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 co(1)								       co(1)




 NAME
      co - check out RCS revisions

 SYNOPSIS
      co [options] file ...

 DESCRIPTION
      co retrieves revisions from RCS files.  Each file name ending in ,v is
      taken to be an RCS file.	All other files are assumed to be working
      files.  co retrieves a revision from each RCS file and stores it in
      the corresponding working file (see also rcsintro(5)).

      Revisions of an RCS file can be checked out locked or unlocked.
      Locking a revision prevents overlapping updates.	A revision checked
      out for reading or processing (e.g., compiling) need not be locked.  A
      revision checked out for editing and later checked in must normally be
      locked.  Locking a revision currently locked by another user fails (a
      lock can be broken with the rcs command, but poses inherent risks when
      independent changes are being made simultaneously (see rcs(1)).  co
      with locking requires the caller to be on the access list of the RCS
      file unless: he is the owner of the file, a user with appropriate
      privileges, or the access list is empty.	co without locking is not
      subject to access list restrictions.

      A revision is selected by number, check-in date/time, author, or
      state.  If none of these options are specified, the latest revision on
      the trunk is retrieved.  When the options are applied in combination,
      the latest revision that satisfies all of them is retrieved.  The
      options for date/time, author, and state retrieve a revision on the
      selected branch.	The selected branch is either derived from the
      revision number (if given), or is the highest branch on the trunk.  A
      revision number can be attached to the options -l, -p, -q, or -r.

      The caller of the command must have write permission in the working
      directory, read permission for the RCS file, and either read
      permission (for reading) or read/write permission (for locking) in the
      directory that contains the RCS file.

      The working file inherits the read and execute permissions from the
      RCS file.	 In addition, the owner write permission is turned on,
      unless the file is checked out unlocked and locking is set to strict
      (see rcs(1)).

      If a file with the name of the working file exists already and has
      write permission, co aborts the check out if -q is given, or asks
      whether to abort if -q is not given.  If the existing working file is
      not writable, it is deleted before the check out.

      A number of temporary files are created.	A semaphore file is created
      in the directory of the RCS file to prevent simultaneous update.




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 co(1)								       co(1)




      A co command applied to an RCS file with no revisions creates a zero-
      length file.  co always performs keyword substitution (see below).

    Options
      -l[rev]	     Locks the checked out revision for the caller.  If
		     omitted, the checked out revision is not locked.  See
		     option -r for handling of the revision number rev.

      -p[rev]	     Prints the retrieved revision on the standard output
		     rather than storing it in the working file.  This
		     option is useful when co is part of a pipe.

      -q[rev]	     Quiet mode; diagnostics are not printed.

      -ddate	     Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch
		     whose check in date/time is less than or equal to date.
		     The date and time may be given in free format and are
		     converted to local time.  Examples of formats for date:

			  Tue-PDT, 1981, 4pm Jul 21	   (free format)
			  Fri April 16 15:52:25 EST 1982   (output of ctime(3C))
			  4/21/86 10:30am		   (format: mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss)

		     Most fields in the date and time can be defaulted.	 co
		     determines the defaults in the order year, month, day,
		     hour, minute, and second (from most- to least-
		     significant).  At least one of these fields must be
		     provided.	For omitted fields that are of higher
		     significance than the highest provided field, the
		     current values are assumed.  For all other omitted
		     fields, the lowest possible values are assumed.  For
		     example, the date 20, 10:30 defaults to 10:30:00 of the
		     20th of the current month and current year.  Date/time
		     fields can be delimited by spaces or commas.  If spaces
		     are used, the string must be surrounded by double
		     quotes.

		     For 2-digit year input (yy) without the presence of the
		     century field, the following interpretation is taken:
		     [70-99, 00-69 (1970-1999, 2000-2069)].

      -r[rev]	     Retrieves the latest revision whose number is less than
		     or equal to rev.  If rev indicates a branch rather than
		     a revision, the latest revision on that branch is
		     retrieved.	 rev is composed of one or more numeric or
		     symbolic fields separated by ..  The numeric equivalent
		     of a symbolic field is specified with the ci -n and rcs
		     -n commands (see ci(1) and rcs(1)).

      -sstate	     Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch
		     whose state is set to state.



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 co(1)								       co(1)




      -w[login]	     Retrieves the latest revision on the selected branch
		     that was checked in by the user with login name login.
		     If the argument login is omitted, the caller's login is
		     assumed.

      -jjoinlist     Generates a new revision that is the result of the
		     joining of the revisions on joinlist.  joinlist is a
		     comma-separated list of pairs of the form rev2:rev3,
		     where rev2 and rev3 are (symbolic or numeric) revision
		     numbers.  For the initial pair, rev1 denotes the
		     revision selected by the options -l, ..., -w.  For all
		     other pairs, rev1 denotes the revision generated by the
		     previous pair.  (Thus, the output of one join becomes
		     the input to the next.)

