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CVS(1)                      General Commands Manual                     CVS(1)



NAME
       cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
              cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage is a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-
       generated from an appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth  docu-
       mentation,  please consult the Cederqvist manual (via the info CVS com-
       mand or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section  of  this  man-
       page).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
   Guide to CVS commands
       This  appendix  describes  the  overall  structure of cvs commands, and
       describes some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere;  for
       a  quick  reference to cvs commands, see node `Invoking CVS' in the CVS
       manual).


Structure
   Overall structure of CVS commands
       The overall format of all cvs commands is:


         cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]






       cvs

         The name of the cvs program.



       cvs_options

         Some  options  that  affect  all  sub-commands  of  cvs.   These  are
         described below.



       cvs_command

         One  of  several  different  sub-commands.  Some of the commands have
         aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the ref-
         erence  manual for that command.  There are only two situations where
         you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a  list  of  available  com-
         mands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.



       command_options

         Options that are specific for the command.



       command_args

         Arguments to the commands.

         There  is  unfortunately  some confusion between cvs_options and com-
         mand_options.  When given as a cvs_option, some options  only  affect
         some  of  the commands.  When given as a command_option it may have a
         different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In other words,
         do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the doc-
         umentation instead.


Exit status
   CVS's exit status
       cvs can indicate to the calling environment  whether  it  succeeded  or
       failed  by  setting its exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit
       status will vary from one operating system to another.  For example  in
       a  unix  shell  script  the  $?  variable will be 0 if the last command
       returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status
       indicated failure.

       If  cvs  is  successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an
       error, it prints an error message and returns a  failure  status.   The
       one  exception  to this is the cvs diff command.  It will return a suc-
       cessful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there
       were  differences or if there was an error.  Because this behavior pro-
       vides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is  possible  that
       cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands.


~/.cvsrc
   Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file
       There  are  some  command_options that are used so often that you might
       have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always  spec-
       ify that option.  One example (the one that drove the implementation of
       the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default out-
       put  of  the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either con-
       text diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand.

       The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_com-
       mands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts.

       The  format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple.  The file is searched for a
       line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being  executed.
       If  a  match  is  found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at
       whitespace characters) into separate options and added to  the  command
       arguments before any options from the command line.

       If  a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name,
       not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match
       against  the  file.   So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc
       file:


         log -N
         diff -uN
         rdiff -u
         update -Pd
         checkout -P
         release -d




       the command cvs checkout foo would have the  -P  option  added  to  the
       arguments, as well as cvs co foo.

       With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in
       unidiff format.  cvs diff -c foobar  will  provide  context  diffs,  as
       usual.   Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated,
       because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format,
       so you would need cvs -f diff foobar.

       In  place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options
       (see node `Global options' in the CVS manual).  For example the follow-
       ing line in .cvsrc


         cvs -z6




       causes cvs to use compression level 6.


Global options
       The  available  cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command)
       are:



       --allow-root=rootdir

         May be invoked multiple times to specify one legal cvsroot  directory
         with  each invocation.  Also causes CVS to preparse the configuration
         file for each specified root, which can be  useful  when  configuring
         write  proxies,  See node `Password authentication server' in the CVS
         manual & see node `Write proxies' in the CVS manual.



       -a

         Authenticate all communication between the  client  and  the  server.
         Only  has  an  effect on the cvs client.  As of this writing, this is
         only implemented when using a GSSAPI  connection  (see  node  `GSSAPI
         authenticated'  in  the CVS manual).  Authentication prevents certain
         sorts of attacks  involving  hijacking  the  active  tcp  connection.
         Enabling authentication does not enable encryption.



       -b bindir

         In  cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the
         bindir directory.  Current versions of cvs do not run  rcs  programs;
         for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing.



       -T tempdir

         Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located.

         The cvs client and server store temporary files in a temporary direc-
         tory.  The path to this temporary directory is set via, in  order  of
         precedence:


       o   The argument to the global -T option.


       o   The value set for TmpDir in the config file (server only - see node
           `config' in the CVS manual).


       o   The contents of the $TMPDIR environment variable (%TMPDIR% on  Win-
           dows - see node `Environment variables' in the CVS manual).


       o   /tmp


           Temporary  directories  should  always  be specified as an absolute
           pathname.  When running a CVS client, -T  affects  only  the  local
           process;  specifying  -T for the client has no effect on the server
           and vice versa.



       -d cvs_root_directory

         Use cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the  reposi-
         tory.   Overrides  the  setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable.
         See node `Repository' in the CVS manual.



       -e editor

         Use editor to enter revision log information.  Overrides the  setting
         of the $CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables.  For more infor-
         mation, see node `Committing your changes' in the CVS manual.



       -f

         Do not read the ~/.cvsrc  file.   This  option  is  most  often  used
         because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set.  For example,
         the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a
         corresponding  option  to  turn the display on.  So if you have -N in
         the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to  show  the  tag
         names.



       -H




       --help

         Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not
         actually execute the command).  If you don't specify a command  name,
         cvs  -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help
         options.



       -R

         Turns on read-only repository mode.  This allows  one  to  check  out
         from  a  read-only  repository,  such as within an anoncvs server, or
         from a cd-rom repository.

         Same effect as if the  CVSREADONLYFS  environment  variable  is  set.
         Using -R can also considerably speed up checkouts over NFS.



       -n

         Do  not  change  any  files.  Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but
         only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge  any  existing
         files, or create any new files.

         Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as
         without -n.  In some cases the output will be the same, but in  other
         cases  cvs  will  skip  some  of  the processing that would have been
         required to produce the exact same output.



       -Q

         Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only  generate
         output for serious problems.



       -q

         Cause  the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such
         as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed.



       -r

         Make new working files read-only.  Same effect  as  if  the  $CVSREAD
         environment  variable is set (see node `Environment variables' in the
         CVS manual).  The default is to make working files  writable,  unless
         watches are on (see node `Watches' in the CVS manual).



       -s variable=value

         Set a user variable (see node `Variables' in the CVS manual).



       -t

         Trace  program  execution;  display messages showing the steps of cvs
         activity.  Particularly useful  with  -n  to  explore  the  potential
         impact of an unfamiliar command.



       -v




       --version

         Display version and copyright information for cvs.



       -w

         Make  new  working  files  read-write.   Overrides the setting of the
         $CVSREAD environment  variable.   Files  are  created  read-write  by
         default, unless $CVSREAD is set or -r is given.



       -x

         Encrypt  all  communication  between the client and the server.  Only
         has an effect on the cvs client.  As of this writing,  this  is  only
         implemented  when using a GSSAPI connection (see node `GSSAPI authen-
         ticated' in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection (see node  `Ker-
         beros authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies
         that message traffic is also authenticated.   Encryption  support  is
         not  available by default; it must be enabled using a special config-
         ure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.



       -z level

         Request compression level for network traffic.  cvs interprets  level
         identically to the gzip program.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low
         compression) to 9 (low speed, high compression), or 0 to disable com-
         pression  (the  default).  Data sent to the server will be compressed
         at the requested level and the client will request the server use the
         same  compression  level  for data returned.  The server will use the
         closest  level  allowed  by  the  server  administrator  to  compress
         returned data.  This option only has an effect when passed to the cvs
         client.


Common options
   Common command options
       This section describes the command_options that  are  available  across
       several  cvs  commands.  These options are always given to the right of
       cvs_command. Not all commands support all of these options; each option
       is  only  supported for commands where it makes sense.  However, when a
       command has one of these options you can almost  always  count  on  the
       same  behavior  of  the  option  as  in other commands.  (Other command
       options, which are listed with the individual commands, may  have  dif-
       ferent behavior from one cvs command to the other).

       Note:  the  history  command  is an exception; it supports many options
       that conflict even with these standard options.



       -D date_spec

         Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.  date_spec is a
         single argument, a date description specifying a date in the past.

         The specification is sticky when you use it to make a private copy of
         a source file; that is, when you get a working  file  using  -D,  cvs
         records  the  date you specified, so that further updates in the same
         directory will use the same date  (for  more  information  on  sticky
         tags/dates, see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

         -D  is  available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, history,
         ls, rdiff, rls, rtag, tag, and update commands.  (The history command
         uses  this  option  in  a  slightly  different way; see node `history
         options' in the CVS manual).

         For a complete description of the date formats accepted by  cvs,  see
         node `Date input formats' in the CVS manual.

