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dc(1)                            User Commands                           dc(1)



NAME
       dc - desk calculator

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/dc [filename]

       /usr/xpg6/bin/dc [filename]

DESCRIPTION
       dc is an arbitrary precision arithmetic package. Ordinarily it operates
       on decimal integers, but one may specify an input  base,  output  base,
       and  a number of fractional digits to be maintained. The overall struc-
       ture of dc is a stacking (reverse Polish) calculator. If an argument is
       given, input is taken from that file until its end, then from the stan-
       dard input.

       bc is a preprocessor for dc that provides infix notation and  a  C-like
       syntax  that  implements functions. bc also provides reasonable control
       structures for programs. See bc(1).

USAGE
   /usr/bin/dc, /usr/xpg6/bin/dc
       The following constructions are recognized under both  /usr/bin/dc  and
       /usr/xpg6/bin/dc:

       number          The  value of the number is pushed on the stack. A num-
                       ber is an  unbroken string of the digits 0-9. It may be
                       preceded  by an underscore (_) to input a negative num-
                       ber. Numbers may  contain decimal points.



       sx              The top of the stack is popped and stored into a regis-
                       ter named x, where x may be any character.  If the s is
                       capitalized, x is treated as a stack and the  value  is
                       pushed on it.



       lx              The  value  in  register  x is pushed on the stack. The
                       register x is not altered.  All  registers  start  with
                       zero  value.   If  the  l is capitalized, register x is
                       treated as a stack and its top value is popped onto the
                       main stack.



       d               The top value on the stack is duplicated.



       p               The  top  value  on the stack is printed. The top value
                       remains  unchanged.



       P               Interprets the top of the stack  as  an  ASCII  string,
                       removes it,  and prints it.



       f               All values on the stack are printed.



       q               Exits the program. If executing a string, the recursion
                       level is popped by two.



       Q               Exits the program.  The  top  value  on  the  stack  is
                       popped and the string execution level is popped by that
                       value.



       x               Treats the top element of  the  stack  as  a  character
                       string and executes it as a string of dc commands.



       X               Replaces  the  number  on the top of the stack with its
                       scale factor.



       [ ... ]         Puts the bracketed ASCII string onto  the  top  of  the
                       stack.



       <&lt;x  >&gt;x  =x      The  top  two elements of the stack are popped and com-
                       pared. Register x is evaluated if they obey the  stated
                       relation.



       v               Replaces  the  top  element  on the stack by its square
                       root.  Any  existing fractional part of the argument is
                       taken  into account, but  otherwise the scale factor is
                       ignored.



       !               Interprets the rest of the line as a shell command.



       c               All values on the stack are popped.



       i               The top value on the stack is popped and  used  as  the
                       number radix  for further input.



       I               Pushes the input base on the top of the stack.



       o               The  top  value  on the stack is popped and used as the
                       number radix for  further output.



       O               Pushes the output base on the top of the stack.



       k               The top of the stack is popped, and that value is  used
                       as a  non-negative scale factor: the appropriate number
                       of places are  printed on output, and maintained during
                       multiplication,  division,   and  exponentiation.   The
                       interaction of scale factor, input  base,  and   output
                       base will be reasonable if all are changed together.



       K               Pushes  the  current  scale  factor  on  the top of the
                       stack.



       z               The stack level is pushed onto the stack.



       Z               Replaces the number on the top of the  stack  with  its
                       length.



       ?               A line of input is taken from the input source (usually
                       the terminal) and executed.



       Y               Displays dc debugging information.



       ; :             Used by  bc(1) for array operations.



   /usr/bin/dc
       The following construction is recognized under /usr/bin/dc,  using  the
       scale of whatever the result is.

       + - / * % ^     The  top  two  values  on the stack are added (+), sub-
                       tracted (-), multiplied (*), divided  (/),  remaindered
                       (%),  or  exponentiated (^). The two entries are popped
                       off the stack; the result is pushed  on  the  stack  in
                       their  place.  Any  fractional  part  of an exponent is
                       ignored.



   /usr/xpg6/bin/dc
       The following construction is recognized  under  /usr/xpg6/bin/dc.  The
       results of division are forced to be a scale of 20.

       + - / * % ^     The  top  two  values  on the stack are added (+), sub-
                       tracted (-), multiplied (*), divided  (/),  remaindered
                       (%),  or  exponentiated (^). The two entries are popped
                       off the stack. The result is pushed  on  the  stack  in
                       their  place.  Any  fractional  part  of an exponent is
                       ignored.

                       Ensures that the scale set prior  to  division  is  the
                       scale of the result.



EXAMPLES
       Example 1: Printing the first ten values of n!

       This example prints the first ten values of n!:

       [la1+dsa*pla10>y]sy
       0sa1
       lyx

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).  ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE AvailabilitySUNWesu


SEE ALSO
       bc(1), attributes(5)

DIAGNOSTICS
       x is unimplemented              x is an octal number.



       out of space                    The free list is  exhausted  (too  many
                                       digits).



       out of stack space              Too  many  pushes onto the stack (stack
                                       overflow).



       empty stack                     Too many pops  from  the  stack  (stack
                                       underflow).



       nesting depth                   Too many levels of nested execution.



       divide by 0                     Division by zero.



       sqrt of neg number              Square root of a negative number is not
                                       defined (no imaginary numbers).



       exp not an integer              dc only processes  integer  exponentia-
                                       tion.



       exp too big                     The largest exponent allowed is 999.



       input base is too large         The input base x: 2<= x <= 16.



       input base is too small         The input base x: 2<= x <= 16.



       output base is too large        The  output base must be no larger than
                                       BC_BASE_MAX.



       invalid scale factor            Scale factor cannot be less than 1.



       scale factor is too large       A scale factor cannot  be  larger  than
                                       BC_SCALE_MAX.



       symbol table overflow           Too many variables have been specified.



       invalid index                   Index cannot be less than 1.



       index is too large              An   index   cannot   be   larger  than
                                       BC_DIM_MAX.





SunOS 5.10                        29 Aug 2003                            dc(1)