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 cpio(1)							     cpio(1)




 NAME
      cpio - copy file archives in and out; duplicate directory trees

 SYNOPSIS
      cpio -o [-e extarg ] [achvxABC]

      cpio -i[bcdfmrstuvxBPRSU6] [pattern...]

      cpio -p [-e extarg ] [adlmruvxU] directory

 DESCRIPTION
      The cpio command saves and restores archives of files on magnetic
      tape, other devices, or a regular file, and copies files from one
      directory to another while replicating the directory tree structure.
      When cpio completes processing the files, it reports the number of
      blocks written.

      cpio -o	  (copy out, export)  Read standard input to obtain a list
		  of path names, and copy those files to standard output
		  together with path name and status information.  The
		  output is padded to a 512-byte boundary.

      cpio -i	  (copy in, import)  Extract files from standard input,
		  which is assumed to be the result of a previous cpio -o.

		  If pattern..., is specified, only the files with names
		  that match a pattern according to the rules of Pattern
		  Matching Notation (see regexp(5)) are selected.  A leading
		  !  on a pattern indicates that only those names that do
		  not match the remainder of the pattern should be selected.
		  Multiple patterns can be specified.  The patterns are
		  additive.  If no pattern is specified, the default is *
		  (select all files).  See the f option, as well.

		  Extracted files are conditionally created and copied into
		  the current directory tree, as determined by the options
		  described below.  The permissions of the files match the
		  permissions of the original files when the archive was
		  created by cpio -o unless the U option is used.  File
		  owner and group are that of the current user unless the
		  user has appropriate privileges, in which case cpio
		  retains the owner and group of the files of the previous
		  cpio -o.

      cpio -p	  (passthrough)	 Read standard input to obtain a list of
		  path names of files which are then conditionally created
		  and copied into the destination directory tree as
		  determined by the options described below.  directory must
		  exist.  Destination path names are interpreted relative to
		  directory.




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 cpio(1)							     cpio(1)




		  With the -p option, when handling a link, only the link is
		  passed and no data blocks are actually read or written.
		  This is especially noteworthy with cpio -pl, where it is
		  very possible that all the files are created as links,
		  such that no blocks are written and "0 blocks" is reported
		  by cpio.  (See below for a description of the -l option.)

    Options
      cpio recognizes the following options, which can be appended as
      appropriate to -i, -o, and -p.  Whitespace and hyphens are not
      permitted between these options and -i, -o, or -p.

	   a	   Reset access times of input files after they are copied.

	   b	   Swap both bytes and half-words.  Use only with -i.  See
		   the P option for details; see also the s and S options.

	   c	   Write or read header information in ASCII character form
		   for portability.

	   d	   Create directories as needed.

	   -e extarg
		   Specifies the handling of any extent attributes of the
		   file(s) to be archived or copied.  extarg takes one of
		   the following values.

		     warn      Archive or copy the file and issue a warning
			       message if extent attributes cannot be
			       preserved.
		     ignore    Do not issue a warning message even if extent
			       attributes cannot be preserved.
		     force     Any file(s) with extent attributes will not
			       be archived and a warning message will be
			       issued.

		   When using the -o option, extent attributes are not
		   preserved in the archive.  Furthermore, the -p option
		   will not preserve extent attributes if the files are
		   being copied to a file system that does not support
		   extent attributes.  If -e is not specified, the default
		   value for extarg is warn.

	   f	   Copy in all files except those selected by pattern....

	   h	   Follow symbolic links as though they were normal files or
		   directories.	 Normally, cpio archives the link.

	   l	   Whenever possible, link files rather than copying them.
		   This option does not destroy existing files.	 Use only
		   with -p.