         Remember  to  quote  the  argument  to the -D flag so that your shell
         doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators.  A command using the
         -D flag can look like this:


           $ cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo






       -f

         When  you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they nor-
         mally ignore files that do not contain the  tag  (or  did  not  exist
         prior to the date) that you specified.  Use the -f option if you want
         files retrieved even when there is no match  for  the  tag  or  date.
         (The most recent revision of the file will be used).

         Note  that  even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is,
         in some file, not necessary in every file).  This is so that cvs will
         continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name.

         -f  is  available  with  these  commands: annotate, checkout, export,
         rdiff, rtag, and update.

         WARNING:  The commit and remove commands also have a -f  option,  but
         it  has  a  different  behavior for those commands.  See node `commit
         options' in the CVS manual, and see node `Removing files' in the  CVS
         manual.



       -k kflag

         Override  the default processing of RCS keywords other than -kb.  See
         node `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual,  for  the  meaning  of
         kflag.  Used with the checkout and update commands, your kflag speci-
         fication is sticky; that is, when you use this option with a checkout
         or  update command, cvs associates your selected kflag with any files
         it operates on, and continues to use that kflag with future  commands
         on the same files until you specify otherwise.

         The  -k  option  is  available  with the add, checkout, diff, export,
         import, rdiff, and update commands.

         WARNING: Prior to CVS version 1.12.2, the -k flag  overrode  the  -kb
         indication  for  a  binary file.  This could sometimes corrupt binary
         files.  See node `Merging and keywords' in the CVS manual, for more.



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory, rather  than  recursing
         through subdirectories.

         Available  with  the  following commands: annotate, checkout, commit,
         diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag,  status,  tag,
         unedit, update, watch, and watchers.



       -m message

         Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

         Available with the following commands: add, commit and import.



       -n

         Do  not  run  any tag program.  (A program can be specified to run in
         the modules database (see node `modules' in  the  CVS  manual);  this
         option bypasses it).

         Note:  this  is  not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you
         can specify to the left of a cvs command!

         Available with the checkout, commit, export, and rtag commands.



       -P

         Prune empty directories.  See node `Removing directories' in the  CVS
         manual.



       -p

         Pipe  the  files  retrieved  from  the repository to standard output,
         rather than writing them in the current  directory.   Available  with
         the checkout and update commands.



       -R

         Process  directories  recursively.   This  is the default for all cvs
         commands, with the exception of ls & rls.

         Available with the following commands:  annotate,  checkout,  commit,
         diff,  edit,  editors,  export, ls, rdiff, remove, rls, rtag, status,
         tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers.



       -r tag




       -r tag[:date]

         Use the revision specified by the tag argument (and the date argument
         for  the  commands which accept it) instead of the default head revi-
         sion.  As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag  or  rtag  com-
         mand,  two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most
         recent version available in the repository, and BASE  refers  to  the
         revision you last checked out into the current working directory.

         The  tag  specification  is sticky when you use this with checkout or
         update to make your own copy of a file: cvs  remembers  the  tag  and
         continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify oth-
         erwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see  node  `Sticky
         tags' in the CVS manual).

         The  tag  can  be  either  a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in
         `Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch,  as  described  in
         `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.  When tag is the name of a
         branch, some commands accept the optional date  argument  to  specify
         the  revision  as  of  the  given date on the branch.  When a command
         expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is  interpreted  as
         the most recent revision on that branch.

         Specifying  the  -q global option along with the -r command option is
         often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does
         not contain the specified tag.

         Note:  this  is  not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you
         can specify to the left of a cvs command!

         -r tag is available with the commit and history commands.

         -r tag[:date] is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export,
         rdiff, rtag, and update commands.



       -W

         Specify  file names that should be filtered.  You can use this option
         repeatedly.  The spec can be a file name pattern  of  the  same  type
         that  you  can  specify in the .cvswrappers file.  Available with the
         following commands: import, and update.



admin
   Administration
       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: repository.

       o Synonym: rcs

         This is the cvs  interface  to  assorted  administrative  facilities.
         Some  of them have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for his-
         torical purposes.  Some of the questionable  options  are  likely  to
         disappear  in  the  future.   This  command does work recursively, so
         extreme care should be used.

         On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin,  only  members  of  that
         group  can  run  cvs admin commands, except for those specified using
         the UserAdminOptions configuration option in the CVSROOT/config file.
         Options specified using UserAdminOptions can be run by any user.  See
         node`config' in the CVS manual for more on UserAdminOptions.

         The cvsadmin group should exist on the server, or any system  running
         the non-client/server cvs.  To disallow cvs admin for all users, cre-
         ate a group with no users in it.  On NT, the  cvsadmin  feature  does
         not exist and all users can run cvs admin.


admin options
       Some  of  these  options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist
       for historical purposes.  Some even make it impossible to use cvs until
       you undo the effect!



       -Aoldfile

         Might  not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of oldfile
         to the access list of the rcs file.



       -alogins

         Might not work together with cvs.  Append the login  names  appearing
         in  the  comma-separated  list  logins  to the access list of the rcs
         file.



       -b[rev]

         Set the default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do  not  manipu-
         late default branches; sticky tags (see node `Sticky tags' in the CVS
         manual) are a better way to decide which branch you want to work  on.
         There  is  one  reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert to the vendor's
         version  when  using  vendor  branches  (see  node  `Reverting  local
         changes'  in  the  CVS manual).  There can be no space between -b and
         its argument.



       -cstring

         Sets the comment leader to string.  The comment leader is not used by
         current versions of cvs or rcs 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost surely
         not worry about it.  See node `Keyword substitution' in the CVS  man-
         ual.



       -e[logins]

         Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing in
         the comma-separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.
         If  logins is omitted, erase the entire access list.  There can be no
         space between -e and its argument.



       -I

         Run interactively, even if the standard  input  is  not  a  terminal.
         This option does not work with the client/server cvs and is likely to
         disappear in a future release of cvs.



       -i

         Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs file, with-
         out depositing a revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add com-
         mand (see node `Adding files' in the CVS manual).



       -ksubst

         Set the default keyword substitution to  subst.   See  node  `Keyword
         substitution' in the CVS manual.  Giving an explicit -k option to cvs
         update, cvs export, or cvs checkout overrides this default.



       -l[rev]

         Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is  given,  lock  the
         latest  revision  on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest
         revision on the default branch.  There can be no space between -l and
         its argument.

         This  can  be  used  in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the
         contrib directory of the cvs source distribution to provide  reserved
         checkouts  (where  only  one  user  can  be editing a given file at a
         time).  See the comments in that file for details (and see the README
         file  in  that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature
         of contrib).  According to comments in that file, locking must set to
         strict (which is the default).



       -L

         Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS
         file is not exempt from locking  for  checkin.   For  use  with  cvs,
         strict  locking  must  be set; see the discussion under the -l option
         above.



       -mrev:msg

         Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.



       -Nname[:[rev]]

         Act like -n, except override any previous assignment  of  name.   For
         use  with  magic branches, see node `Magic branch numbers' in the CVS
         manual.



       -nname[:[rev]]

         Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It
         is  normally  better  to use cvs tag or cvs rtag instead.  Delete the
         symbolic name if both : and rev  are  omitted;  otherwise,  print  an
         error  message if name is already associated with another number.  If
         rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting
         of  a  branch  number  followed  by a . stands for the current latest
         revision in the branch.  A : with an empty rev stands for the current
         latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk.  For exam-
         ple, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest  revi-
         sion  of  all  the  RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$
         which associates name with the revision numbers extracted  from  key-
         word strings in the corresponding working files.



       -orange

         Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range.

         Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly
         what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how  the
         rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing).

         If you are short on disc this option might help you.  But think twice
         before using it--there is no way short of restoring the latest backup
         to  undo  this  command!   If you delete different revisions than you
         planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven  forbid)  a  cvs  bug,
         there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are
         deleted.  It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of
         the repository first.

         Specify range in one of the following ways:


         rev1::rev2

           Collapse  all  revisions  between  rev1  and rev2, so that cvs only
           stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not
           intermediate  steps.   For  example,  after  -o  1.3::1.5  one  can
           retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from
           1.3  to  1.5,  but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between
           1.3 and 1.4.  Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3  have  no
           effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove.


         ::rev

           Collapse  revisions  between the beginning of the branch containing
           rev and rev itself.  The branchpoint and rev are left intact.   For
           example,  -o  ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5,
           and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact.


         rev::

           Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing
           rev.  Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted.


         rev

           Delete  the  revision rev.  For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o
           1.2::1.4.


         rev1:rev2

           Delete the revisions from rev1 to  rev2,  inclusive,  on  the  same
           branch.   One  will  not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of
           the revisions in between.   For  example,  the  command  cvs  admin
           -oR_1_01:R_1_02  .  is rarely useful.  It means to delete revisions
           up to, and including, the tag R_1_02.  But beware!   If  there  are
           files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will
           have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02
           and  R_1_03.  So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02;
           R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes!  In most cases
           you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead.


