get - Creates a specified version of a Source Code Control System (SCCS)
get [-g] [-L] [-m] [-n] [-p] [-s] [-t] [-c cutoff] [-i list] [-r SID] [-w
string] [-x list] file... | -
get [-a seq_num] [-b] [-e] [-k] [-s] [-t] [-c cutoff] [-i list] [-r SID]
[-x list] [-l | -lp] file... | -
Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry standards
Refer to the standards(5) reference page for more information about indus-
try standards and associated tags.
[Tru64 UNIX] Specifies the delta sequence number of the SCCS file
delta (version) that is be retrieved. This keyletter is used by the
-b Specifies that the delta to be created should have a SID in a new
branch. The new SID is numbered according to the rules stated in the
SID Determination Table. You can use -b only with the -e option. It
is only necessary when you want to branch from a leaf delta (a delta
without a successor). Attempting to create a delta at a nonleaf delta
automatically results in a branch, even if the b header flag is not
set. If you do not specify the b header flag in the SCCS file, get
ignores the -b option because the file does not allow branching.
Specifies a cutoff date and time, in the form: yy[mm[dd[hh[mm[ss]]]]].
The get command includes no deltas to the SCCS file created after the
specified cutoff in the g-file. The values of any unspecified items in
cutoff default to their maximum allowable values. Thus, a cutoff date
and time specified with only the year (yy) would specify the last
month, day, hour, minute, and second of that year. Any number of non-
numeric characters can separate the 2-digit items of the cutoff date
and time. This lets you specify a date and time in a number of ways,
[Tru64 UNIX] If the year (yy) field is less than 69 get interprets it
as being in the twenty-first century, i.e. 20yy. If the year is greater
than or equal to 69, get interprets it as being in the twentieth cen-
tury, i.e. 19yy.
-e Indicates that the g-file being created is to be edited by the user
applying get. The changes are recorded later with the delta command.
The get -e command creates a p-file that prevents other users from
issuing another get -e and editing a second g-file on the same SID
before delta is run. The owner of the file can override this restric-
tion by allowing joint editing on the same SID through the use of the
admin command with the -fj option. Other users, with permission, can
obtain read-only copies by using get without the -e option. The get -e
command enforces SCCS file protection specified via the ceiling, floor,
and authorized user list in the SCCS file (see the admin(1) reference
-g Suppresses the actual retrieval of text from the SCCS file. Use the -g
option primarily to create an l-file or to verify the existence of a
particular SID. Do not use it with the -e option.
Specifies a list of deltas to be included in the creation of a g-file.
The SID list format consists of a combination of individual SIDs
separated by commas and SID ranges indicated by two SIDs separated by a
hyphen, as shown in the following example:
get -e -i1.4,1.5,1.6 s.file
get -e -i1.4-1.6 s.file
You can specify the SCCS Identification of a delta in any form shown in
the SID Specified column of the SID Determination Table. The get com-
mand interprets partial SIDs as shown in the SID Retrieved column of
-k Suppresses replacement of identification keywords in the g-file by
their values. The -k option is implied by the -e option. If you
accidentally ruin the g-file created by get with an -e option, you can
recreate it by reissuing the get command with the -k option in place of
the -e option.
Writes a delta summary to an l-file.
If you specify -lp, get interprets it as -L. The -lp option is
-L Writes a delta summary to standard output and does not create an l-
file. All informative output that normally is written to standard out-
put is written to standard error instead, unless the -s option is
specified, in which case it is suppressed. Use this option to deter-
mine which deltas were used to create the g-file currently in use.
-m Writes before each line of text in the g-file the SID of the delta that
inserted the line into the SCCS file. The format is as follows:
SID tab line_of_text
-n Writes the value of the %M% keyword before each line of text in the g-
file. The format is the value of %M%, followed by a horizontal tab,
followed by the text line. When both the -m and -n options are used,
the format is as follows:
%M%_value tab SID tab line_of_text
-p Writes the text created from the SCCS file to standard output and does
not create a g-file. The get command sends output normally sent to
standard output to file descriptor 2 (standard error) instead. If you
specify the -s option with the -p option, output normally sent to stan-
dard output does not appear anywhere. Do not use -p with the -e
Specifies the SCCS identification string (SID) of the SCCS file version
to be created. Shows what version of a file is created and the SID of
the pending delta as functions of the SID specified.
