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csh(1)                           User Commands                          csh(1)

       csh - shell command interpreter with a C-like syntax

       csh [-bcefinstvVxX] [argument...]

       csh, the C shell, is a command interpreter with a syntax reminiscent of
       the C language. It provides a number of convenient features for  inter-
       active  use  that  are  not  available with the Bourne shell, including
       filename completion, command aliasing, history substitution,  job  con-
       trol,  and a number of built-in commands. As with the Bourne shell, the
       C shell provides variable, command and filename substitution.

   Initialization and Termination
       When first started, the C shell normally  performs  commands  from  the
       .cshrc  file  in  your home directory, provided that it is readable and
       you either own it or your real group ID matches its group ID.   If  the
       shell  is  invoked with a name that starts with `-', as when started by
       login(1), the shell runs as a login shell.

       If the shell is a login shell, this is  the  sequence  of  invocations:
       First,  commands  in  /etc/.login are executed. Next, commands from the
       .cshrc file your home directory are executed. Then the  shell  executes
       commands  from the .login file in your home directory; the same permis-
       sion checks as those for .cshrc are applied to  this  file.  Typically,
       the  .login  file  contains  commands  to specify the terminal type and
       environment. (For an explanation of file interpreters, see below  "Com-
       mand Execution" and exec(2).)

       As a login shell terminates, it performs commands from the .logout file
       in your home directory; the same permission checks as those for  .cshrc
       are applied to this file.

   Interactive Operation
       After  startup  processing  is  complete, an interactive C shell begins
       reading commands from the terminal, prompting with hostname% (or  host-
       name#  for the privileged user). The shell then repeatedly performs the
       following actions: a line of command input  is  read  and  broken  into
       words.  This  sequence  of words is placed on the history list and then
       parsed, as described under USAGE. Finally, the shell executes each com-
       mand in the current line.

   Noninteractive Operation
       When running noninteractively, the shell does not prompt for input from
       the terminal. A noninteractive C shell can execute a  command  supplied
       as  an argument on its command line, or interpret commands from a file,
       also known as a script.

       The following options are supported:

       -b       Forced a "break" from option  processing.  Subsequent  command
                line  arguments  are  not interpreted as C shell options. This
                allows the passing of options to a script  without  confusion.
                The  shell  does  not  run set-user-ID or set-group-ID scripts
                unless this option is present.

       -c       Executes the first argument, which must be present.  Remaining
                arguments  are placed in argv, the argument-list variable, and
                passed directly to csh.

       -e       Exits if a command terminates abnormally or yields  a  nonzero
                exit status.

       -f       Fast start. Reads neither the .cshrc file, nor the .login file
                (if a login shell) upon startup.

       -i       Forced interactive. Prompts for command line  input,  even  if
                the  standard  input does not appear to be a terminal (charac-
                ter-special device).

       -n       Parses (interprets),  but  does  not  execute  commands.  This
                option can be used to check C shell scripts for syntax errors.

       -s       Takes commands from the standard input.

       -t       Reads  and  executes  a single command line. A `\' (backslash)
                can be used to escape each newline  for  continuation  of  the
                command line onto subsequent input lines.

       -v       Verbose.  Sets  the verbose predefined variable. Command input
                is echoed after history substitution, but before other substi-
                tutions and before execution.

       -V       Sets verbose before reading .cshrc.

       -x       Echo.  Sets  the echo variable. Echoes commands after all sub-
                stitutions and just before execution.

       -X       Sets echo before reading .cshrc.

       Except with the options -c, -i, -s, or -t, the first nonoption argument
       is  taken  to be the name of a command or script. It is passed as argu-
       ment zero, and subsequent arguments are added to the argument list  for
       that command or script.

   Filename Completion
       When  enabled by setting the variable filec, an interactive C shell can
       complete a partially typed filename or user name. When  an  unambiguous
       partial  filename is followed by an ESC character on the terminal input
       line, the shell fills in the remaining characters of a  matching  file-
       name from the working directory.

       If  a  partial filename is followed by the EOF character (usually typed
       as Control-d), the shell  lists  all  filenames  that  match.  It  then
       prompts  once  again, supplying the incomplete command line typed in so

       When the last (partial)  word  begins  with  a  tilde  (~),  the  shell
       attempts completion with a user name, rather than a file in the working

       The terminal bell signals errors or multiple matches. This bell  signal
       can  be inhibited by setting the variable nobeep. You can exclude files
       with certain suffixes by listing those suffixes in  the  variable  fig-
       nore.  If,  however,  the only possible completion includes a suffix in
       the list, it is not ignored. fignore does not  affect  the  listing  of
       filenames by the EOF character.

   Lexical Structure
       The  shell  splits  input lines into words at space and tab characters,
       except as noted below. The characters &&amp;, |, ;, <&lt;, >&gt;, (, and ) form sep-
       arate  words;  if  paired,  the  pairs  form  single words. These shell
       metacharacters can be made part of other words, and their special mean-
       ing  can be suppressed by preceding them with a `\' (backslash). A new-
       line preceded by a \ is equivalent to a space character.

       In addition, a string enclosed in matched pairs of  single-quotes  ('),
       double-quotes ("), or backquotes (`), forms a partial word. Metacharac-
       ters in such a string, including any space or tab  characters,  do  not
       form  separate words. Within pairs of backquote (`) or double-quote (")
       characters, a newline preceded by a `\' (backslash) gives a  true  new-
       line  character.  Additional  functions  of  each  type  of  quote  are
       described, below, under Variable  Substitution,  Command  Substitution,
       and Filename Substitution.

       When  the shell's input is not a terminal, the character # introduces a
       comment that continues to the end of the input line. Its special  mean-
       ing is suppressed when preceded by a \ or enclosed in matching quotes.

   Command Line Parsing
       A  simple  command  is  composed of a sequence of words. The first word
       (that is not part of an I/O redirection) specifies the  command  to  be
       executed.  A simple command, or a set of simple commands separated by |
       or |&&amp; characters, forms a pipeline. With |, the standard output of  the
       preceding  command  is  redirected to the standard input of the command
       that follows. With |&&amp;, both the standard error and the standard  output
       are redirected through the pipeline.

       Pipelines  can  be  separated by semicolons (;), in which case they are
       executed sequentially. Pipelines that are separated by &&amp;&&amp;  or  ||  form
       conditional  sequences in which the execution of pipelines on the right
       depends upon the success or failure, respectively, of the  pipeline  on
       the left.

       A  pipeline or sequence can be enclosed within parentheses `()' to form
       a simple command that can be a component in a pipeline or sequence.