		     For each pair, co joins revisions rev1 and rev3 with
		     respect to rev2.  This means that all changes that
		     transform rev2 into rev1 are applied to a copy of rev3.
		     This is particularly useful if rev1 and rev3 are the
		     ends of two branches that have rev2 as a common
		     ancestor.	If rev1 < rev2 < rev3 on the same branch,
		     joining generates a new revision that is similar to
		     rev3, but with all changes that lead from rev1 to rev2
		     undone.  If changes from rev2 to rev1 overlap with
		     changes from rev2 to rev3, co prints a warning and
		     includes the overlapping sections, delimited as
		     follows:

			  <&lt&lt&lt;<&lt&lt&lt;<&lt&lt&lt;<&lt&lt&lt;<&lt&lt&lt;<&lt&lt&lt;<&lt&lt&lt;
			  rev1
			  =======
			  rev3
			  >&gt&gt&gt;>&gt&gt&gt;>&gt&gt&gt;>&gt&gt&gt;>&gt&gt&gt;>&gt&gt&gt;>&gt&gt&gt;

		     For the initial pair, rev2 can be omitted.	 The default
		     is the common ancestor.  If any of the arguments
		     indicate branches, the latest revisions on those
		     branches are assumed.  If the -l option is present, the
		     initial rev1 is locked.

    Keyword Substitution
      Strings of the form $keyword$ and $keyword:...$ embedded in the text
      are replaced with strings of the form $keyword: value $, where keyword
      and value are pairs listed below.	 Keywords may be embedded in literal
      strings or comments to identify a revision.

      Initially, the user enters strings of the form $keyword$.	 On check
      out, co replaces these strings with strings of the form
      $keyword: value $.  If a revision containing strings of the latter
      form is checked back in, the value fields are replaced during the next
      checkout.	 Thus, the keyword values are automatically updated on



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 co(1)								       co(1)




      checkout.

      Keywords and their corresponding values:

      $Author$	     The login name of the user who checked in the revision.

      $Date$	     The date and time the revision was checked in.

      $Header$	     A standard header containing the RCS file name, the
		     revision number, the date, the author, and the state.

      $Locker$	     The login name of the user who locked the revision
		     (empty if not locked).

      $Log$	     The log message supplied during checkin, preceded by a
		     header containing the RCS file name, the revision
		     number, the author, and the date.	Existing log
		     messages are not replaced.	 Instead, the new log
		     message is inserted after $Log:...$.  This is useful
		     for accumulating a complete change log in a source
		     file.

      $Revision$     The revision number assigned to the revision.

      $Source$	     The full pathname of the RCS file.

      $State$	     The state assigned to the revision with rcs -s or ci
		     -s.

    Access Control Lists (ACLs)
      Optional ACL entries should not be added to RCS files because they
      might be deleted.

 DIAGNOSTICS
      The RCS file name, the working file name, and the revision number
      retrieved are written to the diagnostic output.  The exit status
      always refers to the last file checked out, and is 0 if the operation
      was successful, 1 if unsuccessful.

 EXAMPLES
      Assume the current directory contains a subdirectory named RCS with an
      RCS file named io.c,v.  Each of the following commands retrieves the
      latest revision from RCS/io.c,v and stores it into io.c:

	   co  io.c
	   co  RCS/io.c,v
	   co  io.c,v
	   co  io.c  RCS/io.c,v
	   co  io.c  io.c,v
	   co  RCS/io.c,v  io.c
	   co  io.c,v  io.c



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 co(1)								       co(1)




      Check out version 1.1 of RCS file foo.c,v:

	   co -r1.1 foo.c,v

      Check out version 1.1 of RCS file foo.c,v to the standard output:

	   co -p1.1 foo.c,v

      Check out the version of file foo.c,v that existed on September 18,
      1992:

	   co -d"09/18/92" foo.c,v

 WARNINGS
      The co command generates the working file name by removing the ,v from
      the end of the RCS file name.  If the given RCS file name is too long
      for the file system on which the RCS file should reside, co terminates
      with an error message.

      There is no way to suppress the expansion of keywords, except by
      writing them differently.	 In nroff and troff, this is done by
      embedding the null-character \&&amp&amp&amp; into the keyword.

      The -d option gets confused in some circumstances, and accepts no date
      before 1970.

      The -j option does not work for files containing lines consisting of a
      single ..

      RCS is designed to be used with text files only.	Attempting to use
      RCS with non-text (binary) files results in data corruption.

 AUTHOR
      co was developed by Walter F. Tichy.

 SEE ALSO
      ci(1), ident(1), rcs(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(4),
      acl(5), rcsintro(5).
















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