-s Suppresses all output normally written to standard output. Error mes-
sages (written to standard error) remain unaffected.
-t Accesses the most recently created delta in a given release or release
and level. Without the -r option, get accesses the most recent delta
regardless of its SID.
[Tru64 UNIX] Substitutes string for the %W% keyword in g-files not
intended for editing.
Excludes a list of deltas in the creation of a file. See the -i option
for the SID list format.
The path name of an existing SCCS file or directory.
The options and files can be specified in any order, and all options
apply to all named files. If you specify a directory in place of file,
get performs the requested actions on all the files in the directory
that begin with the s. prefix. If you specify a - (dash) in place of
file, get reads standard input and interprets each line as the name of
an SCCS file. The get command continues to read input until it reads an
The get command reads the specified versions of the named SCCS files, and
creates a text file (the g-file), for each file according to the specified
options. The command then writes each text file to a file with the same
name as the original SCCS file without the s. (s period) prefix.
If the effective user has write permission in the directory containing the
SCCS files but the real user does not, then only one file can be named when
the -e option is used.
In addition to the file with the s. prefix (the s-file), get can create
several auxiliary files: the g-file, l-file, p-file, and z-file. These
files are identified by their tag, which is the letter before the dash.
The get command names auxiliary files by replacing the leading s. in the
SCCS file name with the proper tag, except for the g-file, which is named
by removing the s. prefix. So, for a file named s.sample, the auxiliary
file names would be sample, l.sample, p.sample, and z.sample.
These files serve the following purposes:
Contains the original file text and all the changes (deltas) made to
the file. It also includes information about who can change the file
contents, who has made changes, when those changes were made, and what
the changes were. You cannot edit this file directly, because the file
is read-only. It contains the information needed by the SCCS commands
to build the g-file, the file you can edit.
A text file that contains the text of the SCCS file version that you
specify with the -r option (or the latest trunk version by default).
You can edit this file directly. When you have made all your changes
and you want to make a new delta to the file, you can then apply the
delta command to the file. The get command creates the g-file in the
The get command creates a g-file whenever it runs, unless the -g option
or the -p option is specified. The real user owns it (not the effec-
tive user). If you do not specify the -k or the -e option, the file is
read-only. If the -k or the -e option is specified, the owner has
write permission for the g-file. You must have write permission in the
current directory to create a g-file.
The get command creates the l-file (a read-only file) when the -l
option is specified. It contains a table showing which deltas were
applied in generating the g-file. You must have write permission in
the current directory to create an l-file.
Lines in the l-file have the following format:
+ A space if the delta was applied; an * (asterisk) appears other-
+ A space if the delta was applied or was not applied and ignored;
an * appears if the delta was not applied and was not ignored.
+ A code indicating a special reason why the delta was or was not
Included or excluded normally.
I Included using the -i option.
X Excluded using the -x option.
C Cut off using the -c option.
+ The SID.
+ The date and time the file was created.
+ The user name of person who created the delta.
Comments and MR data follow on subsequent lines, indented one hor-
izontal tab character. A blank line ends each entry.
For example, for a delta cut off with the -c option, the entry in
the l-file might be:
**C 1.3 90/03/13 12:44:16 pat
The entry for the initial delta might be:
1.1 90/02/27 15:42:20 pat
date and time created 90/02/27 15:42:20 by pat
The get command creates the p-file when the -e or the -k option is
specified. The p-file passes information resulting from a get -e to a
delta command. The p-file also prevents a subsequent execution of get
with an -e option for the same SID until delta is run or the joint edit
keyletter (j) is set in the SCCS file. The j keyletter allows several
gets on the same SID. The p-file is created in the directory
containing the SCCS file. To create a p-file in the SCCS directory,
you must have write permission in that directory. The permission code
of the p-file is read-only to all but its owner, and it is owned by the
The p-file contains:
+ The current SID.
+ The SID of new delta to be created.
+ The user name.
+ The date and time of the get.
+ The -i option, if it was present.
+ The -x option, if it was present.
The p-file contains an entry with the preceding information for each
pending delta for the file. No two lines have the same new delta SID.
The z-file is a lock mechanism against simultaneous updates. It con-
tains the binary process number of the get command that created it. It
is created in the directory containing the SCCS file and exists only
while the get command is running.