         :rev

           Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up
           to and including rev.


         rev:

           Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev  itself,  to  the
           end of the branch containing rev.

           None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks.

           If  any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one
           specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an  error  and
           not  delete  any  revisions.  If you really want to delete both the
           symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the  symbolic  names
           with  cvs  tag  -d,  then  run  cvs admin -o.  If one specifies the
           non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but  leave  the
           symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions.  This behavior is
           preserved for compatibility with  previous  versions  of  cvs,  but
           because  it  isn't  very  useful, in the future it may change to be
           like the :: case.

           Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbol-
           ically  if  it is a branch.  See node `Magic branch numbers' in the
           CVS manual, for an explanation.

           Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of  the  revision  you
           outdate.   Strange  things  will happen if he starts to edit it and
           tries to check it back in.  For this reason, this option is  not  a
           good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing
           the bogus change instead (see node `Merging two revisions'  in  the
           CVS manual).



       -q

         Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.



       -sstate[:rev]

         Useful  with  cvs.   Set  the  state attribute of the revision rev to
         state.  If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that
         branch.  If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default
         branch.  Any identifier is acceptable for state.   A  useful  set  of
         states  is  Exp  (for  experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for
         released).  By default, the state of a new revision  is  set  to  Exp
         when  it is created.  The state is visible in the output from cvs log
         (see node `log' in the CVS manual), and in the $Log$ and $State$ key-
         words (see node `Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual).  Note that
         cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node `Attic' in the
         CVS  manual);  to  take a file to or from the dead state use commands
         like cvs remove and cvs add (see node `Adding and  removing'  in  the
         CVS manual), not cvs admin -s.



       -t[file]

         Useful  with  cvs.   Write  descriptive text from the contents of the
         named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing text.   The  file
         pathname  may  not begin with -.  The descriptive text can be seen in
         the output from cvs log (see node `log' in the  CVS  manual).   There
         can be no space between -t and its argument.

         If  file  is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated
         by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself.  Prompt  for  the
         text if interaction is possible; see -I.



       -t-string

         Similar  to  -tfile.  Write descriptive text from the string into the
         rcs file, deleting the existing text.  There can be no space  between
         -t and its argument.



       -U

         Set  locking  to non-strict.  Non-strict locking means that the owner
         of a file need not lock a revision for checkin.  For  use  with  cvs,
         strict  locking  must  be set; see the discussion under the -l option
         above.



       -u[rev]

         See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this  option  with
         cvs.   Unlock  the  revision  with number rev.  If a branch is given,
         unlock the latest revision on that branch.  If rev is omitted, remove
         the  latest  lock held by the caller.  Normally, only the locker of a
         revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the
         lock.   This causes the original locker to be sent a commit notifica-
         tion (see node `Getting Notified' in the CVS manual).  There  can  be
         no space between -u and its argument.



       -Vn

         In  previous  versions of cvs, this option meant to write an rcs file
         which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but it  is  now  obsolete
         and specifying it will produce an error.



       -xsuffixes

         In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specify-
         ing the names of the rcs files.  However,  cvs  has  always  required
         that  the  rcs  files used by cvs end in ,v, so this option has never
         done anything useful.



annotate
   What revision modified each line of a file?
       o Synopsis: annotate [options] files...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

         For each file in  files,  print  the  head  revision  of  the  trunk,
         together with information on the last modification for each line.


annotate options
       These  standard  options  are  supported  by annotate (see node `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -l

         Local directory only, no recursion.



       -R

         Process directories recursively.



       -f

         Use head revision if tag/date not found.



       -F

         Annotate binary files.



       -r tag[:date]

         Annotate file as of specified revision/tag or, when date is specified
         and  tag  is  a  branch  tag,  the  version from the branch tag as it
         existed on date.  See node `Common options' in the CVS manual.



       -D date

         Annotate file as of specified date.


annotate example
       For example:


         $ cvs annotate ssfile
         Annotations for ssfile
         ***************
         1.1          (mary     27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
         1.2          (joe      28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2




       The file ssfile currently contains two lines.  The ssfile line  1  line
       was  checked  in  by  mary on March 27.  Then, on March 28, joe added a
       line ssfile line 2, without modifying the ssfile  line  1  line.   This
       report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
       replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see node `diff' in the CVS
       manual).

       The  options  to  cvs  annotate are listed in `Invoking CVS' in the CVS
       manual, and can be used to select the files and revisions to  annotate.
       The  options are described in more detail there and in `Common options'
       in the CVS manual.


checkout
   Check out sources for editing
       o Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: working directory.

       o Synonyms: co, get

         Create or update a working directory containing copies of the  source
         files  specified  by modules.  You must execute checkout before using
         most of the other cvs commands, since most of them  operate  on  your
         working directory.

         The  modules  are either symbolic names for some collection of source
         directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the repos-
         itory.  The symbolic names are defined in the modules file.  See node
         `modules' in the CVS manual.

         Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively create
         directories and populate them with the appropriate source files.  You
         can then edit these source files at any time (regardless  of  whether
         other  software  developers  are  editing  their  own  copies  of the
         sources); update them to include new changes applied by others to the
         source  repository;  or commit your work as a permanent change to the
         source repository.

         Note that checkout is used  to  create  directories.   The  top-level
         directory  created is always added to the directory where checkout is
         invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified  module.   In
         the case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a dif-
         ferent name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and
         that  checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it
         is extracted into your private work area (unless you specify  the  -Q
         global option).

         The  files  created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r
         option to cvs (see node `Global options' in the CVS manual) is speci-
         fied,  the CVSREAD environment variable is specified (see node `Envi-
         ronment variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is  in  effect  for
         that file (see node `Watches' in the CVS manual).

         Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a
         prior checkout is also permitted.  This is similar to specifying  the
         -d  option  to  the  update command in the sense that new directories
         that have been created in the repository will  appear  in  your  work
         area.   However,  checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a
         directory name.  Also to use checkout this way it must  be  run  from
         the  top level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so
         before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget
         to change your directory to the top level directory.

         For the output produced by the checkout command see node `update out-
         put' in the CVS manual.


checkout options
       These standard options are supported  by  checkout  (see  node  `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use  the  most  recent  revision  no later than date.  This option is
         sticky, and implies -P.  See node `Sticky tags' in  the  CVS  manual,
         for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -f

         Only  useful  with  the  -D  or -r flags.  If no matching revision is
         found, retrieve the most recent revision  (instead  of  ignoring  the
         file).



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See node `Keyword substitution'
         in the CVS manual.  This option is sticky;  future  updates  of  this
         file  in  this working directory will use the same kflag.  The status
         command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See node  `Invoking
         CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status command.



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -n

         Do  not  run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in
         the modules file; see node `modules' in the CVS manual).



       -P

         Prune empty directories.  See node `Moving directories'  in  the  CVS
         manual.



       -p

         Pipe files to the standard output.



       -R

         Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag[:date]

         Checkout the revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and
         tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on
         date.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See node `Sticky tags'
         in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.   Also,
         see node `Common options' in the CVS manual.

         In  addition to those, you can use these special command options with
         checkout:



       -A

         Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See node `Sticky  tags'
         in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -c

         Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of cre-
         ating or modifying any files or directories in  your  working  direc-
         tory.



       -d dir

         Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
         the module name.  In general, using this flag is equivalent to  using
         mkdir  dir;  cd  dir  followed by the checkout command without the -d
         flag.

         There is an important exception, however.  It is very convenient when
         checking  out  a single item to have the output appear in a directory
         that doesn't contain empty intermediate directories.   In  this  case
         only,  cvs tries to ``shorten'' pathnames to avoid those empty direc-
         tories.

         For example, given a module foo that contains  the  file  bar.c,  the
         command  cvs  co -d dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c
         inside.  Similarly, given a module bar  which  has  subdirectory  baz
         wherein  there  is  a  file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir bar/baz
         will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

         Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the  same  module
         definitions  above,  cvs  co  -N  -d  dir foo will create directories
         dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs co -N -d dir  bar/baz  will
         create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.



       -j tag

         With  two  -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with
         the first -j option to the  revision  specified  with  the  second  j
         option, into the working directory.

         With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the
         revision specified with the -j option, into  the  working  directory.
         The  ancestor  revision  is the common ancestor of the revision which
         the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in  the
         -j option.