       A sequence of pipelines can be executed asynchronously or "in the back-
       ground"  by  appending  an `&&amp;'; rather than waiting for the sequence to
       finish before issuing a prompt, the shell displays the job number  (see
       Job Control, below) and associated process IDs and prompts immediately.

   History Substitution
       History  substitution  allows  you  to  use words from previous command
       lines in the command line you are typing. This simplifies spelling cor-
       rections  and the repetition of complicated commands or arguments. Com-
       mand lines are saved in the history list, the size  of  which  is  con-
       trolled by the history variable. The most recent command is retained in
       any case. A history substitution begins with  a  !  (although  you  can
       change  this with the histchars variable) and may occur anywhere on the
       command line; history substitutions do not nest. The ! can  be  escaped
       with \ to suppress its special meaning.

       Input lines containing history substitutions are echoed on the terminal
       after being expanded, but before any other substitutions take place  or
       the command gets executed.

   Event Designators
       An  event designator is a reference to a command line entry in the his-
       tory list.

       !                               Start a  history  substitution,  except
                                       when  followed  by  a  space character,
                                       tab, newline, = or (.

       !!                              Refer  to  the  previous  command.   By
                                       itself,  this  substitution repeats the
                                       previous command.

       !n                              Refer to command line n.

       !-n                             Refer to the current command line minus

       !str                            Refer to the most recent command start-
                                       ing with str.

       !?str?                          Refer to the most recent  command  con-
                                       taining str.

       !?str? additional               Refer  to  the most recent command con-
                                       taining str and  append  additional  to
                                       that referenced command.

       !{command} additional           Refer to the most recent command begin-
                                       ning with command and append additional
                                       to that referenced command.

       ^previous_word^replacement^     Repeat   the   previous   command  line
                                       replacing the string previous_word with
                                       the string replacement. This is equiva-
                                       lent to the history substitution:


                                       To re-execute a specific previous  com-
                                       mand AND make such a substitution, say,
                                       re-executing command #6,


   Word Designators
       A `:' (colon) separates the event specification from the word  designa-
       tor.  It can be omitted if the word designator begins with a ^, $, *, -
       or %. If the word is to be selected from the previous command, the sec-
       ond  !  character  can  be  omitted  from  the event specification. For
       instance, !!:1 and !:1 both refer to the first  word  of  the  previous
       command,  while  !!$ and !$ both refer to the last word in the previous
       command. Word designators include:

       #        The entire command line typed so far.

       0        The first input word (command).

       n        The n'th argument.

       ^        The first argument, that is, 1.

       $        The last argument.

       %        The word matched by the ?s search.

       x-y      A range of words; -y abbreviates 0-y.

       *        All the arguments, or a null value if there is just  one  word
                in the event.

       x*       Abbreviates x-$.

       x-       Like x* but omitting word $.

       After  the  optional  word designator, you can add one of the following
       modifiers, preceded by a :.

       h        Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.

       r        Remove a trailing suffix of the form `.xxx', leaving the base-

       e        Remove all but the suffix, leaving the Extension.

       s/l/r/   Substitute r for l.

       t        Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.

       &&amp;        Repeat the previous substitution.

       g        Apply  the  change  to the first occurrence of a match in each
                word, by prefixing the above (for example, g&&amp;).

       p        Print the new command but do not execute it.

       q        Quote the substituted words, escaping further substitutions.

       x        Like q, but break into words at each space character,  tab  or

       Unless  preceded  by a g, the modification is applied only to the first
       string that matches l; an error results if no string matches.

       The left-hand side of substitutions are not  regular  expressions,  but
       character  strings. Any character can be used as the delimiter in place
       of /. A backslash quotes the delimiter character. The character  &&amp;,  in
       the  right  hand side, is replaced by the text from the left-hand-side.
       The &&amp; can be quoted with a backslash. A null l uses the previous string
       either  from  a  l or from a contextual scan string s from !?s. You can
       omit the rightmost delimiter if a newline immediately  follows  r;  the
       rightmost ? in a context scan can similarly be omitted.

       Without  an  event  specification, a history reference refers either to
       the previous command, or to a previous history reference on the command
       line (if any).

   Quick Substitution
       ^l^r^    This is equivalent to the history substitution:


       The  C  shell maintains a list of aliases that you can create, display,
       and modify using the alias and unalias commands. The shell  checks  the
       first word in each command to see if it matches the name of an existing
       alias. If it does, the command is reprocessed with the alias definition
       replacing  its  name; the history substitution mechanism is made avail-
       able as though that command were the previous input line.  This  allows
       history  substitutions,  escaped with a backslash in the definition, to
       be replaced with actual command line arguments when the alias is  used.
       If  no  history  substitution  is  called  for,  the  arguments  remain

       Aliases can be nested. That is, an alias  definition  can  contain  the
       name  of  another alias. Nested aliases are expanded before any history
       substitutions is applied. This is useful in pipelines such as

       alias lm 'ls -l \!* | more'

       which when called, pipes the output of ls(1) through more(1).

       Except for the first word, the name of the alias may not appear in  its
       definition,  nor in any alias referred to by its definition. Such loops
       are detected, and cause an error message.

   I/O Redirection
       The following metacharacters indicate that the subsequent word  is  the
       name  of a file to which the command's standard input, standard output,
       or standard error is redirected; this word is  variable,  command,  and
       filename expanded separately from the rest of the command.


           Redirect the standard input.


           Read  the standard input, up to a line that is identical with word,
           and place the resulting lines in a temporary file. Unless  word  is
           escaped or quoted, variable and command substitutions are performed
           on these lines. Then, the pipeline is invoked  with  the  temporary
           file  as  its  standard  input.  word is not subjected to variable,
           filename, or command substitution, and each line is compared to  it
           before any substitutions are performed by the shell.

       >&gt;   >&gt;!   >&gt;&&amp;   >&gt;&&amp;!

           Redirect the standard output to a file. If the file does not exist,
           it is created. If it does exist, it is  overwritten;  its  previous
           contents are lost.

           When  set,  the variable noclobber prevents destruction of existing
           files. It also prevents redirection  to  terminals  and  /dev/null,
           unless  one of the ! forms is used. The &&amp; forms redirect both stan-
           dard output and the standard error (diagnostic output) to the file.

       >&gt;>&gt;   >&gt;>&gt;&&amp;   >&gt;>&gt;!   >&gt;>&gt;&&amp;!

           Append the standard output. Like >&gt;, but places output at the end of
           the  file rather than overwriting it. If noclobber is set, it is an
           error for the file not to exist, unless one of the ! forms is used.
           The  &&amp;  forms append both the standard error and standard output to
           the file.