When you use the get command, it displays the SID being accessed and the
number of lines created from the SCCS file. If you specify the -e option,
the SID of the delta to be made appears after the SID accessed and before
the number of lines created. If you specify more than one file, or a
directory, or standard input, get displays the file name before each file
is processed. If you specify the -i option, get lists included deltas
below the word Included. If you specify the -x option, get lists excluded
deltas below the word Excluded.
Getting Read-Only File Versions
[Tru64 UNIX] The get command creates read-only versions as well as edit-
able versions of a file. Use read-only versions of files any time the
application does not require that the file contents be changed. Read-only
versions of source code files can be compiled. Text files can be displayed
or printed from read-only versions.
[Tru64 UNIX] The difference between an editable version and a read-only
version is important when using identification keywords. Identification
keywords are symbols that are expanded to some text value when the get com-
mand retrieves the file as read-only. In editable versions, keywords are
not expanded. Identification keywords can appear anywhere in an SCCS file
(see the prs(1) reference page for further information on identification
You can use identification keywords in your files to insert identifying
information. These keywords are replaced by their values in the g-file
when get is invoked without the -e or -k option. The following identifica-
tion keywords can be used in SCCS files:
%M% Module name: the value of the m flag in the SCCS file with the leading
%I% The SID (%R%.%L%.%B%.%S%) of the g-file
%D% Date of the current get (yy/mm/dd)
%H% Date of the current get (mm/dd/yy)
%T% Time of the current get (hh:mm:ss)
%E% Date newest applied delta was created (yy/mm/dd)
%G% Date newest applied delta was created (mm/dd/yy)
%U% Time newest applied delta was created (hh:mm:ss)
%F% SCCS file name
%P% Full path name of the SCCS file
%Q% The value of the q flag in the file
%Y% Module type: the value of the t flag in the SCCS file
%C% The current line number. This keyword is for identifying messages out-
put by the program. It is not intended for use on every line to pro-
vide sequence numbers.
Constructing what Strings:
%W% A shorthand notation for constructing what strings of the following
type. Its value is the characters and keyletters:
%W% = %Z%%M%<tab>%I%
%Z% The 4-character string @(#) recognized by the what command.
%A% Another shorthand notation for constructing what strings. Its value is
%A% = %Z%%Y% %M% %I%%Z%
The following table illustrates how get determines the SID of the file it
retrieves, and what the pending SID is. The column SID Specified shows the
various ways the SID can be specified with the -r option. The next two
columns illustrate the various conditions that can exist, including whether
or not the -b option is used with the get -e. The SID Retrieved column
indicates the SID of the file that makes up the g-file. The SID of Delta
to be Created column indicates the SID of the version that will be created
when delta is applied.
SID Determination Table
SID Specified -b Used SID Retrieved
Delta to be
None (1) No mR.mL mR.(mL+1)
R defaults to
None (1) Yes mR.mL
R defaults to
(R)elease No mR.mL R.1 (3)
R > mR
R No R = mR mR.mL mR.(mL+1)
R Yes mR.mL
R > mR
R Yes R = mR mR.mL
R N/A hR.mL (4)
R < mR and R
R N/A R.mL
R < mR and R
R.(L)evel No R.L R.(L+1)
No trunk suc-
R.L yes R.L R.L(mB+1).1
No trunk suc-
R.L N/A R.L
release >= R
R.L.(B)ranch No R.L.B.mS
R.L.B Yes R.L.B.mS
No R.L.B.S R.L.B.(S+1)
R.L.B.S Yes R.L.B.S
R.L.B.S N/A R.L.B.S
(1) Applies only if the d (default SID) flag is not present in the file
(see admin(1) reference page).
(2) The mR indicates the maximum existing release.
(3) Forces creation of the first delta in a new release.
(4) The hR is the highest existing release that is lower than the speci-
fied, nonexistent, release R.
The obsolescent form of the -l option uses the optional option-argument
that cannot be presented as a separate argument (-lp). When the -l and -p
options are both needed, the you should avoid ambiguity by giving them as
separate arguments (-l -p), reversing their sequence (-pl) or separating
them with other options in a single argument (such as -ltp).
The following exit values are returned:
0 Successful completion.
>>0 An error occurred.
The following examples and descriptions illustrate the differences between
read-only and editable versions of SCCS files.
1. To insert the current date and SID in a file, enter the following sym-
bols in the file:
The %H% symbol is for the current date and the %I% symbol is for the
SID. When get retrieves a file as editable, it leaves the symbols in
the file and does not do text value substitution.