         In  addition,  each -j option can contain an optional date specifica-
         tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
         one  within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by adding
         a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

         See node `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



       -N

         Only useful together with -d dir.  With this  option,  cvs  will  not
         ``shorten'' module paths in your working directory when you check out
         a single module.  See the -d flag for examples and a discussion.



       -s

         Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort  it  by  the
         status  string.  See node `modules' in the CVS manual, for info about
         the -s option that is used inside the modules file to set the  module
         status.


checkout examples
       Get a copy of the module tc:


         $ cvs checkout tc




       Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:


         $ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc





commit
   Check files into the repository
       o Synopsis:  commit  [-lnRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision]
         [files...]

       o Requires: working directory, repository.

       o Changes: repository.

       o Synonym: ci

         Use commit when you want to incorporate  changes  from  your  working
         source files into the source repository.

         If  you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in
         your working current directory are examined.  commit  is  careful  to
         change  in  the  repository  only  those  files  that you have really
         changed.  By default (or if you explicitly specify  the  -R  option),
         files  in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have
         changed; you can use the -l option to limit  commit  to  the  current
         directory only.

         commit  verifies that the selected files are up to date with the cur-
         rent revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit
         without  committing,  if any of the specified files must be made cur-
         rent first with update (see node `update' in the CVS manual).  commit
         does  not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that for
         you to do when the time is right.

         When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to  enter  a  log
         message  that  will  be  written to one or more logging programs (see
         node `modules' in the CVS manual, and see node `loginfo' in  the  CVS
         manual)  and  placed in the rcs file inside the repository.  This log
         message can be retrieved with the log command; see node `log' in  the
         CVS manual.  You can specify the log message on the command line with
         the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation,  or  use
         the -F file option to specify that the argument file contains the log
         message.

         At commit, a unique commitid is placed in the  rcs  file  inside  the
         repository.  All  files  committed at once get the same commitid. The
         commitid can be retrieved with the log and status command;  see  node
         `log' in the CVS manual, see node `File status' in the CVS manual.


commit options
       These  standard  options  are  supported  by  commit  (see node `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -R

         Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.



       -r revision

         Commit to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a  revision
         on  the  main  trunk that is higher than any existing revision number
         (see node `Assigning revisions' in the CVS manual).  You cannot  com-
         mit to a specific revision on a branch.

         commit also supports these options:



       -c

         Refuse to commit files unless the user has registered a valid edit on
         the file via cvs edit.  This is most useful when commit -c  and  edit
         -c have been placed in all .cvsrc files.  A commit can be forced any-
         ways by either regestering an edit retroactively  via  cvs  edit  (no
         changes  to  the file will be lost) or using the -f option to commit.
         Support for commit -c requires both  client  and  a  server  versions
         1.12.10 or greater.



       -F file

         Read the log message from file, instead of invoking an editor.



       -f

         Note  that  this  is  not  the  standard behavior of the -f option as
         defined in see node `Common options' in the CVS manual.

         Force cvs to commit a new revision  even  if  you  haven't  made  any
         changes  to  the file.  As of cvs version 1.12.10, it also causes the
         -c option to be ignored.  If the current revision  of  file  is  1.7,
         then the following two commands are equivalent:


           $ cvs commit -f file
           $ cvs commit -r 1.8 file




         The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs
         to commit a new revision for all files  in  all  subdirectories,  you
         must use -f -R.



       -m message

         Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.


commit examples
   Committing to a branch
       You  can  commit  to  a branch revision (one that has an even number of
       dots) with the -r option.  To create a  branch  revision,  use  the  -b
       option of the rtag or tag commands (see node `Branching and merging' in
       the CVS manual).  Then, either checkout or update can be used  to  base
       your sources on the newly created branch.  From that point on, all com-
       mit changes made within these working  sources  will  be  automatically
       added  to  a branch revision, thereby not disturbing main-line develop-
       ment in any way.  For example, if you had to create a patch to the  1.2
       version  of  the  product, even though the 2.0 version is already under
       development, you might do:


         $ cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
         $ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
         $ cd product_module
         [[ hack away ]]
         $ cvs commit




       This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.


   Creating the branch after editing
       Say you have been working  on  some  extremely  experimental  software,
       based on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week.  If oth-
       ers in your group would like to work on this  software  with  you,  but
       without  disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change
       to a new branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff  and
       utilize  the  full  benefit  of  cvs conflict resolution.  The scenario
       might look like:


         [[ hacked sources are present ]]
         $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
         $ cvs update -r EXPR1
         $ cvs commit




       The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on  all  files.
       Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update
       command.  The commit will automatically commit to the  correct  branch,
       because the -r is sticky.  You could also do like this:


         [[ hacked sources are present ]]
         $ cvs tag -b EXPR1
         $ cvs commit -r EXPR1




       but  then,  only  those files that were changed by you will have the -r
       EXPR1 sticky flag.  If you hack away, and commit without specifying the
       -r EXPR1 flag, some files may accidentally end up on the main trunk.

       To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do


         $ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module





diff
   Show differences between revisions
       o Synopsis:  diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [(-r rev1[:date1] |
         -D date1) [-r rev2[:date2] | -D date2]] [files...]

       o Requires: working directory, repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

         The diff command is used to compare  different  revisions  of  files.
         The  default  action  is to compare your working files with the revi-
         sions they were based on, and report any differences that are found.

         If any file names are given, only those files are compared.   If  any
         directories are given, all files under them will be compared.

         The  exit  status  for diff is different than for other cvs commands;
         for details see node `Exit status' in the CVS manual.


diff options
       These standard options are supported by diff (see node `Common options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this
         affects the comparison.



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See node `Keyword substitution'
         in the CVS manual.



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -R

         Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag[:date]

         Compare with revision specified by tag or, when date is specified and
         tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on
         date.   Zero,  one  or  two  -r  options  can be present.  With no -r
         option, the working file will be compared with the  revision  it  was
         based  on.   With one -r, that revision will be compared to your cur-
         rent working file.  With two -r options those two revisions  will  be
         compared  (and  your  working file will not affect the outcome in any
         way).

         One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described
         above.

         The  following  options  specify the format of the output.  They have
         the same meaning as in GNU diff.  Most options  have  two  equivalent
         names,  one  of which is a single letter preceded by -, and the other
         of which is a long name preceded by --.



       -lines

         Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not spec-
         ify  an  output  format by itself; it has no effect unless it is com-
         bined with -c or -u.  This option is obsolete.  For proper operation,
         patch typically needs at least two lines of context.



       -a

         Treat  all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
         do not seem to be text.



       -b

         Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences  of  one
         or more white space characters to be equivalent.



       -B

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.



       --binary

         Read and write data in binary mode.



       --brief

         Report  only whether the files differ, not the details of the differ-
         ences.



       -c

         Use the context output format.



       -C lines




       --context[=lines]

         Use the context output format, showing lines (an  integer)  lines  of
         context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
         typically needs at least two lines of context.



       --changed-group-format=format

         Use format to output a line group  containing  differing  lines  from
         both  files in if-then-else format.  See node `Line group formats' in
         the CVS manual.



       -d

         Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.   This
         makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).



       -e




       --ed

         Make output that is a valid ed script.



       --expand-tabs

         Expand  tabs  to  spaces  in the output, to preserve the alignment of
         tabs in the input files.



       -f

         Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
         the order they appear in the file.



       -F regexp

         In  context  and  unified  format, for each hunk of differences, show
         some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.



       --forward-ed

         Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in
         the order they appear in the file.



       -H

         Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
         scattered small changes.



       --horizon-lines=lines

         Do not discard the last lines lines of  the  common  prefix  and  the
         first lines lines of the common suffix.



       -i

         Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equiv-
         alent.



       -I regexp

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.



       --ifdef=name

         Make merged if-then-else output using name.



       --ignore-all-space

         Ignore white space when comparing lines.



       --ignore-blank-lines

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.



       --ignore-case

         Ignore changes in case; consider upper-  and  lower-case  to  be  the
         same.



       --ignore-matching-lines=regexp

         Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.



       --ignore-space-change

         Ignore  trailing  white space and consider all other sequences of one
         or more white space characters to be equivalent.



       --initial-tab

         Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in  normal
         or  context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to
         look normal.



       -L label

         Use label instead of the file name in the context format and  unified
         format headers.



       --label=label

         Use  label instead of the file name in the context format and unified
         format headers.



       --left-column

         Print only the left column of two common lines in side by  side  for-
         mat.



       --line-format=format

         Use  format  to  output  all input lines in if-then-else format.  See
         node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       --minimal

         Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.   This
         makes diff slower (sometimes much slower).