   Variable Substitution
       The C shell maintains a set of variables, each of which is composed  of
       a  name  and  a value. A variable name consists of up to 20 letters and
       digits, and starts with a letter (the underscore is considered  a  let-
       ter).   A  variable's  value  is a space-separated list of zero or more

       To refer to a variable's value, precede its name with  a  `$'.  Certain
       references  (described below) can be used to select specific words from
       the value, or to display other information about the  variable.  Braces
       can  be  used  to  insulate  the  reference from other characters in an
       input-line word.

       Variable substitution takes place after the  input  line  is  analyzed,
       aliases  are  resolved, and I/O redirections are applied. Exceptions to
       this are variable references in I/O redirections  (substituted  at  the
       time the redirection is made), and backquoted strings (see Command Sub-

       Variable substitution can be suppressed by preceding the $  with  a  \,
       except  within double-quotes where it always occurs. Variable substitu-
       tion is suppressed inside of single-quotes. A $ is escaped if  followed
       by a space character, tab or newline.

       Variables  can  be  created,  displayed, or destroyed using the set and
       unset commands. Some variables are maintained or used by the shell. For
       instance,  the  argv variable contains an image of the shell's argument
       list. Of the variables used by the shell, a  number  are  toggles;  the
       shell  does  not care what their value is, only whether they are set or

       Numerical values can be operated on as numbers (as with the @  built-in
       command).  With  numeric operations, an empty value is considered to be
       zero. The second and subsequent words of multiword values are  ignored.
       For  instance, when the verbose variable is set to any value (including
       an empty value), command input is echoed on the terminal.

       Command and filename substitution is subsequently applied to the  words
       that  result  from the variable substitution, except when suppressed by
       double-quotes, when noglob is set (suppressing filename  substitution),
       or  when  the  reference is quoted with the :q modifier. Within double-
       quotes, a reference is expanded to form (a portion of) a quoted string;
       multiword  values  are expanded to a string with embedded space charac-
       ters. When the :q modifier is applied to the reference, it is  expanded
       to  a list of space-separated words, each of which is quoted to prevent
       subsequent command or filename substitutions.

       Except as noted below, it is an error to refer to a  variable  that  is
       not set.

       $var            These are replaced by words from the value of var, each
       ${var}          separated by a space character. If var is  an  environ-
                       ment variable, its value is returned (but `:' modifiers
                       and the other forms given below are not available).

       $var[index]     These select only the indicated words from the value of
       ${var[index]}   var.  Variable  substitution is applied to index, which
                       may consist of (or result in) a either  single  number,
                       two  numbers  separated by a `-', or an asterisk. Words
                       are indexed starting from 1; a `*' selects  all  words.
                       If  the  first  number  of  a range is omitted (as with
                       $argv[-2]), it defaults to 1. If the last number  of  a
                       range  is  omitted  (as with $argv[1-]), it defaults to
                       $#var (the word count). It is not an error for a  range
                       to  be  empty  if  the  second  argument is omitted (or
                       within range).

       $#name          These give the number of words in the variable.

       $0              This substitutes the name of the file from  which  com-
                       mand  input  is  being  read  except  for  setuid shell
                       scripts. An error occurs if the name is not known.

       $n              Equivalent to $argv[n].

       $*              Equivalent to $argv[*].

       The modifiers :e, :h, :q, :r, :t, and :x can be  applied  (see  History
       Substitution),  as can :gh, :gt, and :gr. If {} (braces) are used, then
       the modifiers must appear within the braces. The current implementation
       allows only one such modifier per expansion.

       The following references may not be modified with : modifiers.

       $?var           Substitutes  the  string  1 if var is set or 0 if it is
       ${?var}         not set.

       $?0             Substitutes 1 if the current input filename is known or
                       0 if it is not.

       $$              Substitutes the process number of the (parent) shell.

       $<&lt;              Substitutes  a  line  from  the standard input, with no
                       further interpretation thereafter. It can  be  used  to
                       read from the keyboard in a C shell script.

   Command and Filename Substitutions
       Command and filename substitutions are applied selectively to the argu-
       ments of built-in commands. Portions of expressions that are not evalu-
       ated are not expanded. For non-built-in commands, filename expansion of
       the command name is done separately from that  of  the  argument  list;
       expansion occurs in a subshell, after I/O redirection is performed.

   Command Substitution
       A  command  enclosed  by backquotes (`...`) is performed by a subshell.
       Its standard output is broken into separate words at each space charac-
       ter,  tab and newline; null words are discarded. This text replaces the
       backquoted string on the current command  line.  Within  double-quotes,
       only  newline  characters force new words; space and tab characters are
       preserved. However, a final newline is ignored. It is therefore  possi-
       ble for a command substitution to yield a partial word.

   Filename Substitution
       Unquoted  words  containing any of the characters *, ?, [ or {, or that
       begin with ~, are expanded (also known as globbing)  to  an  alphabeti-
       cally sorted list of filenames, as follows:

       *               Match any (zero or more) characters.

       ?               Match any single character.

       [...]           Match  any  single character in the enclosed list(s) or
                       range(s). A list is a string of characters.  A range is
                       two  characters  separated  by a dash (-), and includes
                       all the characters in between in  the  ASCII  collating
                       sequence (see ascii(5)).

       { str, str, ... }Expand to each string (or filename-matching pattern) in
                       the comma-separated list. Unlike  the  pattern-matching
                       expressions  above,  the expansion of this construct is
                       not sorted. For instance, {b,a}  expands  to  `b'  `a',
                       (not  `a' `b').  As special cases, the characters { and
                       }, along with the string {}, are passed undisturbed.

       ~[user]         Your home directory, as indicated by the value  of  the
                       variable  home,  or  that  of user, as indicated by the
                       password entry for user.

       Only the patterns *, ? and  [...]  imply  pattern  matching;  an  error
       results  if  no  filename matches a pattern that contains them. The `.'
       (dot character), when it is the first character in a filename or  path-
       name  component, must be matched explicitly. The / (slash) must also be
       matched explicitly.

   Expressions and Operators
       A number of C shell built-in commands accept expressions, in which  the
       operators are similar to those of C and have the same precedence. These
       expressions typically appear in the @, exit, if,  set  and  while  com-
       mands, and are often used to regulate the flow of control for executing
       commands. Components of an expression are separated by white space.

       Null or missing values are considered 0. The result of all  expressions
       is a string, which may represent decimal numbers.

       The following C shell operators are grouped in order of precedence:

       (...)                   grouping

       >&gt;~                      one's complement

       !                       logical negation

       *   /   %               multiplication,  division, remainder. These are
                               right associative, which can lead to unexpected
                               results. Combinations should be grouped explic-
                               itly with parentheses.