2. The following example builds the version with the highest SID, because
no version of the file is specified:
$ get s.test.c
3. In the next two command lines, the -r option specifies which version
$ get -r1.3 s.test.c
$ get -r18.104.22.168 s.test.c
4. If you specify only the release number of the SID, get finds the file
with the highest level within that release number:
$ get -r2 s.test.c
5. If the SID specified is greater than the highest existing SID, get
retrieves the highest existing SID without complaint. If the SID
specified is lower than the lowest existing SID, SCCS writes an error
message and fetches nothing. In the following example, release 2 is
the lowest existing release:
$ get -r1 s.test.c
The SID specified does not exist.
Use the sact command to check the P-file
for existing SID numbers. (cm20)
6. The -t option gets the top version in a given release or level. The
top version is the most recently created delta, independent of its
location. In the next example, the highest existing delta in release
3 is 3.5, while the most recently created delta is 22.214.171.124:
$ get -t -r3 s.test.c
All of the previous examples use the get command to get a read-only
file. To create a copy of the file that can be edited to create a new
delta, use the -e option. The get command works differently when
using the -e option (see also the admin(1) reference page). Use unget
to undo the effect of the get -e command and discard any changes made
to the file before a delta is created.
7. The following example shows how to use the -e option:
$ get -e s.test.c
new delta 1.4
p.test.c s.test.c test.c
The working file is test.c. If you edit test.c and save the changes
with the delta command, SCCS creates a new delta with an SID of 1.4.
The file p.test.c is a temporary file used by SCCS to keep track of
8. In the previous example, you could have used the -r option to get a
specific version. Assuming delta 1.3 already exists and is the
highest delta in release, the following three uses of the get command
produce the same results:
$ get -e s.test.c
$ get -e -r1 s.test.c
$ get -e -r1.3 s.test.c
9. To start using a new (higher in value) release number, use get with
the -r option and specify a release number greater than the highest
existing release number. In the next example, release 2 does not yet
$ get -e -r2 s.test.c
new delta 2.1
Notice that get indicates the version of the new delta that will be
created if the delta command stores changes to the SCCS file.
If the example did not include the -e option, get would build the
highest existing SID (1.3) and would not indicate a new delta, even
though the -r2 option requests a version 2.1.
10. To create a branch delta, use the -r option and specify the release
and level where the branch occurs. In the next example, deltas 1.3
and 1.4 already exist:
$ get -e -r1.3 s.test.c
new delta 126.96.36.199
Create deltas on branches using the same methods.
Several different editable versions of an SCCS file can exist as long
as each one is in a different directory. If you try to get the same
editable file version more than once into the same directory without
using the delta command, SCCS writes an error message.
To get the same editable file version more than once, set the j option
in the SCCS file with the admin command. Set the j option using the -f
option. You can then get the same SID several times from different
directories, creating a separate file for each get command. Although
the files originate from a single SID, SCCS gives each of them a
unique new SID.
11. In the following example, the pwd command displays the current direc-
tory. Then the j option is set with the admin command:
$ admin -fj s.test.c
12. Then use the get command to retrieve the latest version of the file:
$ get -e s.test.c
new delta 1.2
13. Change to directory /u/new and issue the get command again:
$ cd /u/new
$ get -e /u/dan/sccs/s.test.c
WARNING: 1.1 1.2 dan 90/08/21 09:03:45 is being edited.
This if an informational message only. (ge18)
new delta 188.8.131.52
Notice that SCCS creates two deltas, 1.2 and 184.108.40.206, from the single
original file version of 1.1. The p.test.c file shows a separate
entry for each version currently in use. The p.test.c file remains in
the directory until you take care of both file versions with either
the delta command or the unget command. (Note that you must have
write permission in both directories to issue the preceding commands.)
The following environment variables affect the execution of get:
Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that
are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value
from the default locale is used. If any of the internationalization
variables contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of
the variables had been defined.
If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the
other internationalization variables.
Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-
byte characters in arguments and input files).
Determines the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic mes-
sages written to standard error and informative messages written to
standard output (or standard error if the -p option is used.
Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of
Commands: admin(1), cdc(1), comb(1), delta(1), prs(1), rmdel(1), sact(1),
sccs(1), sccsdiff(1), sccshelp(1), unget(1), val(1), what(1)
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