       -n

         Output  RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
         the number of lines affected.



       -N




       --new-file

         In directory comparison, if a file is found in  only  one  directory,
         treat it as present but empty in the other directory.



       --new-group-format=format

         Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file
         in if-then-else format.  See node `Line group  formats'  in  the  CVS
         manual.



       --new-line-format=format

         Use  format  to  output a line taken from just the second file in if-
         then-else format.  See node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       --old-group-format=format

         Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the first  file
         in  if-then-else  format.   See  node `Line group formats' in the CVS
         manual.



       --old-line-format=format

         Use format to output a line taken from just the  first  file  in  if-
         then-else format.  See node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       -p

         Show which C function each change is in.



       --rcs

         Output  RCS-format  diffs; like -f except that each command specifies
         the number of lines affected.



       --report-identical-files




       -s

         Report when two files are the same.



       --show-c-function

         Show which C function each change is in.



       --show-function-line=regexp

         In context and unified format, for each  hunk  of  differences,  show
         some of the last preceding line that matches regexp.



       --side-by-side

         Use the side by side output format.



       --speed-large-files

         Use  heuristics  to  speed handling of large files that have numerous
         scattered small changes.



       --suppress-common-lines

         Do not print common lines in side by side format.



       -t

         Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to  preserve  the  alignment  of
         tabs in the input files.



       -T

         Output  a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal
         or context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line  to
         look normal.



       --text

         Treat  all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
         do not appear to be text.



       -u

         Use the unified output format.



       --unchanged-group-format=format

         Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in
         if-then-else  format.   See node `Line group formats' in the CVS man-
         ual.



       --unchanged-line-format=format

         Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else for-
         mat.  See node `Line formats' in the CVS manual.



       -U lines




       --unified[=lines]

         Use  the  unified  output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of
         context, or three if lines is not given.  For proper operation, patch
         typically needs at least two lines of context.



       -w

         Ignore white space when comparing lines.



       -W columns




       --width=columns

         Use an output width of columns in side by side format.



       -y

         Use the side by side output format.


Line group formats
       Line  group  formats let you specify formats suitable for many applica-
       tions that allow if-then-else input,  including  programming  languages
       and  text formatting languages.  A line group format specifies the out-
       put format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

       For example, the following command compares the TeX  file  myfile  with
       the  original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file in
       which old regions are surrounded by \begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and  new
       regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.


         cvs diff \

            --old-group-format='\begin{em}
         %<\end{em}
         ' \

            --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
         %>\end{bf}
         ' \

            myfile




       The  following  command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a
       little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group  for-
       mats.


         cvs diff \

            --old-group-format='\begin{em}
         %<\end{em}
         ' \

            --new-group-format='\begin{bf}
         %>\end{bf}
         ' \

            --unchanged-group-format='%=' \

            --changed-group-format='\begin{em}
         %<\end{em}
         \begin{bf}
         %>\end{bf}
         ' \

            myfile




       Here  is  a  more  advanced  example, which outputs a diff listing with
       headers containing line numbers in a ``plain English'' style.


         cvs diff \

            --unchanged-group-format='' \

            --old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
         %<' \

            --new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
         %>' \

            --changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
         %<-------- to:
         %>' \

            myfile




       To specify a line group format, use one of the  options  listed  below.
       You  can  specify  up  to four line group formats, one for each kind of
       line group.  You should quote format,  because  it  typically  contains
       shell metacharacters.



       --old-group-format=format

         These  line  groups  are  hunks  containing only lines from the first
         file.  The default old group format is the same as the changed  group
         format  if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs the
         line group as-is.



       --new-group-format=format

         These line groups are hunks containing only  lines  from  the  second
         file.  The default new group format is same as the changed group for-
         mat if it is specified; otherwise it is a  format  that  outputs  the
         line group as-is.



       --changed-group-format=format

         These  line  groups  are hunks containing lines from both files.  The
         default changed group format is the concatenation of the old and  new
         group formats.



       --unchanged-group-format=format

         These  line  groups  contain lines common to both files.  The default
         unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

         In a line group format,  ordinary  characters  represent  themselves;
         conversion  specifications start with % and have one of the following
         forms.



       %<&lt;

         stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing new-
         line.   Each  line is formatted according to the old line format (see
         node `Line formats' in the CVS manual).



       %>&gt;

         stands for the lines from the second  file,  including  the  trailing
         newline.  Each line is formatted according to the new line format.



       %=

         stands  for  the  lines  common to both files, including the trailing
         newline.  Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line for-
         mat.



       %%

         stands for %.



       %c'C'

         where  C  is  a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a back-
         slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon,  even
         inside  the  then-part of an if-then-else format, which a colon would
         normally terminate.



       %c'\O'

         where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the  char-
         acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
         acter.



       Fn

         where F is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the fol-
         lowing letters, stands for n's value formatted with F.


         e

           The line number of the line just before the group in the old file.


         f

           The  line  number  of  the first line in the group in the old file;
           equals e + 1.


         l

           The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.


         m

           The line number of the line just after the group in the  old  file;
           equals l + 1.


         n

           The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.


         E, F, L, M, N

           Likewise, for lines in the new file.


           The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, spec-
           ifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper case  hexa-
           decimal output respectively.  After the % the following options can
           appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification;  an  integer
           specifying  the  minimum  field  width; and a period followed by an
           optional integer specifying the  minimum  number  of  digits.   For
           example,  %5dN  prints  the  number  of new lines in the group in a
           field of width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d".



       (A=B?T:E)

         If A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal  con-
         stant  or  a single letter interpreted as above.  This format spec is
         equivalent to T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it  is  equivalent
         to E.

         For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if
         N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1  line
         if N is 1, and to %dN lines otherwise.


Line formats
       Line  formats  control how each line taken from an input file is output
       as part of a line group in if-then-else format.

       For example, the following  command  outputs  text  with  a  one-column
       change  indicator  to the left of the text.  The first column of output
       is - for deleted lines, | for added lines, and a  space  for  unchanged
       lines.   The  formats  contain  newline  characters  where newlines are
       desired on output.


         cvs diff \

            --old-line-format='-%l
         ' \

            --new-line-format='|%l
         ' \

            --unchanged-line-format=' %l
         ' \

            myfile




       To specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You should
       quote format, since it often contains shell metacharacters.



       --old-line-format=format

         formats lines just from the first file.



       --new-line-format=format

         formats lines just from the second file.



       --unchanged-line-format=format

         formats lines common to both files.



       --line-format=format

         formats  all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simul-
         taneously.

         In a line format, ordinary characters represent  themselves;  conver-
         sion specifications start with % and have one of the following forms.



       %l

         stands  for  the contents of the line, not counting its trailing new-
         line (if any).  This format ignores whether the line is incomplete.



       %L

         stands for the contents of the line, including its  trailing  newline
         (if  any).  If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its incom-
         pleteness.



       %%

         stands for %.



       %c'C'

         where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not  be  a  back-
         slash or an apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon.



       %c'\O'

         where  O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the char-
         acter with octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null char-
         acter.



       Fn

         where  F  is  a  printf conversion specification, stands for the line
         number formatted with F.  For example, %.5dn prints the  line  number
         using the printf format "%.5d".  See node `Line group formats' in the
         CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.


         The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

         If the input contains tab characters and it is  important  that  they
         line  up  on output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a line format
         is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab char-
         acter), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

         Taken  together, the line and line group formats let you specify many
         different formats.  For example, the following command uses a  format
         similar  to diff's normal format.  You can tailor this command to get
         fine control over diff's output.


         cvs diff \

            --old-line-format='< %l
         ' \

            --new-line-format='> %l
         ' \

            --old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
         %<' \

            --new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
         %>' \

            --changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
         %<--
         %>' \

            --unchanged-group-format='' \

            myfile





diff examples
       The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between  revision  1.14
       and  1.19  of  backend.c.   Due to the -kk flag no keywords are substi-
       tuted, so differences that only  depend  on  keyword  substitution  are
       ignored.


         $ cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c




       Suppose  the  experimental  branch  EXPR1  was  based on a set of files
       tagged RELEASE_1_0.  To see what has happened on that branch, the  fol-
       lowing can be used:


         $ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1




       A  command  like this can be used to produce a context diff between two
       releases:


         $ cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs




       If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like  the  following  just
       before  you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog entry.
       All local modifications that  have  not  yet  been  committed  will  be
       printed.


         $ cvs diff -u | less





export
   Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
       o Synopsis:  export  [-flNnR]  (-r rev[:date] | -D date) [-k subst] [-d
         dir] module...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: current directory.

