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 dc(1)								       dc(1)

      dc - desk calculator

      dc [file]

      dc is an arbitrary precision arithmetic package.	Ordinarily it
      operates on decimal integers, but one may specify an input base,
      output base, and a number of fractional digits to be maintained.	(See
      bc(1), a preprocessor for dc that provides infix notation and a C-like
      syntax that implements functions.	 bc also provides reasonable control
      structures for programs.) The overall structure of dc is a stacking
      (reverse Polish) calculator.  If an argument is given, input is taken
      from that file until its end, then from the standard input.  An end of
      file on standard input or the q command stop dc.	The following
      constructions are recognized:

	   number	  The value of the number is pushed on the stack.  A
			  number is an unbroken string of the digits 0-9 or
			  A-F.	It can be preceded by an underscore (_) to
			  input a negative number.  Numbers can contain
			  decimal points.

	   + - / * % ^	  The top two values on the stack are added (+),
			  subtracted (-), multiplied (*), divided (/),
			  remaindered (%), or exponentiated (^).  The two
			  entries are popped off the stack; the result is
			  pushed on the stack in their place.  Any
			  fractional part of an exponent is ignored and a
			  warning generated.  The remainder is calculated
			  according to the current scale factor; it is not
			  the integer modulus function.	 7 % 3 yields .1
			  (one tenth) if scale is 1 because 7 / 3 is 2.3
			  with .1 as the remainder.

	   sx		  The top of the stack is popped and stored into a
			  register named x, where x can be any character.
			  If the s is capitalized, x is treated as a stack
			  and the value is pushed on it.

	   lx		  The value in register x is pushed on the stack.
			  Register x is not altered.  All registers start
			  with zero value.  If the l is capitalized,
			  register x is treated as a stack and its top value
			  is popped onto the main stack.

	   d		  The top value on the stack is duplicated.

	   p		  The top value on the stack is printed.  The top
			  value remains unchanged.  P interprets the top of

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 1 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000

 dc(1)								       dc(1)

			  the stack as an ASCII string, removes it, and
			  prints it.

	   f		  All values on the stack are printed.

	   q		  exits the program.  If executing a string, the
			  recursion level is popped by two.  If q is
			  capitalized, the top value on the stack is popped
			  and the string execution level is popped by that

	   x		  treats the top element of the stack as a character
			  string and executes it as a string of dc commands.

	   X		  replaces the number on the top of the stack with
			  its scale factor.

	   [...]	  puts the bracketed ASCII string onto the top of
			  the stack.  Strings can be nested by using nested
			  pairs of brackets.

	   <&lt&lt&lt;x	>&gt&gt&gt;x   =x
	   !<&lt&lt&lt;x	 !>&gt&gt&gt;x   !=x
			  The top two elements of the stack are popped and
			  compared.  Register x is evaluated if they obey
			  the stated relation.

	   v		  Replaces the top element on the stack by its
			  square root.	Any existing fractional part of the
			  argument is taken into account, but otherwise the
			  scale factor is ignored.

	   !		  Interprets the rest of the line as an HP-UX system
			  command (unless the next character is <&lt&lt&lt;, >&gt&gt&gt;, or =,
			  in which case appropriate relational operator
			  above is used).

	   c		  All values on the stack are popped.

	   i		  The top value on the stack is popped and used as
			  the number radix for further input.

	   I		  pushes the input base on the top of the stack.

	   o		  The top value on the stack is popped and used as
			  the number radix for further output.	See below
			  for notes on output base.

	   O		  pushes the output base on the top of the stack.

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 dc(1)								       dc(1)

	   k		  the top of the stack is popped, and that value is
			  used as a non-negative scale factor: the
			  appropriate number of places are printed on
			  output, and maintained during multiplication,
			  division, and exponentiation.	 The interaction of
			  scale factor, input base, and output base will be
			  reasonable if all are changed together.

	   K		  pushes the scale factor on the top of the stack.

	   z		  The stack level is pushed onto the stack.

	   Z		  replaces the number on the top of the stack with
			  its length.

	   ?		  A line of input is taken from the input source
			  (usually the terminal) and executed.

	   ; and :	  Used by bc for array operations.

	   Y		  Generates debugging output for dc itself.

      The input base may be any number, but only the digits 0-9 and A-F are
      available for input, thus limiting the usefulness of bases outside the
      range 1-16.  All 16 possible digits may be used in any base; they
      always take their conventional values.

      The output base may be any number.  Bases in the range of 2-16
      generate the "usual" results, with the letters A-F representing the
      values from 10 through 16.  Bases 0 and 1 generate a string of 1s
      whose length is the value of the number.	Base -1 generates a similar
      string consisting of ds.	Other bases have each "digit" represented as
      a (multi-digit) decimal number giving the ordinal of that digit.	Each
      "digit" is signed for negative bases.  "Digits" are separated by
      spaces.  Given the definition of output base, the command Op always
      yields "10" (in a representation appropriate to the base); O1-p yields
      useful information about the output base.

      x is unimplemented	    Where x is an octal number.

      stack empty		    There are insufficient elements on the
				    stack to do what was asked.

      Out of space		    The free list is exhausted (too many

      Out of headers		    Too many numbers are being kept around.

      Out of pushdown		    Too many items are on the stack.

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 dc(1)								       dc(1)

      Nesting Depth		    There are too many levels of nested

      This example prints the first ten values of n! (n factorial):



      DC: An Interactive Desk Calculator tutorial in Number Processing Users

 Hewlett-Packard Company	    - 4 -   HP-UX Release 11i: November 2000