       +   -                   addition, subtraction (also right associative)

       <&lt;<&lt;   >&gt;>&gt;                 bitwise shift left, bitwise shift right

       <&lt;   >&gt;   <&lt;=   >&gt;=         less than, greater than, less than or equal to,
                               greater than or equal to

       ==   !=   =~   !~       equal  to,  not equal to, filename-substitution
                               pattern match (described below),  filename-sub-
                               stitution pattern mismatch

       &&amp;                       bitwise AND

       ^                       bitwise XOR (exclusive or)

       |                       bitwise inclusive OR

       &&amp;&&amp;                      logical AND

       ||                      logical OR

       The  operators:  ==, !=, =~, and !~ compare their arguments as strings;
       other operators use numbers. The operators =~ and !~ each check whether
       or  not a string to the left matches a filename substitution pattern on
       the right. This reduces the need for switch  statements  when  pattern-
       matching between strings is all that is required.

       Also available are file inquiries:

       -r filename     Return  true,  or 1 if the user has read access. Other-
                       wise it returns false, or 0.

       -w filename     True if the user has write access.

       -x filename     True if the user has execute permission (or search per-
                       mission on a directory).

       -e filename     True if filename exists.

       -o filename     True if the user owns filename.

       -z filename     True if filename is of zero length (empty).

       -f filename     True if filename is a plain file.

       -d filename     True if filename is a directory.

       If  filename  does  not  exist  or  is inaccessible, then all inquiries
       return false.

       An inquiry as to the success of a command is also available:

       { command }     If command runs successfully, the expression  evaluates
                       to  true, 1. Otherwise, it evaluates to false, 0. Note:
                       Conversely, command itself typically returns 0 when  it
                       runs successfully, or some other value if it encounters
                       a problem. If you want to get at the  status  directly,
                       use  the  value of the status variable rather than this

   Control Flow
       The shell contains a number of commands to regulate the flow of control
       in scripts and within limits, from the terminal. These commands operate
       by forcing the shell either to reread input (to loop), or to skip input
       under certain conditions (to branch).

       Each  occurrence of a foreach, switch, while, if...then and else built-
       in command must appear as the first word on its own input line.

       If the shell's input is not seekable and a loop  is  being  read,  that
       input  is buffered. The shell performs seeks within the internal buffer
       to accomplish the rereading implied by the loop. (To  the  extent  that
       this  allows,  backward  goto  commands  will  succeed  on  nonseekable

   Command Execution
       If the command is a C shell built-in command,  the  shell  executes  it
       directly.  Otherwise,  the  shell searches for a file by that name with
       execute access. If the command name contains a /, the shell takes it as
       a pathname, and searches for it. If the command name does not contain a
       /, the shell attempts to resolve  it  to  a  pathname,  searching  each
       directory  in  the  path variable for the command. To speed the search,
       the shell uses its hash table (see  the  rehash  built-in  command)  to
       eliminate  directories  that have no applicable files. This hashing can
       be disabled with the -c or -t, options, or the unhash built-in command.

       As a special case, if there is no / in the name of the script and there
       is  an  alias  for  the word shell, the expansion of the shell alias is
       prepended (without  modification)  to  the  command  line.  The  system
       attempts  to  execute  the  first word of this special (late-occurring)
       alias, which should be a full pathname. Remaining words of the  alias's
       definition, along with the text of the input line, are treated as argu-

       When a pathname is found that has proper execute permissions, the shell
       forks  a  new  process  and passes it, along with its arguments, to the
       kernel using the execve() system call (see exec(2)).  The  kernel  then
       attempts  to  overlay  the new process with the desired program. If the
       file is an executable binary (in a.out(4) format) the  kernel  succeeds
       and  begins  executing  the new process. If the file is a text file and
       the first line begins with #!, the next word is taken to be  the  path-
       name of a shell (or command) to interpret that script. Subsequent words
       on the first line are taken as  options  for  that  shell.  The  kernel
       invokes (overlays) the indicated shell, using the name of the script as
       an argument.

       If neither of the above conditions holds, the kernel cannot overlay the
       file  and  the  execve()  call  fails  (see  exec(2)). The C shell then
       attempts to execute the file by spawning a new shell, as follows:

         o  If the first character of the file is a #, a C shell is invoked.

         o  Otherwise, a Bourne shell is invoked.

   Signal Handling
       The shell normally ignores QUIT signals. Background jobs are immune  to
       signals  generated  from  the  keyboard, including hangups (HUP). Other
       signals have the values that the C shell inherited  from  its  environ-
       ment.  The  shell's  handling of interrupt and terminate signals within
       scripts can be controlled by the onintr built-in command. Login  shells
       catch  the  TERM  signal.  Otherwise, this signal is passed on to child
       processes. In no case are interrupts allowed  when  a  login  shell  is
       reading the .logout file.

   Job Control
       The  shell associates a numbered job with each command sequence to keep
       track of those commands that are running in the background or have been
       stopped with TSTP signals (typically Control-z). When a command or com-
       mand sequence (semicolon separated list) is started in  the  background
       using  the &&amp; metacharacter, the shell displays a line with the job num-
       ber in brackets and a list of associated process numbers:

       [1] 1234

       To see the current list of jobs, use the jobs built-in command. The job
       most  recently stopped (or put into the background if none are stopped)
       is referred to as the current job and is indicated with a `+'. The pre-
       vious  job  is indicated with a `-'. When the current job is terminated
       or moved to the foreground, this job takes its place (becomes  the  new
       current job).

       To  manipulate  jobs,  refer  to the bg, fg, kill, stop, and % built-in

       A reference to a job begins with a `%'.  By  itself,  the  percent-sign
       refers to the current job.

       %   %+   %%     The current job.

       %-              The previous job.

       %j              Refer to job j as in: `kill -9 %j'. j can be a job num-
                       ber, or a string that uniquely  specifies  the  command
                       line  by  which  it was started; `fg %vi' might bring a
                       stopped vi job to the foreground, for instance.

       %?string        Specify the job for which  the  command  line  uniquely
                       contains string.

       A job running in the background stops when it attempts to read from the
       terminal. Background jobs can normally produce output, but this can  be
       suppressed using the `stty tostop' command.

   Status Reporting
       While  running  interactively,  the shell tracks the status of each job
       and reports whenever the job finishes or becomes blocked.  It  normally
       displays  a  message  to this effect as it issues a prompt, in order to
       avoid disturbing the appearance of your input.  When  set,  the  notify
       variable  indicates  that the shell is to report status changes immedi-
       ately. By default, the notify command marks the current process;  after
       starting a background job, type notify to mark it.

       Built-in  commands  are executed within the C shell. If a built-in com-
       mand occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last, it is  exe-
       cuted in a subshell.