         This command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of
         the  source  for  module  without the cvs administrative directories.
         For example, you might use export to prepare source for shipment off-
         site.   This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with -D
         or -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you  ship  to
         others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

         One  often  would  like  to use -kv with cvs export.  This causes any
         keywords to be expanded such that an import done at some  other  site
         will  not  lose  the keyword revision information.  But be aware that
         doesn't handle an export containing binary files correctly.  Also  be
         aware  that  after  having  used -kv, one can no longer use the ident
         command (which is part of the rcs suite--see  ident(1))  which  looks
         for  keyword  strings.   If you want to be able to use ident you must
         not use -kv.


export options
       These standard options  are  supported  by  export  (see  node  `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later than date.



       -f

         If  no  matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision
         (instead of ignoring the file).



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.



       -n

         Do not run any checkout program.



       -R

         Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.



       -r tag[:date]

         Export the revision specified by tag or, when date is  specified  and
         tag is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag as it existed on
         date.  See node `Common options' in the CVS manual.

         In addition, these options (that are common to checkout  and  export)
         are also supported:



       -d dir

         Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using
         the module name.  See node `checkout options' in the CVS manual,  for
         complete details on how cvs handles this flag.



       -k subst

         Set  keyword expansion mode (see node `Substitution modes' in the CVS
         manual).



       -N

         Only useful together with -d dir.  See node `checkout options' in the
         CVS manual, for complete details on how cvs handles this flag.


history
   Show status of files and users
       o Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

       o Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history

       o Changes: nothing.

         cvs can keep a history log that tracks each use of most cvs commands.
         You can use history to display this information in various formats.

         To enable logging, the LogHistory config option must be set  to  some
         value  other  than the empty string and the history file specified by
         the HistoryLogPath option must be writable by all users who  may  run
         the cvs executable (see node `config' in the CVS manual).

         To  enable  the history command, logging must be enabled as above and
         the HistorySearchPath config option (see node  `config'  in  the  CVS
         manual)  must  be set to specify some number of the history logs cre-
         ated thereby and these files must be readable by each user who  might
         run the history command.

         Creating a repository via the cvs init command will enable logging of
         all possible events to  a  single  history  log  file  ($CVSROOT/CVS-
         ROOT/history) with read and write permissions for all users (see node
         `Creating a repository' in the CVS manual).

         Note: history uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with  the
         normal use inside cvs (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).


history options
       Several  options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind of report
       is generated:



       -c

         Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time  the  repository
         was modified).



       -e

         Everything  (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying -x with all
         record types.  Of course, -e will also include record types which are
         added  in  a future version of cvs; if you are writing a script which
         can only handle certain record types, you'll want to specify -x.



       -m module

         Report on a particular module.  (You can  meaningfully  use  -m  more
         than once on the command line.)



       -o

         Report on checked-out modules.  This is the default report type.



       -T

         Report on all tags.



       -x type

         Extract  a  particular set of record types type from the cvs history.
         The types are indicated by single letters, which you may  specify  in
         combination.

         Certain commands have a single record type:


         F

           release

         O

           checkout

         E

           export

         T

           rtag

           One of five record types may result from an update:


         C

           A  merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring man-
           ual merging).

         G

           A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

         U

           A working file was copied from the repository.

         P

           A working file was patched to match the repository.

         W

           The working copy of a file was deleted during  update  (because  it
           was gone from the repository).

           One of three record types results from commit:


         A

           A file was added for the first time.

         M

           A file was modified.

         R

           A file was removed.

           The  options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report without
           requiring option arguments:



       -a

         Show data for all users (the default is to show  data  only  for  the
         user executing history).



       -l

         Show last modification only.



       -w

         Show  only  the  records for modifications done from the same working
         directory where history is executing.

         The options shown as -options args constrain the report based  on  an
         argument:



       -b str

         Show  data  back  to a record containing  the  string str  in  either
         the module name, the file name, or the repository path.



       -D date

         Show data since date.  This is slightly different from the normal use
         of -D date, which selects the newest revision older than date.



       -f file

         Show  data  for a particular file (you can specify several -f options
         on the same command line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file
         on the command line.



       -n module

         Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options
         on the same command line).



       -p repository

         Show data for a particular source repository  (you can  specify  sev-
         eral -p options on the same command line).



       -r rev

         Show  records  referring to revisions since the revision or tag named
         rev appears in individual rcs files.  Each rcs file is  searched  for
         the revision or tag.



       -t tag

         Show  records since tag tag was last added to the history file.  This
         differs from the -r flag above in that  it  reads  only  the  history
         file, not the rcs files, and is much faster.



       -u name

         Show records for user name.



       -z timezone

         Show  times  in  the  selected  records using the specified time zone
         instead of UTC.


import
   Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
       o Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

       o Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

       o Changes: repository.

         Use import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an  out-
         side  source  (e.g.,  a  source  vendor)  into your source repository
         directory.  You can use this command both for initial creation  of  a
         repository,  and for wholesale updates to the module from the outside
         source.  See node `Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, for a discus-
         sion on this subject.

         The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a direc-
         tory) under the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory
         did not exist, import creates it.

         When  you  use import for updates to source that has been modified in
         your source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you  of
         any  files  that  conflict  in  the  two branches of development; use
         checkout -j to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you  to
         do.

         If  cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node `cvsignore' in the
         CVS manual), it does not import it and  prints  I   followed  by  the
         filename  (see node `import output' in the CVS manual, for a complete
         description of the output).

         If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names
         match the specifications in that file will be treated as packages and
         the appropriate filtering will be  performed  on  the  file/directory
         before being imported.  See node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

         The  outside  source  is  saved  in  a first-level branch, by default
         1.1.1.  Updates are leaves of this branch; for  example,  files  from
         the  first  imported  collection  of source will be revision 1.1.1.1,
         then files from the first imported update will be  revision  1.1.1.2,
         and so on.

         At least three arguments are required.  repository is needed to iden-
         tify the collection of source.  vendortag is a  tag  for  the  entire
         branch  (e.g.,  for  1.1.1).   You  must  also  specify  at least one
         releasetag to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created  each
         time  you  execute  import.  The releasetag should be new, not previ-
         ously existing in the repository  file,  and  uniquely  identify  the
         imported release,

         Note  that  import  does not change the directory in which you invoke
         it.  In particular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs  work-
         ing directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first
         and then check them out into a different directory (see node `Getting
         the source' in the CVS manual).


import options
       This  standard option is supported by import (see node `Common options'
       in the CVS manual, for a complete description):



       -m message

         Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor.

         There are the following additional special options.



       -b branch

         See node `Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual.



       -k subst

         Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired.  This setting will apply
         to  all  files  created  during the import, but not to any files that
         previously existed in the repository.  See node `Substitution  modes'
         in the CVS manual, for a list of valid -k settings.



       -I name

         Specify file names that should be ignored during import.  You can use
         this option repeatedly.  To avoid ignoring any  files  at  all  (even
         those ignored by default), specify `-I !'.

         name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
         in the .cvsignore file.  See node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual.



       -W spec

         Specify file names that should be filtered during  import.   You  can
         use this option repeatedly.

         spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
         in the .cvswrappers file. See node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.



       -X

         Modify the algorithm used by cvs when importing new files so that new
         files do not immediately appear on the main trunk.

         Specifically,  this flag causes cvs to mark new files as if they were
         deleted on the main trunk, by taking the  following  steps  for  each
         file  in  addition  to those normally taken on import: creating a new
         revision on the main trunk indicating that  the  new  file  is  dead,
         resetting  the new file's default branch, and placing the file in the
         Attic (see node `Attic' in the CVS manual) directory.

         Use of this option can be forced on a repository-wide basis  by  set-
         ting  the  ImportNewFilesToVendorBranchOnly  option in CVSROOT/config
         (see node `config' in the CVS manual).


import output
       import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line  for  each
       file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:



       U file

         The  file  already  exists in the repository and has not been locally
         modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary).



       N file

         The file is a new file which has been added to the repository.



       C file

         The file already exists in the repository but has been locally  modi-
         fied; you will have to merge the changes.



       I file

         The file is being ignored (see node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual).



       L file

         The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links.  Peo-
         ple periodically suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if
         there  is  a  consensus  on  what  it should be changed to, it is not
         apparent.  (Various options in the modules file can be used to recre-
         ate  symbolic  links on checkout, update, etc.; see node `modules' in
         the CVS manual.)


import examples
       See node `Tracking sources' in the  CVS  manual,  and  see  node  `From
       files' in the CVS manual.


log
   Print out log information for files
       o Synopsis: log [options] [files...]

