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cpio(1)								      cpio(1)



NAME

  cpio - Copies	files to and from archive storage.

SYNOPSIS

  cpio -o[aBcehvV] [-C value] [-M"string"] [-Odevice]

  cpio -i[bBcdefmrsStuvz6] [-C value] [-M"string"] [-Idevice] [pattern...]

  cpio -p[adlmruvV] directory

STANDARDS

  Interfaces documented	on this	reference page conform to industry standards
  as follows:

  cpio:	 XCU5.0

  Refer	to the standards(5) reference page for more information	about indus-
  try standards	and associated tags.

OPTIONS

  A hyphen (-) is required before the -i, -I, -o, -O, and -p options; all
  other	options	follow -i, -o, or -p without leading spaces and	without	a
  hyphen.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	The following two options are preceded by a hyphen and must
  be used separately from the other options.

  -Idevice
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies the input	device containing the archive.	This
      argument must be present to import data from a device.

  -Odevice
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies the output device	to store the archive.  This
      argument must be present to export data to a device.

  Not all of the following options can be used with each of the	-o, -i,	and
  -p options.

  a   Resets the access	times of copied	files to the current time.  (When the
      l	option is also specified, the access times of the linked files are
      not reset.)

  b   [Tru64 UNIX]  Swaps both bytes and halfwords.  (See also the s and S
      options.)	If there is an odd number of bytes or halfwords	in the file
      being processed, data can	be lost.  This option can only be used with
      cpio -i.

  B   Performs block input/output, 5120	bytes to a record. This	option cannot
      be used with cpio	-p.  It	is meaningful only with	data directed to or
      from /dev/rmt/*.	This option does not work with certain magnetic	tape
      drives.  The C and B options are mutually	exclusive.  If you specify
      both, the	last one on the	command	line is	used.

  c   Writes header information	in ASCII character form. Specify this option
      when POSIX compliance is required	and when you are creating or
      restoring	archives for or	from another system.

  C value
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Performs block input/output	using value as the record
      size.  The C and B options are mutually exclusive.  If you specify
      both, the	last one on the	command	line is	used.

  d   Creates directories as needed.

  e   [Tru64 UNIX]  Read or write cpio header information in extended cpio
      header format.  Use this option to read or write block special or	char-
      acter special files.  Any	cpio archives created with the e option	of
      Tru64 UNIX Version 4.0 are not backward compatible with earlier ver-
      sions of Tru64 UNIX.

  f   Copies all files except those matching pattern (cpio -i only).

  h   [Tru64 UNIX]  Forces cpio	to follow symbolic links as if they were nor-
      mal files	or directories.	 The cpio command does not follow symbolic
      links, but instead saves the link	text in	the archive.

  l   Links files rather than copying them, whenever possible. Hard links are
      created rather than symbolic (soft) links. This option can be used only
      with cpio	-p.

  m   Retains the previous file	modification time.  This option	cannot be
      used when	copying	directories.

  -M string
      [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies the End-of-Media message.	 This option is	used
      to customize the message that appears when it is time to change archive
      volumes.	The -M option is valid only when -I or -O is also specified.

  r   Causes cpio to ask whether or not	to rename each file before copying
      it.  If you do not want to change	the file name, enter the current file
      name.  You can press <&lt;Return>&gt; only to have cpio skip copying the file.

  s   [Tru64 UNIX]  Swaps bytes.  This option can be used only with cpio -i.
      If there is an odd number	of bytes in the	file being processed, data
      can be lost.

  S   [Tru64 UNIX]  Swaps halfwords.  This option can be used only with	cpio
      -i.  If there is an odd number of	halfwords in the file being pro-
      cessed, data can be lost.

  t   Creates a	table of contents of the input.	 This option does not copy
      any files.

  u   Copies unconditionally.  Otherwise, a file from the archive with the
      same name	as an existing file in the file	system is copied only if the
      archived file is the newer one.

  v   Lists file names.	 If you	use this option	with the t option, the output
      looks similar to that of the ls -l command.

  V   [Tru64 UNIX]  Prevents any extended attributes from being	archived with
      associated files.	 This option is	particularly useful for	archiving
      files that are to	be restored with previous versions of tar and cpio.

  z   [Tru64 UNIX]  Positions the tape after the EOF marker on extraction or
      listing.	The z option lets the user extract or list tapes that have
      multiple archives	on them	one after the other without error as a result
      of the tape not being positioned correctly for the next extraction or
      listing.