           Null command. This command is interpreted, but performs no action.

       alias [ name [ def ] ]

           Assign  def to the alias name. def is a list of words that may con-
           tain escaped history-substitution metasyntax. name is  not  allowed
           to  be  alias or unalias. If def is omitted, the current definition
           for the alias name is displayed. If both name and def are  omitted,
           all aliases are displayed with their definitions.

       bg [ %job ... ]

           Run the current or specified jobs in the background.


           Resume  execution after the end of the nearest enclosing foreach or
           while loop. The remaining commands on the  current  line  are  exe-
           cuted.  This  allows  multilevel  breaks to be written as a list of
           break commands, all on one line.


           Break from a switch, resuming after the endsw.

       case label:

           A label in a switch statement.

       cd [dir ]
       chdir [dir ]

           Change the shell's working directory to directory dir. If no  argu-
           ment  is given, change to the home directory of the user. If dir is
           a relative pathname not found in the current directory,  check  for
           it  in  those  directories listed in the cdpath variable. If dir is
           the name of a shell variable whose value starts with a /, change to
           the directory named by that value.


           Continue  execution  of the next iteration of the nearest enclosing
           while or foreach loop.


           Labels the default case in a switch statement. The  default  should
           come  after  all case labels. Any remaining commands on the command
           line are first executed.

       dirs [-l]

           Print the directory stack, most  recent  to  the  left.  The  first
           directory  shown  is  the  current directory. With the -l argument,
           produce an unabbreviated printout; use of the ~  notation  is  sup-

       echo [-n] list

           The words in list are written to the shell's standard output, sepa-
           rated by space characters. The output is terminated with a  newline
           unless  the  -n  option  is  used. csh will, by default, invoke its
           built-in echo, if echo is called without the  full  pathname  of  a
           Unix  command,  regardless  of  the configuration of your PATH (see

       eval argument...

           Reads the arguments as input to the shell and executes the  result-
           ing  command(s). This is usually used to execute commands generated
           as the result of command or variable substitution. See tset(1B) for
           an example of how to use eval.

       exec command

           Execute command in place of the current shell, which terminates.

       exit [(expr)]

           The  calling  shell or shell script exits, either with the value of
           the status variable or with the value specified by  the  expression

       fg [%job ]

           Bring the current or specified job into the foreground.

       foreach var (wordlist)

           The  variable  var  is successively set to each member of wordlist.
           The sequence of commands between this command and the matching  end
           is  executed  for  each new value of var. Both foreach and end must
           appear alone on separate lines.

           The built-in command continue may be used to terminate  the  execu-
           tion  of the current iteration of the loop and the built-in command
           break may be used to terminate execution of  the  foreach  command.
           When  this command is read from the terminal, the loop is read once
           prompting with ? before any statements in the loop are executed.

       glob wordlist

           Perform filename expansion on wordlist. Like echo, but no \ escapes
           are  recognized. Words are delimited by NULL characters in the out-

       goto label

           The specified label is a filename and a command expanded to yield a
           label. The shell rewinds its input as much as possible and searches
           for a line of the form label: possibly preceded  by  space  or  tab
           characters.  Execution continues after the indicated line. It is an
           error to jump to a label that occurs between a while or for  built-
           in command and its corresponding end.


           Print  a statistics line indicating how effective the internal hash
           table for the path variable has  been  at  locating  commands  (and
           avoiding  execs).  An  exec  is attempted for each component of the
           path where the hash function indicates a possible hit and  in  each
           component  that  does  not  begin with a `/'. These statistics only
           reflect the effectiveness of the  path  variable,  not  the  cdpath

       history [-hr] [ n ]

           Display  the  history  list; if n is given, display only the n most
           recent events.

           -r       Reverse the order of printout  to  be  most  recent  first
                    rather than oldest first.

           -h       Display  the history list without leading numbers. This is
                    used to produce files suitable for sourcing using  the  -h
                    option to source.

       if (expr )command

           If  the  specified expression evaluates to true, the single command
           with arguments is executed. Variable substitution on  command  hap-
           pens  early,  at  the same time it does for the rest of the if com-
           mand. command must be a simple command, not a pipeline,  a  command
           list, or a parenthesized command list. Note: I/O redirection occurs
           even if expr is false, when command is  not  executed  (this  is  a

       if (expr) then
       else if (expr2) then

           If expr is true, commands up to the first else are executed. Other-
           wise, if expr2 is true, the commands between the else  if  and  the
           second  else are executed. Otherwise, commands between the else and
           the endif are executed. Any number of else if  pairs  are  allowed,
           but  only  one  else. Only one endif is needed, but it is required.
           The words else and endif must be the first nonwhite characters on a
           line. The if must appear alone on its input line or after an else.

       jobs [-l]

           List the active jobs under job control.

           -l       List process IDs, in addition to the normal information.

       kill [ -sig ] [ pid ] [ %job ] ...
       kill -l

           Send  the TERM (terminate) signal, by default, or the signal speci-
           fied, to the specified process ID, the job indicated, or  the  cur-
           rent  job.  Signals are either given by number or by name. There is
           no default. Typing kill does not send a signal to the current  job.
           If  the signal being sent is TERM (terminate) or HUP (hangup), then
           the job or process is sent a CONT (continue) signal as well.

           -l       List the signal names that can be sent.

       limit [-h] [resource [max-use ] ]

           Limit the consumption by the current  process  or  any  process  it
           spawns,  each  not  to exceed max-use on the specified resource. If
           max-use is omitted, print the current limit. If resource  is  omit-
           ted, display all limits. Run the sysdef(1M) command to display max-
           imum limits for certain resources in your system (although it  does
           not report stack size). The values reported are in hexadecimal, but
           can be translated into decimal numbers using the bc(1) command.

           -h       Use hard limits instead of the current limits. Hard limits
                    impose a ceiling on the values of the current limits. Only
                    the privileged user may raise the hard limits.

           resource is one of:

           cputime                 Maximum CPU seconds per process.

           filesize                Largest single file allowed. Limited to the
                                   size of the filesystem. (See df(1M)).

           datasize (heapsize)     Maximum data size (including stack) for the
                                   process. This is the size of  your  virtual
                                   memory See swap(1M).

           stacksize               Maximum  stack  size  for  the process. The
                                   default stack size is 2**64 bytes. You  can
                                   use  limit(1) to change this default within
                                   a shell.

           coredumpsize            Maximum size of a core  dump  (file).  This
                                   limited to the size of the filesystem.

           descriptors             Maximum  number  of  file  descriptors. Run

           memorysize              Maximum size of virtual memory.

           max-use is a number, with an optional scaling factor, as follows:

           nh              Hours (for cputime).

           nk              n kilobytes.  This  is  the  default  for  all  but

           nm              n megabytes or minutes (for cputime).

           mm:ss           Minutes and seconds (for cputime).

