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EQN(1)                      General Commands Manual                     EQN(1)

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       eqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics

       eqn [ -dxy ] [ -fn ] [ -pn ] [ -sn ] [ filename ] ...

       neqn [ filename ] ...

       checkeq [ filename ] ...

       This  command  is available with the Text software installation option.
       Refer to for information on how to install optional software.

       eqn (and neqn) are language processors to assist  in  describing  equa-
       tions.   eqn is a preprocessor for troff(1) and is intended for devices
       that can print troff's output.  neqn is a preprocessor for nroff(1) and
       is intended for use with terminals.  Usage is almost always:
              example% eqn filename ... | troff
              example% neqn filename ... | nroff

       If  no  filenames  are  specified,  eqn and neqn read from the standard
       input.  A line beginning with .EQ marks the start of an  equation;  the
       end  of an equation is marked by a line beginning with .EN.  Neither of
       these lines is altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get
       centering,  numbering,  etc.  It is also possible to set two characters
       as ``delimiters''; subsequent text between delimiters is  also  treated
       as eqn input.

       checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs.

       -dxy   Set  equation delimiters set to characters x and y with the com-
              mand-line argument.  The more common way  to  do  this  is  with
              delimxy  between .EQ and .EN.  The left and right delimiters may
              be identical.  Delimiters are turned off by delim off  appearing
              in  the  text.   All text that is neither between delimiters nor
              between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.

       -fn    Change font to n globally in the document.  The font can also be
              changed  globally in the body of the document by using the gfont

       -pn    Reduce subscripts and superscripts by n  point  sizes  from  the
              previous  size.  In the absence of the -p option, subscripts and
              superscripts are reduced by 3  point  sizes  from  the  previous

       -sn    Change point size to n globally in the document.  The point size
              can also be changed globally in the  body  of  the  document  by
              using the gsize directive.

       Tokens  within eqn are separated by braces, double quotes, tildes, cir-
       cumflexes, SPACE, TAB, or NEWLINE characters.  Braces {} are  used  for
       grouping;  generally speaking, anywhere a single character like x could
       appear, a complicated construction  enclosed  in  braces  may  be  used
       instead.   Tilde  (~) represents a full SPACE in the output, circumflex
       (^) half as much.

       Subscripts and superscripts are produced with the keywords sub and sup.
       Thus `x sub i' makes  $x sub i$ , `a sub i sup 2' produces $a sub i sup
       2$, and `e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}' gives $e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}$.

       Fractions are made with over: `a over b' yields $a over b$.

       sqrt makes square roots: `1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}' results  in  $1
       over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}$ .

       The  keywords from and to introduce lower and upper limits on arbitrary
       things: $lim from {n-> inf} sum from 0 to n x sub i$ is made with  `lim
       from {n->> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i'.

       Left  and  right  brackets,  braces, etc., of the right height are made
       with left and right: `left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1'
       produces $left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1$.  The right
       clause is optional.  Legal characters after left and right are  braces,
       brackets,  bars,  c  and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at
       all (useful for a right-side-only bracket).

       Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, cpile,  and  rpile:
       `pile  {a above b above c}' produces $pile {a above b above c}$.  There
       can be an arbitrary number of elements in a  pile.   lpile  left-justi-
       fies, pile and cpile center, with different vertical spacing, and rpile
       right justifies.

       Matrices are made with matrix: `matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 }
       ccol { 1 above 2 } }' produces $matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 }
       ccol { 1 above 2 } }$.  In addition, there is rcol for  a  right-justi-
       fied column.

       Diacritical  marks  are  made  with  dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar, vec,
       dyad, and under: `x dot = f(t) bar' is $x dot = f(t)  bar$,  `y  dotdot
       bar  ~=~ n under' is $y dotdot bar ~=~ n under$, and `x vec ~=~ y dyad'
       is $x vec ~=~ y dyad$.

       Sizes and font can be changed with size n or size +-n,  roman,  italic,
       bold, and font n.  Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document
       by gsize n and gfont n, or by the command-line arguments -sn and -fn.

       Successive display arguments can be lined up.  Place  mark  before  the
       desired  lineup  point in the first equation; place lineup at the place
       that is to line up vertically in subsequent equations.

       Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined with define:

              define thing % replacement %

       defines a new token called thing which will be replaced by  replacement
       whenever  it  appears thereafter.  The % may be any character that does
       not occur in replacement.

       Keywords like sum ( sum ), int ( int ), inf (  inf  ),  and  shorthands
       like >>= (>=), ->> (->), and != ( != ) are recognized.  Greek letters are
       spelled out in the desired case, as in alpha  or  GAMMA.   Mathematical
       words  like  sin,  cos, and log are made Roman automatically.  troff(1)
       four-character escapes like \(bu (o) can  be  used  anywhere.   Strings
       enclosed  in  double  quotes  "..."  are passed through untouched; this
       permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to  communicate
       with troff when all else fails.

       tbl(1), troff(1), eqnchar(7), ms(7)

       To  embolden digits, parens, etc., it is necessary to quote them, as in
       `bold "12.3"'.

                                20 January 1988                         EQN(1)