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 cpio(1)							     cpio(1)




	   m	   Retain previous file modification time.  This option does
		   not affect directories that are being copied.

	   r	   Rename files interactively.	If the user types a null
		   line, the file is skipped.

	   s	   Swap all bytes of the file.	Use only with -i.  See the P
		   option for details; see also the s and S options.

	   t	   Print only a table of contents of the input.	 No files
		   are created, read, or copied.

	   u	   Copy unconditionally (normally, an older file does not
		   replace a newer file with the same name).

	   v	   Print a list of file names as they are processed.  When
		   used with the t option, the table of contents has the
		   format:

			numeric-mode owner-name blocks date-time filename

		   where numeric-mode is the file privileges in numeric
		   format, owner-name is the name of the file owner, blocks
		   is the size of the file in 512-byte blocks, date-time is
		   the date and time the file was last modified, and
		   filename is the path name of the file as recorded in the
		   archive.

	   x	   Save or restore device special files.  Since mknod() is
		   used to recreate these files on a restore, -ix and -px
		   can be used only by users with appropriate privileges
		   (see mknod(2)).  This option is intended for intrasystem
		   (backup) use only.  Restoring device files from previous
		   versions of the OS, or from different systems can be very
		   dangerous.  cpio may prevent the restoration of certain
		   device files from the archive.

	   A	   Suppress warning messages regarding optional access
		   control list entries.  cpio does not back up optional
		   access control list entries in a file's access control
		   list (see acl(5)).  Normally, a warning message is
		   printed for each file that has optional access control
		   list entries.

	   B	   Block input/output at 5120 bytes to the record (does not
		   apply to cpio -p).  This option is meaningful only with
		   data directed to or from devices that support variable-
		   length records such as magnetic tape.

	   C	   Have cpio checkpoint itself at the start of each volume.
		   If cpio is writing to a streaming tape drive with



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 cpio(1)							     cpio(1)




		   immediate-report mode enabled and a write error occurs,
		   it normally aborts and exits with return code 2.  With
		   this option specified, cpio instead automatically
		   restarts itself from the checkpoint and rewrites the
		   current volume.  Alternatively, if cpio is not writing to
		   such a device and a write error occurs, cpio normally
		   continues with the next volume.  With this option
		   specified, however, the user can choose to either ignore
		   the error or rewrite the current volume.

	   P	   Read a file written on a PDP-11 or VAX system (with
		   byte-swapping) that did not use the c option.  Use only
		   with -i.  Files copied in this mode are not changed.
		   Non-ASCII files are likely to need further processing to
		   be readable.	 This processing often requires knowledge of
		   file contents, and thus cannot always be done by this
		   program.  The b, s, and S options can be used when
		   swapping all the bytes on the tape (rather than just in
		   the headers) is appropriate.	 In general, text is best
		   processed with P and binary data with one of the other
		   options.

		   (PDP-11 and VAX are registered trademarks of Digital
		   Equipment Corporation.)

	   R	   Resynchronize automatically when cpio goes "out of
		   phase", (see DIAGNOSTICS).

	   S	   Swap all half-words in the file.  Use only with -i.	See
		   the P option for details; see also the b and s options.

	   U	   Use the process's file-mode creation mask (see umask(2))
		   to modify the mode of files created, in the same manner
		   as creat(2).

	   6	   Process a UNIX Sixth-Edition-format file.  Use only with
		   -i.

      Note that cpio archives created using a raw device file must be read
      using a raw device file.

      When the end of the tape is reached, cpio prompts the user for a new
      special file and continues.

      If you want to pass one or more metacharacters to cpio without the
      shell expanding them, be sure to precede each of them with a backslash
      (\).

      Device files written with the -ox option (such as /dev/tty03) do not
      transport to other implementations of HP-UX.




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 cpio(1)							     cpio(1)




 EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
    Environment Variables
      LC_COLLATE determines the collating sequence used in evaluating
      pattern matching notation for file name generation.

      LC_CTYPE determines the interpretation of text as single and/or
      multi-byte characters, and the characters matched by character class
      expressions in pattern matching notation.

      LC_TIME determines the format and content of date and time strings
      output when listing the contents of an archive with the v option.

      LANG determines the language in which messages are displayed.