           Example  of  limit:  To  limit  the  size  of a core file dump to 0
           Megabytes, type the following:

           limit coredumpsize 0M

       login [username| -p ]

           Terminate a login shell and invoke login(1). The  .logout  file  is
           not  processed.  If username is omitted, login prompts for the name
           of a user.

           -p       Preserve the current environment (variables).


           Terminate a login shell.

       nice [+n |-n ] [command ]

           Increment the process priority value for the shell or  for  command
           by  n.  The  higher the priority value, the lower the priority of a
           process, and the slower it runs. When given, command is always  run
           in a subshell, and the restrictions placed on commands in simple if
           commands apply. If command is omitted, nice  increments  the  value
           for  the current shell. If no increment is specified, nice sets the
           process priority value to 4. The range of process  priority  values
           is  from -20 to 20. Values of n outside this range set the value to
           the lower, or to the higher boundary, respectively.

           +n       Increment the process priority value by n.

           -n       Decrement by n. This argument can  be  used  only  by  the
                    privileged user.

       nohup [command ]

           Run  command  with  HUPs  ignored.  With  no arguments, ignore HUPs
           throughout the remainder of a script. When given, command is always
           run  in a subshell, and the restrictions placed on commands in sim-
           ple if statements apply. All processes detached with &&amp;  are  effec-
           tively nohup'd.

       notify [%job] ...

           Notify  the  user asynchronously when the status of the current job
           or specified jobs changes.

       onintr [-| label]

           Control the action of the shell on interrupts. With  no  arguments,
           onintr restores the default action of the shell on interrupts. (The
           shell terminates shell scripts and returns to the terminal  command
           input  level).  With  the  - argument, the shell ignores all inter-
           rupts. With a label argument, the shell executes a goto label  when
           an  interrupt  is received or a child process terminates because it
           was interrupted.

       popd [+n ]

           Pop the directory stack and cd to the new top directory.  The  ele-
           ments  of  the  directory stack are numbered from 0 starting at the

           +n       Discard the n'th entry in the stack.

       pushd [+n |dir]

           Push a directory onto  the  directory  stack.  With  no  arguments,
           exchange the top two elements.

           +n       Rotate  the  n'th  entry to the top of the stack and cd to

           dir      Push the current working  directory  onto  the  stack  and
                    change to dir.


           Recompute  the  internal  hash table of the contents of directories
           listed in the path variable to  account  for  new  commands  added.
           Recompute  the  internal  hash table of the contents of directories
           listed in the cdpath variable to account for new directories added.

       repeat count command

           Repeat command count times. command is subject to the same restric-
           tions as with the one-line if statement.

       set [var [= value ] ]
       set var[n] = word

           With  no arguments, set displays the values of all shell variables.
           Multiword values are displayed as a parenthesized  list.  With  the
           var  argument alone, set assigns an empty (null) value to the vari-
           able var. With arguments of the form var = value set assigns  value
           to var, where value is one of:

           word            A single word (or quoted string).

           (wordlist)      A  space-separated list of words enclosed in paren-

           Values are command and filename expanded before being assigned. The
           form  set var[n] = word replaces the n'th word in a multiword value
           with word.

       setenv [VAR [word ] ]

           With no arguments, setenv displays all environment variables.  With
           the VAR argument, setenv sets the environment variable VAR  to have
           an empty (null) value. (By convention,  environment  variables  are
           normally given upper-case names.) With both VAR and word arguments,
           setenv sets the environment variable NAME to the value word,  which
           must  be either a single word or a quoted string. The most commonly
           used environment variables, USER, TERM, and PATH, are automatically
           imported  to  and  exported  from the csh variables user, term, and
           path. There is no need to use setenv for these.  In  addition,  the
           shell  sets  the PWD environment variable from the csh variable cwd
           whenever the latter changes.

           The environment variables LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,  LC_TIME,  LC_COL-
           LATE,  LC_NUMERIC,  and  LC_MONETARY  take  immediate  effect  when
           changed within the C shell.

           If any of  the  LC_*  variables  (LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,  LC_TIME,
           LC_COLLATE,  LC_NUMERIC,  and LC_MONETARY) (see environ(5)) are not
           set in the environment, the operational behavior of  csh  for  each
           corresponding  locale  category  is  determined by the value of the
           LANG environment variable.  If LC_ALL is set, its contents are used
           to  override both the LANG and the other LC_* variables. If none of
           the above variables is set  in  the  environment,  the  "C"   (U.S.
           style) locale determines how csh behaves.

           LC_CTYPE        Determines   how   csh   handles  characters.  When
                           LC_CTYPE is set to a valid value, csh  can  display
                           and  handle  text  and  filenames  containing valid
                           characters for that locale.

           LC_MESSAGES     Determines how diagnostic and informative  messages
                           are presented. This includes the language and style
                           of the messages and the correct form of affirmative
                           and  negative  responses.   In  the "C" locale, the
                           messages are presented in the default form found in
                           the program itself (in most cases, U.S./English).

           LC_NUMERIC      Determines  the value of the radix character (deci-
                           mal point (".") in the  "C"  locale)  and  thousand
                           separator (empty string ("") in the "C" locale).

       shift [variable ]

           The  components  of  argv, or variable, if supplied, are shifted to
           the left, discarding the first component. It is an  error  for  the
           variable not to be set or to have a null value.

       source [-h] name

           Reads  commands  from  name.  source commands may be nested, but if
           they are nested too deeply the shell may run out of  file  descrip-
           tors. An error in a sourced file at any level terminates all nested
           source commands.

           -h       Place commands from the file  name  on  the  history  list
                    without executing them.

       stop %jobid ...

           Stop the current or specified background job.

       stop pid ...

           Stop the specified process, pid. (see ps(1)).


