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expand(1)							    expand(1)



NAME

  expand, unexpand - Replaces tab characters with spaces or spaces with	tab
  characters

SYNOPSIS

  Current syntax


  expand [-t tablist] [file...]

  unexpand [-a	| -t tablist] [file...]

  Obsolescent syntax


  expand [-tabstop  | -tab1,tab2,...,tabn] [file...]

STANDARDS

  Interfaces documented	on this	reference page conform to industry standards
  as follows:

  expand:  XCU5.0

  unexpand:  XCU5.0

  Refer	to the standards(5) reference page for more information	about indus-
  try standards	and associated tags.

OPTIONS

  -a  Replaces spaces at the beginning of each line with a tab,	and inserts
      tab characters wherever their presence compresses	the resultant file by
      replacing	two or more characters.	 When the -t option is specified with
      the unexpand command, the	-a option has no effect.  (This	option
      applies to the unexpand command only.)

  -t tablist
      Specifies	the tab	stops.	The tablist argument consists of a single
      positive decimal integer or multiple positive decimal integers,
      separated	by spaces or commas, in	ascending order. If a single number
      is specified, tabs are set tablist column	positions apart	instead	of
      the default (8).	If multiple numbers are	specified, tabs	are set	at
      those specific column positions.	Tabbing	to tab stop position n thus
      causes the next character	output to be in	the (n+1)th column position
      on that line.

      If expand	has to process a tab character at a position beyond the	last
      of those specified in a multiple tab stop	list, the tab character	is
      replaced by a single space in the	output.

  -tabstop
      Sets tab stops tabstop spaces apart instead of the default (8).
      (Obsolescent)

  -tab1, tab2, ..., tabn
      Sets tab stops at	specified columns.  (Obsolescent)

      [Tru64 UNIX]  Columns are	measured in bytes.

OPERANDS

  file
      The path name of a file to be processed.	If you do not specify this
      operand, standard	input is read.

DESCRIPTION

  The expand command changes tab characters to spaces in the named files, or
  the standard input, and writes the result to the standard output.

  The unexpand command puts tab	characters into	the data from the standard
  input, or the	named files, and writes	the result to the standard output.

  Backspace characters are preserved in	the output and decrement the column
  count	for tab	calculations. The column position count	cannot be decremented
  below	one. The expand	command	is useful for preprocessing character files
  (before sorting, looking at specific columns,	and so on.) that contain tab
  characters.

  By default, unexpand converts	only spaces that are within sequences of
  spaces and tab characters at the beginnings of lines.	 Use -a	to convert
  other	sequences of spaces.

NOTES

  If the expand	command	encounters difficulties	opening	any specified file,
  it writes an error message to	standard error and terminates immediately
  with an error	status.

  If the unexpand command encounters difficulties opening any specified	file,
  it writes an error message to	standard error and continues operation.	 The
  exit status will reflect the error.

EXIT STATUS

  The following	exit values are	returned by either command:

  0   Successful completion.

  >>0  An error occurred.

EXAMPLES

   1.  To replace tab characters in file with spaces, enter:
	    expand file

   2.  To replace the spaces in	file with tab characters, enter:
	    unexpand -a	file









ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

  The following	environment variables affect the execution of expand and
  unexpand:

  LANG
      Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that
      are unset	or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value
      from the default locale is used.	If any of the internationalization
      variables	contain	an invalid setting, the	utility	behaves	as if none of
      the variables had	been defined.

  LC_ALL
      If set to	a non-empty string value, overrides the	values of all the
      other internationalization variables.

  LC_CTYPE
      Determines the locale for	the interpretation of sequences	of bytes of
      text data	as characters (for example, single-byte	as opposed to multi-
      byte characters in arguments).

  LC_MESSAGES
      Determines the locale for	the format and contents	of diagnostic mes-
      sages written to standard	error.

  NLSPATH
      Determines the location of message catalogues for	the processing of
      LC_MESSAGES.

SEE ALSO

  Commands:  fold(1), tabs(1)

  Standards:  standards(5)