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EX(1)                       General Commands Manual                      EX(1)

       ex, edit, e - line editor

       ex  [  - ] [ -lLrRsvVxC ] [ -t tag ] [ +c command | -c command ]  file-

       edit [ options ]

       ex, a line editor, is the root of a family  of  editors  that  includes
       edit,  ex(1), and vi(1) (the display editor).  In most cases vi is pre-
       ferred for interactive use.

       - | -s    Suppress all interactive feedback to  the  user  (useful  for
                 processing ex scripts in shell files).

       -l        Set up for editing LISP programs.

       -L        List  the names of all files saved as the result of an editor
                 or system crash.

       -r        Recover the indicated filenames after a system crash.

       -R        Read only.  Do not overwrite the original file.

       -v        Start up in display editing state using vi.  You can  achieve
                 the same effect by simply typing the vi command itself.

       -V        Verbose.  Any non-tty input will be echoed on standard error.
                 This may be useful when  processing  editor  commands  within
                 shell scripts.

       -x        Prompt  for  a  key  to  be used in encrypting the file being
                 edited.  When used in conjunction with a  pre-existing  file,
                 ex  will  make  an educated guess to determine whether or not
                 the input text file is already encrypted.

       -C        Encryption option; the same as the -x option, except that all
                 input  text  is  assumed to have already been encrypted. This
                 guarantees decryption in the cases where the -x option incor-
                 rectly   determines  that  the  input  file  is  not  already
                 encrypted (this is extremely rare, and  will  only  occur  in
                 conjunction with the use of files containing non-ASCII text).

       -t tag    Edit  the  file containing the tag tag.  A tags database must
                 first be created using the ctags(1) command.

       +c command

       -c command
                 Start the editing session by executing command.

       The editor recognizes the environment variable EXINIT as a command  (or
       list  of  commands separated by | characters) to run when it starts up.
       If this variable is undefined, the editor checks for  startup  commands
       in the file $HOME/.exrc file, which you must own.  However, if there is
       a .exrc owned by you in the current directory,  the  editor  takes  its
       startup  commands  from  this  file -- overriding both the file in your
       home directory and the environment variable.

       The environment variables LC_CTYPE, LANG, and  LC_default  control  the
       character classification throughout ex.  On entry to ex, these environ-
       ment variables are checked in the following order: LC_CTYPE, LANG,  and
       LC_default.   When  a valid value is found, remaining environment vari-
       ables for character classification are ignored.   For  example,  a  new
       setting  for LANG does not override the current valid character classi-
       fication rules of LC_CTYPE.  When none of  the  values  is  valid,  the
       shell character classification defaults to the POSIX.1 "C" locale.

                           error messages
                           recover command
                           preserve command
       /etc/termcap        describes capabilities of terminals
       .exrc               editor startup file for current directory
       $HOME/.exrc         user's editor startup file if ./.exrc is not found
       /tmp/Exnnnnn        editor temporary file
       /tmp/Rxnnnnn        file named buffer temporary
       /var/preserve       preservation directory

       awk(1),  ctags(1),  ed(1),  grep(1V),  sed(1V), vi(1), locale(5), term-
       cap(5), environ(5V), iso_8859_1(7)

       The z command prints a number of logical rather  than  physical  lines.
       More than a screen full of output may result if long lines are present.

       File  input/output  errors  do not print a name if the command line `-'
       option is used.

       There is no easy way to do a single scan ignoring case.

       The editor does not warn if text is placed in  named  buffers  and  not
       used before exiting the editor.

       Null  characters  are  discarded  in  input files, and cannot appear in
       resultant files.

       With the modeline option in effect, the editor checks  the  first  five
       lines of the text file for commands of the form
              ex: command:
              vi: command:
       if  any  are found, the editor executes them.  This can result in unex-
       pected behavior, and is  not  recommended  in  any  case.   In  earlier
       releases,  modeline  was in effect by default.  Now it is not, but set-
       ting it in the .exrc file or the EXINIT environment variable can  still
       produce untoward effects.

       The  encryption  facilities of ex are not available on software shipped
       outside the U.S.

                               18 December 1989                          EX(1)