           Stop  the  shell  in its tracks, much as if it had been sent a stop
           signal with ^Z. This is most often used to stop shells  started  by

       switch (string)
       case label:

           Each  label  is successively matched, against the specified string,
           which is first command and filename expanded. The file  metacharac-
           ters *, ? and [...] may be used in the case labels, which are vari-
           able expanded. If none of the labels match before a "default" label
           is  found,  execution  begins  after  the default label.  Each case
           statement and the default statement must appear at the beginning of
           a  line.  The  command breaksw continues execution after the endsw.
           Otherwise control falls through subsequent case and default  state-
           ments  as with C. If no label matches and there is no default, exe-
           cution continues after the endsw.

       time [command ]

           With no argument, print a summary of time used by this C shell  and
           its children. With an optional command, execute command and print a
           summary of the time it uses. As of this writing, the time  built-in
           command does NOT compute the last 6 fields of output, rendering the
           output to erroneously report the value "0" for these fields.

                   example %time ls -R
                   9.0u 11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

           (See below the "Environment Variables and  Predefined  Shell  Vari-
           ables" sub-section on the time variable.)

       umask [value ]

           Display  the  file creation mask. With value, set the file creation
           mask. With value given in octal, the user can turn  off  any  bits,
           but  cannot  turn  on  bits to allow new permissions. Common values
           include 077, restricting all permissions from everyone  else;  002,
           giving  complete  access  to  the  group,  and  read (and directory
           search) access to  others;  or  022,  giving  read  (and  directory
           search) but not write permission to the group and others.

       unalias pattern

           Discard  aliases  that  match  (filename substitution) pattern. All
           aliases are removed by `unalias *'.


           Disable the internal hash tables for the path and cdpath variables.

       unlimit [-h] [resource ]

           Remove a limitation on resource. If no resource is specified,  then
           all  resource  limitations  are removed. See the description of the
           limit command for the list of resource names.

           -h       Remove corresponding hard limits. Only the privileged user
                    may do this.

       unset pattern

           Remove variables whose names match (filename substitution) pattern.
           All variables are removed by `unset *'; this  has  noticeably  dis-
           tasteful side effects.

       unsetenv variable

           Remove variable from the environment. As with unset, pattern match-
           ing is not performed.


           Wait for background jobs to finish (or  for  an  interrupt)  before

       while (expr)

           While  expr is true (evaluates to nonzero), repeat commands between
           the while and the matching end statement. break and continue may be
           used  to  terminate or continue the loop prematurely. The while and
           end must appear alone on their input lines. If the shell's input is
           a  terminal, it prompts for commands with a question-mark until the
           end command is entered and then performs the commands in the loop.

       % [job ] [&&amp;]

           Bring the current or indicated job  to  the  foreground.  With  the
           ampersand, continue running job in the background.

       @ [var =expr]
       @ [var[n]=expr]

           With no arguments, display the values for all shell variables. With
           arguments, set the variable var, or the n'th word in the  value  of
           var, to the value that expr evaluates to. (If [n] is supplied, both
           var and its n'th component must already exist.)

           If the expression contains the characters >&gt;, <&lt;, &&amp;, or  |,  then  at
           least this part of expr must be placed within parentheses.

           The  operators  *=,  +=,  and  so forth, are available as in C. The
           space separating the name from the assignment operator is optional.
           Spaces  are,  however,  mandatory  in separating components of expr
           that would otherwise be single words.

           Special postfix operators, ++ and --, increment or decrement  name,

   Environment Variables and Predefined Shell Variables
       Unlike  the  Bourne  shell, the C shell maintains a distinction between
       environment variables, which are automatically exported to processes it
       invokes,  and  shell  variables, which are not. Both types of variables
       are treated similarly under variable substitution.  The shell sets  the
       variables  argv,  cwd,  home, path, prompt, shell, and status upon ini-
       tialization. The shell copies the environment variable  USER  into  the
       shell  variable  user,  TERM  into term, and HOME into home, and copies
       each back into the respective environment variable whenever  the  shell
       variables are reset. PATH and path are similarly handled. You need only
       set path once in the .cshrc or .login file.  The  environment  variable
       PWD  is  set  from cwd whenever the latter changes. The following shell
       variables have predefined meanings:

       argv            Argument list. Contains the list of command line  argu-
                       ments  supplied to the current invocation of the shell.
                       This variable determines the value  of  the  positional
                       parameters $1, $2, and so on.

       cdpath          Contains  a  list  of directories to be searched by the
                       cd, chdir, and popd commands, if the directory argument
                       each  accepts  is  not  a  subdirectory  of the current

       cwd             The full pathname of the current directory.

       echo            Echo commands (after substitutions) just before  execu-

       fignore         A  list  of filename suffixes to ignore when attempting
                       filename completion. Typically the single word `.o'.

       filec           Enable filename completion, in which case the Control-d
                       character  EOT  and the ESC character have special sig-
                       nificance when typed in at the end of a terminal  input

                       EOT      Print  a list of all filenames that start with
                                the preceding string.

                       ESC      Replace the preceding string with the  longest
                                unambiguous extension.

       hardpaths       If  set,  pathnames in the directory stack are resolved
                       to contain no symbolic-link components.

       histchars       A two-character string. The first character replaces  !
                       as   the  history-substitution  character.  The  second
                       replaces the carat (^) for quick substitutions.

       history         The number of lines saved in the history list.  A  very
                       large number may use up all of the C shell's memory. If
                       not set, the C shell saves only the  most  recent  com-

       home            The  user's home directory. The filename expansion of ~
                       refers to the value of this variable.

       ignoreeof       If set, the shell ignores EOF from terminals. This pro-
                       tects  against accidentally killing a C shell by typing
                       a Control-d.

       mail            A list of files where the C shell checks for  mail.  If
                       the first word of the value is a number, it specifies a
                       mail checking interval in seconds (default 5 minutes).

       nobeep          Suppress the bell during command completion when asking
                       the C shell to extend an ambiguous filename.

       noclobber       Restrict  output redirection so that existing files are
                       not destroyed by accident. >&gt; redirections can  only  be
                       made  to new files. >&gt;>&gt; redirections can only be made to
                       existing files.

       noglob          Inhibit filename substitution. This is most  useful  in
                       shell  scripts once filenames (if any) are obtained and
                       no further expansion is desired.

       nonomatch       Return the filename substitution pattern,  rather  than
                       an error, if the pattern is not matched. Malformed pat-
                       terns still result in errors.

       notify          If set, the shell notifies you immediately as jobs  are
                       completed,  rather than waiting until just before issu-
                       ing a prompt.

       path            The list of directories in which  to  search  for  com-
                       mands.  path  is initialized from the environment vari-
                       able PATH, which the  C  shell  updates  whenever  path
                       changes.  A null word ('') specifies the current direc-
                       tory. The default is typically (/usr/bin  .).  One  may
                       override  this initial search path upon csh start-up by
                       setting it in .cshrc or .login (for login shells only).
                       If  path  becomes  unset, only full pathnames will exe-
                       cute. An interactive C shell  will  normally  hash  the
                       contents   of  the  directories  listed  after  reading
                       .cshrc, and whenever path is reset. If new commands are
                       added, use the rehash command to update the table.

       prompt          The  string an interactive C shell prompts with. Nonin-
                       teractive  shells  leave  the  prompt  variable  unset.
                       Aliases  and other commands in the .cshrc file that are
                       only useful interactively, can be placed after the fol-
                       lowing  test:  `if  ($?prompt  ==  0)  exit', to reduce
                       startup time for noninteractive  shells.  A  !  in  the
                       prompt  string is replaced by the current event number.
                       The default prompt is hostname% for  mere  mortals,  or
                       hostname# for the privileged user.

