENCY
              FIXME: Document this.

       http_proxy
              FIXME: Document this.

       no_proxy
              FIXME: Document this.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/mplayer/mplayer.conf
              MPlayer system-wide settings

       /usr/local/etc/mplayer/mencoder.conf
              MEncoder system-wide settings

       ~/.mplayer/config
              MPlayer user settings

       ~/.mplayer/mencoder.conf
              MEncoder user settings

       ~/.mplayer/input.conf
              input bindings (see '-input keylist' for the full list)

       ~/.mplayer/gui.conf
              GUI configuration file

       ~/.mplayer/gui.pl
              GUI playlist

       ~/.mplayer/font/
              font directory (There must be a font.desc file  and  files  with
              .RAW extension.)

       ~/.mplayer/DVDkeys/
              cached CSS keys

       Assuming  that  /path/to/movie.avi  is played, MPlayer searches for sub
       files
              in this order:
              /path/to/movie.sub
              ~/.mplayer/sub/movie.sub

EXAMPLES OF MPLAYER USAGE
       Quickstart DVD playing:
       mplayer dvd://1

       Play in Japanese with English subtitles:
       mplayer dvd://1 -alang ja -slang en

       Play only chapters 5, 6, 7:
       mplayer dvd://1 -chapter 5-7

       Play only titles 5, 6, 7:
       mplayer dvd://5-7

       Play a multiangle DVD:
       mplayer dvd://1 -dvdangle 2

       Play from a different DVD device:
       mplayer dvd://1 -dvd-device /dev/dvd2

       Play DVD video from a directory with VOB files:
       mplayer dvd://1 -dvd-device /path/to/directory/

       Copy a DVD title to hard disk, saving to file title1.vob :
       mplayer dvd://1 -dumpstream -dumpfile title1.vob

       Stream from HTTP:
       mplayer http://mplayer.hq/example.avi

       Stream using RTSP:
       mplayer rtsp://server.example.com/streamName

       Convert subtitles to MPsub format:
       mplayer dummy.avi -sub source.sub -dumpmpsub

       Convert subtitles to MPsub format without watching the movie:
       mplayer /dev/zero -rawvideo pal:fps=xx -demuxer rawvideo -vc null -vo null -noframedrop -benchmark -sub source.sub -dumpmpsub

       input from standard V4L:
       mplayer tv:// -tv driver=v4l:width=640:height=480:outfmt=i420 -vc rawi420 -vo xv

       Playback on Zoran cards (old style, deprecated):
       mplayer -vo zr -vf scale=352:288 file.avi

       Playback on Zoran cards (new style):
       mplayer -vo zr2 -vf scale=352:288,zrmjpeg file.avi

       Play a 6-channel AAC file with only two speakers:
       mplayer -rawaudio format=0xff -demuxer rawaudio -af pan=2:.32:.32:.39:.06:.06:.39:.17:-.17:-.17:.17:.33:.33 adts_he-aac160_51.aac
       You might want to play a bit with the pan values (e.g multiply  with  a
       value) to increase volume or avoid clipping.

       checkerboard invert with geq filter:
       mplayer -vf geq='128+(p(XY)-128)*(0.5-gt(mod(X/SW128)64))*(0.5-gt(mod(Y/SH128)64))*4'

EXAMPLES OF MENCODER USAGE
       Encode DVD title #2, only selected chapters:
       mencoder dvd://2 -chapter 10-15 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4

       Encode DVD title #2, resizing to 640x480:
       mencoder dvd://2 -vf scale=640:480 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4

       Encode DVD title #2, resizing to 512xHHH (keep aspect ratio):
       mencoder dvd://2 -vf scale -zoom -xy 512 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4

       The same, but with bitrate set to 1800kbit and optimized macroblocks:
       mencoder dvd://2 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4:mbd=1:vbitrate=1800

       The same, but with MJPEG compression:
       mencoder dvd://2 -o title2.avi -oac copy -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mjpeg:mbd=1:vbitrate=1800

       Encode all *.jpg files in the current directory:
       mencoder "mf://*.jpg" -mf fps=25 -o output.avi -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4

       Encode from a tuner (specify a format with -vf format):
       mencoder -tv driver=v4l:width=640:height=480 tv:// -o tv.avi -ovc raw

       Encode from a pipe:
       rar p test-SVCD.rar | mencoder -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4:vbitrate=800 -ofps 24 -

BUGS
       Don't  panic.   If  you find one, report it to us, but please make sure
       you have read all of the documentation first.  Also look out  for  smi-
       leys.  :)  Many bugs are the result of incorrect setup or parameter us-
       age.  The bug reporting section of the documentation (http://www.mplay-
       erhq.hu/DOCS/HTML/en/bugreports.html) explains how to create useful bug
       reports.

AUTHORS
       MPlayer was initially written by Arpad Gereoffy.  See the AUTHORS  file
       for a list of some of the many other contributors.

       MPlayer is (C) 2000-2007 The MPlayer Team

       This  man  page was written mainly by Gabucino, Jonas Jermann and Diego
       Biurrun.  It is maintained by Diego Biurrun.  Please send  mails  about
       it to the MPlayer-DOCS mailing list.  Translation specific mails belong
       on the MPlayer-translations mailing list.



The MPlayer Project               2007-06-01                        MPlayer(1)