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cdrw(1)                          User Commands                         cdrw(1)



NAME
       cdrw - CD read and write

SYNOPSIS
       cdrw -i [-vSCO] [-d device] [-p speed] [image-file]

       cdrw  -a  [-vSCO]  [-d device]  [-p speed]  [-T audio-type] audio-file1
       [audio-file2...]

       cdrw -x [-v] [-d device] [-T audio-type] track-number out-file

       cdrw -c [-vSC] [-d device] [-p speed] [-m tmp-dir] [-s src-device]

       cdrw -b [-v] [-d device]  all | session | fast

       cdrw -L [-v] [-d device]

       cdrw -M [-v] [-d device]

       cdrw -l [-v]

       cdrw -h

DESCRIPTION
       The cdrw command provides the ability to create  data  and  audio  CDs.
       This  command also provides the ability to extract audio tracks from an
       audio CD and to create data DVDs. The CD or DVD device must be MMC-com-
       pliant to create a CD or DVD with the cdrw command.

       cdrw  searches  for  a CD or DVD writer connected to the system, unless
       you specify a device with the -d option. If cdrw finds  a  single  such
       device,  it  uses  that  device as the default CD or DVD writer for the
       command.

       When more than one CD or DVD writer is connected to the system, use the
       -d  option  to indicate which device is desired. The device name can be
       specified in one of the following ways:  /dev/rdsk/cNtNdNsN,  cNtNdNsN,
       cNtNdN,  or  a  name  used  by volume manager, such as cdrom or cdrom1.
       Using the -l option provides a list of CD or DVD writers.

       For instructions on adding a USB-mass-storage-class-compliant CD-RW  or
       DVD-RW device to your system, see scsa2usb(7D).

   Creating Data CDs
       When  creating  data  CDs, cdrw uses the Track-At-Once mode of writing.
       Use the -i option to specify a file that contains the data to write  on
       CD  media. If you don't specify this option, cdrw reads data from stan-
       dard input.

       In either case, the data is typically prepared by using the mkisofs(1M)
       command  to  convert the file and file information into the High Sierra
       format used on CDs. See the examples that include use of this command.

   Creating Data DVDs
       cdrw can create single-session data DVDs  on DVD+RW or  DVD-RW  devices
       using  images generated from mkisofs(1M). These disks can be mounted as
       HSFS file systems. When making data DVDs, cdrw uses Disk-At-Once  (DAO)
       mode  of  writing, which closes the media when writing is completed and
       prevents any further sessions from being added.  The  image  should  be
       prepared  in  advance  when writing an image to the DVD media since DAO
       mode requires that the size of the image be known in advance.

   Creating Audio CDs
       Use the -a option to create an audio CD. Single or multiple audio files
       can  be specified with this option. All of the audio files should be in
       a supported audio format. Currently approved formats are:

       sun      Sun .au files with data in Red Book CDDA form



       wav      RIFF (.wav) files with data in Red Book CDDA form



       cda      .cda files having raw CD audio  data  (that  is,  16  bit  PCM
                stereo at 44.1 KHz sample rate in little-endian byte order)



       aur      .aur files having raw CD data in big-endian byte order




       If  no audio format is specified, cdrw tries to identify the audio file
       format based on the file extension. The case of the characters  in  the
       extension  is ignored. If a format is specified using the -T option, it
       is assumed to be the audio file type for all the files specified. Also,
       using  the -c option closes the session after writing the audio tracks.
       Therefore, the tracks to be written should be  specified  in  a  single
       command line.

   Extracting Audio
       cdrw  can  also be used for extracting audio data from an audio CD with
       the -x option. The CD should have tracks in  Red  Book  CDDA  form.  By
       default,  the  output format is based on the file extension. A user can
       specify a sun, wav, cda, or aur output format with the -T option.

   Copying CDs
       cdrw can be used to copy single session data CD-ROMs and Red Book audio
       CDs. When copying a CD, cdrw looks for a specified source device. If no
       source device is specified when using the -c  option,  the  current  CD
       writer  is  assumed to be the source. cdrw extracts the track or tracks
       into a temporary file and looks for a blank writable CD-R/RW  media  in
       the current CD writer. If no media is found, insert a blank writable CD
       media in the current CD writer. If the default temporary directory does
       not have enough space, an alternate directory can be specified by using
       the -m option.