  6   [Tru64 UNIX]  Processes an old file (one written in UNIX Sixth Edition
      format).	This option can	be used	only with cpio -i.

OPERANDS

  directory
      A	pathname of an existing	directory to be	used as	the target of cpio
      -p.

  pattern
      Expressions making use of	a pattern-matching notation similar to that
      used by the shell	for file name pattern matching,	and similar to regu-
      lar expressions. The following metacharacters are	defined:

      *	  Matches any string, including	the empty string.

      ?	  Matches any single character.

      [...]
	  Matches any one of the enclosed characters. A	pair of	characters
	  separated by `-' matches any symbol between the pair (inclusive),
	  as defined by	the system default collating sequence.

      In pattern, the special characters ?, *, and [ also match	the / charac-
      ter.

      Multiple cases of	pattern	can be specified and if	no pattern is speci-
      fied, the	default	for pattern is * (that is, select all files).

DESCRIPTION

  The cpio command copies files	between	archive	storage	and the	file system.
  It is	used to	save and restore data from traditional format cpio archives.

  There	are three versions of the cpio command:

  cpio -o (copy	out)

  This command reads file pathnames from standard input	and copies these
  files	to standard output along with pathnames	and status information.	 Out-
  put is padded	to a 512-byte boundary.

  cpio -i (copy	in)

  This command reads from standard input an archive file created by the	cpio
  -o command and copies	from it	the files with names that match	pattern.
  These	files are copied into the current directory tree.  The file permis-
  sions	are the	same as	the permissions	associated with	the files copied out
  using	cpio -o	but if umask is	used it	sets the permissions as	per umask.
  The owner and	group of the files are those of	the current user unless	the
  user is superuser, in	which case cpio	retains	the owner and group of the
  files	of the previous	cpio -o.

  You can list more than one pattern using the file name notation described.
  The default pattern is *, selecting all files	in the archive.	 In an
  expression such as [a-z], the	hyphen means "through" according to the
  current collating sequence.  The collating sequence is determined by the
  LC_COLLATE environment variable.

  cpio -p (directory copy)

  This command reads file pathnames from standard input	and copies these
  files	into the named directory.  The specified directory must	already
  exist.  If these pathnames include directory names and if these directories
  do not already exist,	you must use the -d option to cause the	directories
  to be	created.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	Special	files are not supported.  Pathnames cannot exceed 128
  bytes.  Avoid	giving cpio pathnames made up of many uniquely linked files
  because cpio might not have enough memory to keep track of them and could
  lose linking information.

NOTES

  The cpio command is marked as	LEGACY in XCU Issue 5.

  [Tru64 UNIX]	Archives created with extended attributes cannot be read by
  Version 2.0 of the cpio command.  The	following describes the	results	of
  restoring archived files and directories when	you use	Version	2.0 of the
  cpio command:

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  You cannot	restore	an archive directory with extended
       attributes.  The	extended attributes are	restored as a regular file
       that cannot be overwritten; the original	directory cannot be
       recreated.  In addition,	the cpio command restores the archived files
       containing extended attributes as regular files.	 When the cpio com-
       mand restores the original file with the	extended attributes, the com-
       mand fails with errno:20.

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  You cannot	archive	files with extended attributes.

    +  [Tru64 UNIX]  Archives created with the new pax utility and having
       cpio format, can	be restored using only the new pax or cpio commands
       even if none of the archived files have extended	attributes.

  To achieve backward compatibility of archived	files, use the following
  suggestions:

    +  Archive only files that do not have extended attributes.

    +  Use the old cpio	command	at /usr/opt/obsolete/usr/bin/cpio.

  Socket files are ignored while archiving through the cpio command.

CAUTIONS

  [Tru64 UNIX]	When redirecting the output from cpio to a special file	(dev-
  ice),	redirect it to the raw device and not the block	device.	 Because
  writing to a block device is done asynchronously, there is no	way to know
  if the end of	the device has been reached.

EXIT STATUS

  The following	exit values are	returned:

  0   Successful completion.

  >&gt;0  An error occurred.