                       The setting of $prompt has three meanings:

                       $prompt not set         non-interactive   shell,   test

                       $prompt set but == ""   .cshrc called by  the  which(1)

                       $prompt set and != ""   normal interactive shell.

       savehist        The  number  of  lines  from  the history list that are
                       saved in ~/.history when the user logs out. Large  val-
                       ues for savehist slow down the C shell during startup.

       shell           The  file in which the C shell resides. This is used in
                       forking shells to interpret  files  that  have  execute
                       bits set, but that are not executable by the system.

       status          The status returned by the most recent command. If that
                       command terminated abnormally, 0200  is  added  to  the
                       status.  Built-in commands that fail return exit status
                       1; all other built-in commands set status to 0.

       time            Control automatic timing of commands. Can  be  supplied
                       with  one  or  two  values.  The first is the reporting
                       threshold in CPU seconds. The second  is  a  string  of
                       tags  and text indicating which resources to report on.
                       A tag is a percent sign (%) followed by a single upper-
                       case letter (unrecognized tags print as text):

                       %D       Average  amount of unshared data space used in

                       %E       Elapsed (wallclock) time for the command.

                       %F       Page faults.

                       %I       Number of block input operations.

                       %K       Average amount of unshared stack space used in

                       %M       Maximum  real  memory used during execution of
                                the process.

                       %O       Number of block output operations.

                       %P       Total CPU time -- U (user) plus S (system)  --
                                as a percentage of E (elapsed) time.

                       %S       Number  of seconds of CPU time consumed by the
                                kernel on behalf of the user's process.

                       %U       Number of seconds of CPU time devoted  to  the
                                user's process.

                       %W       Number of swaps.

                       %X       Average  amount of shared memory used in Kilo-

                       The default summary display outputs from  the  %U,  %S,
                       %E, %P, %X, %D, %I, %O, %F, and %W tags, in that order.

       verbose         Display  each  command after history substitution takes

   Large File Behavior
       See largefile(5) for the  description  of  the  behavior  of  csh  when
       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2**31 bytes).

       ~/.cshrc                Read at beginning of execution by each shell.

       ~/.login                Read by login shells after .cshrc at login.

       ~/.logout               Read by login shells at logout.

       ~/.history              Saved history for use at next login.

       /usr/bin/sh             The  Bourne shell, for shell scripts not start-
                               ing with a `#'.

       /tmp/sh*                Temporary file for `<&lt;<&lt;'.

       /etc/passwd             Source of home directories for `~name'.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       tab()    allbox;    cw(2.750000i)|     cw(2.750000i)     lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).    ATTRIBUTE   TYPEATTRIBUTE  VALUE  AvailabilitySUNWcsu

       bc(1),  echo(1),  limit(1),   login(1),   ls(1),   more(1),   pfcsh(1),
       pfexec(1), ps(1), sh(1), shell_builtins(1), tset(1B), which(1), df(1M),
       swap(1M),  sysdef(1M), access(2), exec(2), fork(2), pipe(2),  a.out(4),
       environ(4),    ascii(5),   attributes(5),   environ(5),   largefile(5),

       You have stopped jobs.

           You attempted to exit the C shell with stopped jobs under job  con-
           trol. An immediate second attempt to exit will succeed, terminating
           the stopped jobs.

       The use of setuid shell scripts is strongly discouraged.

       Words can be no longer than 1024  bytes.  The  system  limits  argument
       lists to 1,048,576 bytes. However, the maximum number of arguments to a
       command for which filename expansion applies is 1706. Command substitu-
       tions may expand to no more characters than are allowed in the argument
       list. To detect looping, the shell restricts the number of  alias  sub-
       stitutions on a single line to 20.

       When a command is restarted from a stop, the shell prints the directory
       it started in if this is different from the current directory; this can
       be  misleading (that is, wrong) as the job may have changed directories

       Shell  built-in  functions  are  not   stoppable/restartable.   Command
       sequences  of  the  form a ; b ; c are also not handled gracefully when
       stopping is attempted. If you suspend b, the shell  never  executes  c.
       This  is  especially noticeable if the expansion results from an alias.
       It can be avoided by placing the sequence in parentheses  to  force  it
       into a subshell.

       Control  over terminal output after processes are started is primitive;
       use the Sun Window system if you need better output control.

       Commands within loops, prompted for by ?, are not placed in the history

       Control  structures  should  be  parsed rather than being recognized as
       built-in commands. This would allow control commands to be placed  any-
       where, to be combined with |, and to be used with &&amp; and ; metasyntax.

       It  should  be possible to use the : modifiers on the output of command
       substitutions. There are two problems with : modifier usage on variable
       substitutions:  not  all  of  the modifiers are available, and only one
       modifier per substitution is allowed.

       The g (global) flag in history substitutions applies only to the  first
       match  in  each  word, rather than all matches in all words. The common
       text editors consistently do the latter when given the g flag in a sub-
       stitution command.

       Quoting  conventions  are confusing. Overriding the escape character to
       force variable substitutions within double quotes  is  counterintuitive
       and inconsistent with the Bourne shell.

       Symbolic links can fool the shell. Setting the hardpaths variable alle-
       viates this.

       It is up to the user to manually remove all duplicate pathnames accrued
       from using built-in commands as

       set path = pathnames


       setenv PATH = pathnames

       more  than  once.  These often occur because a shell script or a .cshrc
       file does something like

       `set path=(/usr/local /usr/hosts $path)'

       to ensure that the named directories are in the pathname list.

       The only way to direct the standard output  and  standard  error  sepa-
       rately is by invoking a subshell, as follows:

       command > outfile ) >& errorfile

       Although  robust  enough  for general use, adventures into the esoteric
       periphery of the C shell may reveal unexpected quirks.

       If you start csh as a login shell and you do not have a .login in  your
       home directory, then the csh reads in the /etc/.login.

       When  the shell executes a shell script that attempts to execute a non-
       existent command interpreter, the shell returns an erroneous diagnostic
       message that the shell script file does not exist.

       As of this writing, the time built-in command does not compute the last
       6 fields of output, rendering the  output  to  erroneously  report  the
       value "0" for these fields:

               example %time ls -R
               9.0u 11.0s 3:32 10% 0+0k 0+0io 0pf+0w

SunOS 5.10                        8 Apr 2004                            csh(1)