       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: nothing.

         Display  log information for files.  log used to call the rcs utility
         rlog.  Although this is no longer true in the current  sources,  this
         history  determines  the  format of the output and the options, which
         are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands.

         The output includes the location of the rcs file, the  head  revision
         (the  latest  revision  on  the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and
         some other things.  For each revision, the revision number, the date,
         the  author,  the number of lines added/deleted, the commitid and the
         log message are printed.  All dates are displayed in  local  time  at
         the  client. This is typically specified in the $TZ environment vari-
         able, which can be set to govern how log displays dates.

         Note: log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use  inside
         cvs (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).


log options
       By  default,  log  prints all information that is available.  All other
       options restrict the output.  Note that the revision selection  options
       (-d,  -r,  -s,  and  -w)  have no effect, other than possibly causing a
       search for files in Attic directories, when used  in  conjunction  with
       the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-b, -h,
       -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified.



       -b

         Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally
         the highest branch on the trunk.



       -d dates

         Print  information  about  revisions  with a checkin date/time in the
         range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates.  The date  for-
         mats  accepted  are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs
         commands (see node `Common options' in the CVS manual).  Dates can be
         combined into ranges as follows:


         d1<&lt;d2



         d2>&gt;d1

           Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2.


         <&lt;d



         d>&gt;

           Select all revisions dated d or earlier.


         d<&lt;



         >&gt;d

           Select all revisions dated d or later.


         d

           Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier.

           The >&gt; or <&lt; characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive
           range rather than an exclusive one.

           Note that the separator is a semicolon (;).



       -h

         Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the  working
         directory,  head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names,
         and suffix.



       -l

         Local; run only in current working directory.   (Default  is  to  run
         recursively).



       -N

         Do not print the list of tags for this file.  This option can be very
         useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather  than  "more"'ing
         over  3  pages  of  tag information, the log information is presented
         without tags at all.



       -R

         Print only the name of the rcs file.



       -rrevisions

         Print information about revisions given in the  comma-separated  list
         revisions  of revisions and ranges.  The following table explains the
         available range formats:


         rev1:rev2

           Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch).


         rev1::rev2

           The same, but excluding rev1.


         :rev



         ::rev

           Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev.


         rev:

           Revisions starting with rev to the end  of  the  branch  containing
           rev.


         rev::

           Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch contain-
           ing rev.


         branch

           An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch.


         branch1:branch2



         branch1::branch2

           A range of branches means all revisions on  the  branches  in  that
           range.


         branch.

           The latest revision in branch.

           A  bare  -r  with  no  revisions  means  the latest revision on the
           default branch, normally the trunk.  There can be no space  between
           the -r option and its argument.



       -S

         Suppress the header if no revisions are selected.



       -s states

         Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of
         the states given in  the  comma-separated  list  states.   Individual
         states  may  be  any  text  string, though cvs commonly only uses two
         states, Exp and dead.  See node `admin options' in the CVS manual for
         more information.



       -t

         Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text.



       -wlogins

         Print  information  about  revisions  checked  in by users with login
         names appearing in the comma-separated list  logins.   If  logins  is
         omitted,  the user's login is assumed.  There can be no space between
         the -w option and its argument.

         log prints the  intersection  of  the  revisions  selected  with  the
         options  -d,  -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions
         selected by -b and -r.


log examples
       Since log shows dates in local time, you might  want  to  see  them  in
       Coordinated  Universal  Time  (UTC) or some other timezone.  To do this
       you can set your $TZ environment variable before invoking cvs:


         $ TZ=UTC cvs log foo.c
         $ TZ=EST cvs log bar.c




       (If you are using a csh-style shell, like tcsh, you would need to  pre-
       fix the examples above with env.)


ls &&amp; rls
       o ls [-e | -l] [-RP] [-r tag[:date]] [-D date] [path...]

       o Requires: repository for rls, repository & working directory for ls.

       o Changes: nothing.

       o Synonym: dir & list are synonyms for ls and rdir & rlist are synonyms
         for rls.

         The ls and rls commands are used to list files and directories in the
         repository.

         By  default  ls  lists  the files and directories that belong in your
         working directory, what would be there after an update.

         By default rls lists the files and directories  on  the  tip  of  the
         trunk in the topmost directory of the repository.

         Both  commands  accept  an optional list of file and directory names,
         relative to the working directory for ls and the topmost directory of
         the repository for rls.  Neither is recursive by default.


ls &&amp; rls options
       These standard options are supported by ls & rls:



       -d

         Show dead revisions (with tag when specified).



       -e

         Display in CVS/Entries format.  This format is meant to remain easily
         parsable by automation.



       -l

         Display all details.



       -P

         Don't list contents of empty directories when recursing.



       -R

         List recursively.



       -r tag[:date]

         Show files specified by tag or, when date is specified and tag  is  a
         branch  tag,  the  version from the branch tag as it existed on date.
         See node `Common options' in the CVS manual.



       -D date

         Show files from date.


rls examples
         $ cvs rls
         cvs rls: Listing module: `.'
         CVSROOT
         first-dir





         $ cvs rls CVSROOT
         cvs rls: Listing module: `CVSROOT'
         checkoutlist
         commitinfo
         config
         cvswrappers
         loginfo
         modules
         notify
         rcsinfo
         taginfo
         verifymsg






rdiff
   'patch' format diffs between releases
       o rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] (-r tag1[:date1] | -D date1) [-r  tag2[:date2]
         | -D date2] modules...

       o Requires: repository.

       o Changes: nothing.

       o Synonym: patch

         Builds  a  Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that
         can be fed directly into the patch program to bring  an  old  release
         up-to-date  with  the  new release.  (This is one of the few cvs com-
         mands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require
         a  prior  checkout.)  The  diff output is sent to the standard output
         device.

         You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options)  any  combina-
         tion  of one or two revisions or dates.  If only one revision or date
         is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that  revi-
         sion or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file.

         Note  that if the software release affected is contained in more than
         one directory, then it may be necessary to specify the -p  option  to
         the  patch  command  when  patching the old sources, so that patch is
         able to find the files that are located in other directories.


rdiff options
       These standard  options  are  supported  by  rdiff  (see  node  `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use the most recent revision no later than date.



       -f

         If  no  matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision
         (instead of ignoring the file).



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See node `Keyword substitution'
         in the CVS manual.



       -l

         Local; don't descend subdirectories.



       -R

         Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.



       -r tag

         Use  the revision specified by tag, or when date is specified and tag
         is a branch tag, the version from the branch tag  as  it  existed  on
         date.  See node `Common options' in the CVS manual.

         In addition to the above, these options are available:



       -c

         Use the context diff format.  This is the default format.



       -s

         Create  a  summary  change  report  instead  of a patch.  The summary
         includes information about files that were changed or  added  between
         the  releases.   It  is  sent to the standard output device.  This is
         useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between
         two dates or revisions.



       -t

         A  diff  of  the  top  two  revisions  is sent to the standard output
         device.  This is most useful for seeing what the  last  change  to  a
         file was.



       -u

         Use the unidiff format for the context diffs.  Remember that old ver-
         sions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you
         plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u.



       -V vn

         Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the
         expansion format changed with rcs version 5).  Note that this  option
         is  no longer accepted.  cvs will always expand keywords the way that
         rcs version 5 does.


rdiff examples
       Suppose you receive mail from fooATexample.net asking for an update from
       release  1.2  to  1.4  of the tc compiler.  You have no such patches on
       hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed  with  a  command  such  as
       this:


         $ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
         $$ Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' fooATexample.net




       Suppose  you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called R_1_3fix
       for bug fixes.  R_1_3_1 corresponds to release 1.3.1,  which  was  made
       some time ago.  Now, you want to see how much development has been done
       on the branch.  This command can be used:


         $ cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name
         cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name
         File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6
         File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4
         File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2





release
   Indicate that a Module is no longer in use
       o release [-d] directories...

       o Requires: Working directory.

       o Changes: Working directory, history log.

         This command is meant to safely cancel the effect  of  cvs  checkout.
         Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this
         command.  You can always simply delete your working directory, if you
         like;  but  you  risk  losing changes you may have forgotten, and you
         leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node  `history  file'  in
         the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout.

         Use cvs release to avoid these problems.  This command checks that no
         uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from imme-
         diately  above  a  cvs  working  directory;  and  that the repository
         recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in  the
         module database.

         If  all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its
         execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your  checkout)
         in the cvs history log.


release options
       The release command supports one command option:



       -d

         Delete  your  working  copy  of the file if the release succeeds.  If
         this flag is not given your files will remain in your working  direc-
         tory.