EXAMPLES

   1.  To copy files to	magnetic tape, enter:
	    cpio -ov <&lt; file-list -O/dev/rmt12



       This command copies the files with pathnames that are listed in the
       file specification in a compact form to the magnetic tape
       (/dev/rmt12).  The -v option causes cpio	to display the name of each
       file as it is copied.  This command is useful for making	backup copies
       of files.

   2.  To copy files in	the current directory whose names end with .c onto
       magnetic	tape, enter:
	    ls *.c | cpio -ov -O/dev/rmt12



   3.  To copy the current directory and all subdirectories onto magnetic
       tape, enter:
	    find . -print | cpio -ov -O/dev/rmt12



       This command saves the directory	tree that starts with the current
       directory (.) and includes all of its subdirectories and	files.
       Another way to do the same thing	is by entering the following command:
	    find . -cpio /dev/rmt12 -print

       The -print option displays the name of each file	as it is copied.

   4.  To list the files that have been	saved onto a magnetic tape with	cpio,
       enter:
	    cpio  -itv	-I/dev/rmt12



       This command displays the table of contents of the data previously
       saved onto /dev/rmt12 in	cpio format.  To list only the file path-
       names, use only the -it options.

   5.  To copy the files previously saved with cpio from a magnetic tape,
       enter:
	    cpio  -idmv	 -I/dev/rmt12



       This command copies the files previously	saved onto /dev/rmt12 by cpio
       back into the file system (specified by the -i option).	The -d option
       lets cpio create	the appropriate	directories if a directory tree	was
       saved.  The -m option maintains the last	modification time that was in
       effect when the files were saved.  The -v option	causes cpio to
       display the name	of each	file as	it is copied.

   6.  To copy selected	files from magnetic tape, enter:
	    cpio  -i  -I/dev/rmt12 "*.c"  "*.o"



       This command copies the files that end with .c or .o from magnetic
       tape.  The patterns *.c and *.o must be enclosed	in double quotation
       marks ("	") to prevent the shell	from treating the * (asterisk) as a
       pattern-matching	character. In this special case, cpio itself decodes
       the pattern-matching characters.

   7.  To rename files as they are copied from magnetic	tape, enter:
	    cpio  -ir  -I/dev/rmt12



       The -r option causes cpio to ask	you whether or not to rename each
       file before copying it from magnetic tape.  For example,	the following
       message asks you	whether	you want to give the file saved	as prog.c a
       new name	as it is being copied:
	    Rename  <&lt;prog.c>&gt;

       To rename the file, type	the new	name and press <&lt;Return>&gt;. To keep the
       same name, you must enter the old name at the prompt.  To avoid copy-
       ing the file at all, press <&lt;Return>&gt; alone.

   8.  To copy a directory and all of its subdirectories, enter:
	    mkdir /u/jim/newdir
	    find . -print | cpio -pdl /u/jim/newdir

       This command duplicates the current directory tree, including the
       current directory and all of its	subdirectories and files.  The dupli-
       cate is placed in the new /u/jim/newdir directory.  The -l option
       causes cpio to link files instead of copying them, when possible.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

  The following	environment variables affect the execution of cpio:

  LANG
      Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that
      are unset	or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value
      from the default locale is used. If any of the internationalization
      variables	contain	an invalid setting, the	utility	behaves	as if none of
      the variables had	been defined.

  LC_ALL
      If set to	a non-empty string value, overrides the	values of all the
      other internationalization variables.

  LC_CTYPE
      Determines the locale for	the interpretation of sequences	of bytes of
      text data	as characters (for example, single-byte	as opposed to multi-
      byte characters in arguments and input files) and	the behavior of	char-
      acter classes within bracketed file name patterns.

  LC_MESSAGES
      Determines the locale for	the format and contents	of diagnostic mes-
      sages written to standard	error.

  LC_TIME
      Determines the format of date and	time strings output when listing the
      contents of an archive with the -v option.

  NLSPATH
      Determines the location of message catalogues for	the processing of
      LC_MESSAGES.

  TZ  Determines the time zone used with date and time strings.

SEE ALSO

  Commands:  ar(1), find(1), ls(1), ksh(1), pax(1), Bourne shell sh(1b),
  POSIX	shell sh(1p), tar(1)

  Files:  tar(4)

  Standards:  standards(5)