      If LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, or LC_TIME is not specified in the
      environment or is set to the empty string, the value of LANG is used
      as a default for each unspecified or empty variable.  If LANG is not
      specified or is set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see
      lang(5)) is used instead of LANG.	 If any internationalization
      variable contains an invalid setting, cpio behaves as if all
      internationalization variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

    International Code Set Support
      Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

 RETURN VALUE
      cpio returns the following exit codes:

	   0	Successful completion.	Review standard error for files that
		could not be transferred.

	   1	Error during resynchronization.	 Some files may not have
		been recovered.

	   2	Out-of-phase error.  A file header is corrupt or in the
		wrong format.

 DIAGNOSTICS
      Out of phase--get help
      Perhaps the "c" option should[n't] be used

	   cpio -i could not read the header of an archived file.  The
	   header is corrupt or it was written in a different format.
	   Without the R option, cpio returns an exit code of 2.

	   If no file name has been displayed yet, the problem may be the
	   format.  Try specifying a different header format option: null
	   for standard format; c for ASCII; b, s, P, or S, for one of the
	   byte-swapping formats; or 6 for UNIX Sixth Edition.





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 cpio(1)							     cpio(1)




	   Otherwise, a header may be corrupt.	Use the R option to have
	   cpio attempt to resynchronize the file automatically.
	   Resynchronizing means that cpio tries to find the next good
	   header in the archive file and continues processing from there.
	   If cpio tries to resynchronize from being out of phase, it
	   returns an exit code of 1.

      Other diagnostic messages are self-explanatory.

 EXAMPLES
      Copy the contents of a directory into a tape archive:

	   ls | cpio -o >&gt&gt> /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST

      Duplicate a directory hierarchy:

	   cd olddir
	   find . -depth -print | cpio -pd newdir

      The trivial case

	   find . -depth -print | cpio -oB >&gt&gt>/dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST

      can be handled more efficiently by:

	   find . -cpio /dev/rmt/c0t0d0BEST

 WARNINGS
      Because of industry standards and interoperability goals, cpio does
      not support the archival of files larger than 2GB or files that have
      user/group IDs greater than 60K.	Files with user/group IDs greater
      than 60K are archived and restored under the user/group ID of the
      current process.

      Do not redirect the output of cpio to a named cpio archive file
      residing in the same directory as the original files belonging to that
      cpio archive.  This can cause loss of data.

      cpio strips any leading ./ characters in the list of filenames piped
      to it.

      Path names are restricted to PATH_MAX characters (see <&lt&lt&lt;limits.h>&gt&gt&gt; and
      limits(5)).  If there are too many unique linked files, the program
      runs out of memory to keep track of them.	 Thereafter, linking
      information is lost.  Only users with appropriate privileges can copy
      special files.

      cpio tapes written on HP machines with the -ox[c] options can
      sometimes mislead (non-HP) versions of cpio that do not support the x
      option.  If a non-HP (or non-AT&T) version of cpio happens to be
      modified so that the (HP) cpio recognizes it as a device special file,



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 cpio(1)							     cpio(1)




      a spurious device file might be created.

      If /dev/tty is not accessible, cpio issues a complaint and exits.

      The -pd option does not create the directory typed on the command
      line.

      The -idr option does not make empty directories.

      The -plu option does not link files to existing files.

      POSIX defines a file named TRAILER!!!  as an end-of-archive marker.
      Consequently, if a file of that name is contained in a group of files
      being written by cpio -o, the file is interpreted as end-of-archive,
      and no remaining files are copied.  The recommended practice is to
      avoid naming files anything that resembles an end-of-archive file
      name.

      To create a POSIX-conforming cpio archive, the c option must be used.
      To read a POSIX-conforming cpio archive, the c option must be used and
      the b, s, S, and 6 options should not be used.  If the user does not
      have appropriate privileges, the U option must also be used to get
      POSIX-conforming behavior when reading an archive.  Users with
      appropriate privileges should not use this option to get POSIX
      -conforming behavior.

 DEPENDENCIES
      If the path given to cpio contains a symbolic link as the last
      element, this link is traversed and pathname resolution continues.
      cpio uses the symbolic link's target, rather than that of the link.

 SEE ALSO
      ar(1), find(1), tar(1), cpio(4), acl(5), environ(5), lang(5),
      regexp(5).

 STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
      cpio: SVID2, SVID3, XPG2, XPG3

















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