         WARNING:   The  release  command  deletes  all  directories and files
         recursively.  This has the very serious side-effect that  any  direc-
         tory  that  you have created inside your checked-out sources, and not
         added to the repository (using the  add  command;  see  node  `Adding
         files'  in  the  CVS  manual) will be silently deleted--even if it is
         non-empty!


release output
       Before release releases your sources it will print a  one-line  message
       for any file that is not up-to-date.



       U file




       P file

         There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you
         have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the  same
         thing).



       A file

         The  file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has
         not yet been committed to the repository.  If you delete your copy of
         the sources this file will be lost.



       R file

         The  file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but
         has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not  yet
         committed the removal.  See node `commit' in the CVS manual.



       M file

         The  file is modified in your working directory.  There might also be
         a newer revision inside the repository.



       ? file

         file is in your working directory, but does not  correspond  to  any-
         thing  in  the source repository, and is not in the list of files for
         cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I  option,  and  see  node
         `cvsignore'  in the CVS manual).  If you remove your working sources,
         this file will be lost.


release examples
       Release the tc directory, and delete your local  working  copy  of  the
       files.


         $ cd ..         # You must stand immediately above the

                         # sources when you issue cvs release.
         $ cvs release -d tc
         You have [0] altered files in this repository.
         Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory `tc': y
         $





server &&amp; pserver
   Act as a server for a client on stdin/stdout
       o pserver [-c path]

         server [-c path]

       o Requires: repository, client conversation on stdin/stdout

       o Changes: Repository or, indirectly, client working directory.

         The  cvs  server  and pserver commands are used to provide repository
         access to remote clients and expect a client conversation on stdin  &
         stdout.   Typically these commands are launched from inetd or via ssh
         (see node `Remote repositories' in the CVS manual).

         server expects that the client has already been  authenticated  some-
         how,  typically  via  ssh,  and  pserver attempts to authenticate the
         client itself.

         Only one option is available with the server and pserver commands:



       -c path

         Load configuration from path rather than the default  location  $CVS-
         ROOT/CVSROOT/config (see node `config' in the CVS manual).  path must
         be /etc/cvs.conf or prefixed by /etc/cvs/.  This option is  supported
         beginning with cvs release 1.12.13.


update
   Bring work tree in sync with repository
       o update  [-ACdflPpR]  [-I  name]  [-j  rev  [-j  rev]]  [-k kflag] [-r
         tag[:date] | -D date] [-W spec] files...

       o Requires: repository, working directory.

       o Changes: working directory.

         After you've run checkout to create your private copy of source  from
         the  common  repository,  other developers will continue changing the
         central source.  From time to time, when it  is  convenient  in  your
         development  process, you can use the update command from within your
         working directory to reconcile your work with any  revisions  applied
         to the source repository since your last checkout or update.  Without
         the -C option, update will also merge  any  differences  between  the
         local  copy  of  files  and their base revisions into any destination
         revisions specified with -r, -D, or -A.


update options
       These standard options are available  with  update  (see  node  `Common
       options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them):



       -D date

         Use  the  most  recent  revision  no later than date.  This option is
         sticky, and implies -P.  See node `Sticky tags' in  the  CVS  manual,
         for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -f

         Only  useful  with  the  -D  or -r flags.  If no matching revision is
         found, retrieve the most recent revision  (instead  of  ignoring  the
         file).



       -k kflag

         Process keywords according to kflag.  See node `Keyword substitution'
         in the CVS manual.  This option is sticky;  future  updates  of  this
         file  in  this working directory will use the same kflag.  The status
         command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See node  `Invoking
         CVS' in the CVS manual, for more information on the status command.



       -l

         Local;  run  only  in current working directory.  See node `Recursive
         behavior' in the CVS manual.



       -P

         Prune empty directories.  See node `Moving directories'  in  the  CVS
         manual.



       -p

         Pipe files to the standard output.



       -R

         Update directories recursively (default).  See node `Recursive behav-
         ior' in the CVS manual.



       -r tag[:date]

         Retrieve the revisions specified by tag or, when  date  is  specified
         and  tag  is  a  branch  tag,  the  version from the branch tag as it
         existed on date.  This option is sticky, and implies  -P.   See  node
         `Sticky  tags'  in  the  CVS  manual,  for more information on sticky
         tags/dates. Also see node `Common options' in the CVS manual.

         These special options are also available with update.



       -A

         Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  See node `Sticky  tags'
         in the CVS manual, for more information on sticky tags/dates.



       -C

         Overwrite  locally  modified files with clean copies from the reposi-
         tory (the modified file is saved in .#file.revision, however).



       -d

         Create any directories that exist in the repository if they're  miss-
         ing from the working directory.  Normally, update acts only on direc-
         tories and files that were already enrolled in  your  working  direc-
         tory.

         This  is  useful  for  updating  directories that were created in the
         repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side
         effect.   If  you  deliberately  avoided  certain  directories in the
         repository when you created your working  directory  (either  through
         use  of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and directo-
         ries you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will cre-
         ate those directories, which may not be what you want.



       -I name

         Ignore  files whose names match name (in your working directory) dur-
         ing the update.  You can specify -I more than  once  on  the  command
         line  to specify several files to ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid ignoring
         any files at all.  See node `cvsignore' in the CVS manual, for  other
         ways to make cvs ignore some files.



       -Wspec

         Specify  file  names  that should be filtered during update.  You can
         use this option repeatedly.

         spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify
         in the .cvswrappers file. See node `Wrappers' in the CVS manual.



       -jrevision

         With  two  -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with
         the first -j option to the  revision  specified  with  the  second  j
         option, into the working directory.

         With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the
         revision specified with the -j option, into  the  working  directory.
         The  ancestor  revision  is the common ancestor of the revision which
         the working directory is based on, and the revision specified in  the
         -j option.

         Note  that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j branchname
         to merge changes from a branch will often not remove files which were
         removed  on  the branch.  See node `Merging adds and removals' in the
         CVS manual, for more.

         In addition, each -j option can contain an optional  date  specifica-
         tion which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to
         one within a specific date.  An optional date is specified by  adding
         a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

         See node `Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.



update output
       update  and  checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a
       line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status  of
       the file:



       U file

         The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This
         is done for any file that exists in the repository but  not  in  your
         working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but are not
         the most recent versions available in the repository.



       P file

         Like U, but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an  entire  file.
         This accomplishes the same thing as U using less bandwidth.



       A file

         The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will
         be added to the source repository when you run commit  on  the  file.
         This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.



       R file

         The  file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, and
         will be removed from the source repository when you run commit on the
         file.  This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.



       M file

         The file is modified in  your  working  directory.

         M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either
         there were no modifications to the same file in  the  repository,  so
         that  your  file  remains as you last saw it; or there were modifica-
         tions in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were merged
         successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

         cvs  will  print  some  messages if it merges your work, and a backup
         copy of your working file (as it looked before you ran  update)  will
         be made.  The exact name of that file is printed while update runs.



       C file

         A  conflict  was  detected while trying to merge your changes to file
         with changes from the source repository.   file  (the  copy  in  your
         working  directory)  is now the result of attempting to merge the two
         revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also  in  your  working
         directory,  with the name .#file.revision where revision is the revi-
         sion that your modified file started from.  Resolve the  conflict  as
         described  in  the node `Conflicts example' in the CVS manual.  (Note
         that some systems automatically purge files that  begin  with  .#  if
         they  have not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a
         copy of your original file, it is a very good  idea  to  rename  it.)
         Under vms, the file name starts with __ rather than .#.



       ? file

         file  is  in  your working directory, but does not correspond to any-
         thing in the source repository, and is not in the list of  files  for
         cvs  to  ignore  (see  the description of the -I option, and see node
         `cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
              Original author of  the  cvs  shell  script  version  posted  to
              comp.sources.unix  in  the  volume6  release  of December, 1986.
              Credited with much of the cvs conflict resolution algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
              Coder and designer of the cvs program  itself  in  April,  1989,
              based on the original work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
              Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch
              support and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the  ancestor
              of cvs import).

       Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
              Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

       And many others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO
       The most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by
       Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get
       it  with the info CVS command or it may be available as cvs.pdf (Porta-
       ble  Document  Format),  cvs.ps  (PostScript),   cvs.texinfo   (Texinfo
       source), or cvs.html.

       For CVS updates, more information on documentation, software related to
       CVS, development of CVS, and more, see:

           http://www.nongnu.org/cvs/

 ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8), diff(1), grep(1),  patch(1),  rcs(1),  rcsd-
 iff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1).



                                                                        CVS(1)