   Erasing CD-RW or DVD-RW Media
       Users have to erase the CD-RW media before it can  be  rewritten.  With
       the  -b  option,  the  following  flavors of erasing are currently sup-
       ported:

       session         Erases the last session.



       fast            Minimally erases the media.



       all             Erases the entire media.




       If the session erasing type is used, cdrw erases the last  session.  If
       there is only one session recorded on the CD-RW (for example, a data or
       audio CD-RW created by this tool), then session erasing only erases the
       portion  that  is recorded, leaving behind a blank disk. This is faster
       than erasing the entire media. For DVD  media,  using  the  -b  session
       erases the whole media.

       The fast erasing type minimally erases the entire media by removing the
       PMA and TOC of the first session. It does not erase the user  data  and
       subsequent  tracks on the media, but the media is treated as if it were
       a blank disk. If a complete erase is of the media is necessary, use the
       all option.

       The  all  erasing type should be used if it is a multisession disk, the
       last session is not closed, or disk status is unknown, and you want  to
       erase the disk. With this type of erasing, cdrw erases the entire disk.

       DVD+RW  media  does not support erasing. To re-use DVD+RW media, simply
       write a new image onto  the media.  cdrw  formats  and  overwrites  the
       existing media automatically.

   Checking device-list or media-status
       You can list a system's CD or DVD writers by using the -l option. Also,
       for a particular media, you can get the blanking status  and  table  of
       contents  by using the -M option. The -M option also prints information
       about the last session's start address and the next  writable  address.
       This  information, along with the -O option, can be used to create mul-
       tisession CDs. Refer to mkisofs(1M) for more information.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -a       Creates an audio disk. At least one audio-file  name  must  be
                specified.  A CD can not have more than 99 audio tracks, so no
                more than 99 audio files can be specified. Also,  the  maximum
                audio  data  that can be written to the media by default is 74
                minutes, unless -C is specified.



       -b       Blanks CD-RW or DVD-RW media. The  type  of  erasing  must  be
                specified  by the all, fast, or session argument. DVD+RW media
                does not support blanking, but can be  rewritten  without  the
                need for blanking.



       -c       Copies a CD. If no other argument is specified, the default CD
                writing device is assumed to be the source device as well.  In
                this  case,  the  copy operation reads the source media into a
                temporary directory and prompts you to  place  a  blank  media
                into the drive for the copy operation to proceed.



       -C       Uses  stated  media capacity. Without this option, cdrw uses a
                default value for writable CD media, which is 74  minutes  for
                an  audio CD, 681984000 bytes for a data CD, or 4.7 Gbytes for
                a DVD.



       -d       Specifies the CD or DVD writing device.



       -h       Help. Prints usage message.



       -i       Specifies the image file for creating data CDs  or  DVDs.  The
                file  size  should  be  less  than  what can be written on the
                media.  Also,  consider  having  the  file  locally  available
                instead  of having the file on an NFS-mounted file system. The
                CD writing process expects data to be  available  continuously
                without interruptions.



       -l       Lists all the CD or DVD writers available on the system.



       -L       Closes  the disk. If the media was left in an open state after
                the last write operation, it will be  closed  to  prevent  any
                further writing. This operation can only            be done on
                re-writable CD-RW media.



       -m       Uses an alternate temporary directory instead of  the  default
                temporary  directory for storing track data while copying a CD
                or DVD. An alternate temporary  directory  might  be  required
                because  the  amount of data on a CD can be huge. For example,
                the amount of data can be as much as  800  Mbytes  for  an  80
                minute  audio  CD and 4.7 Gbytes for a DVD. The default tempo-
                rary directory might not have that much space available.



       -M       Reports media status. cdrw reports if the media  is  blank  or
                not,  its table of contents, the last session's start address,
                and the next writable address if the disk is open. DVD+RW does
                not support erasing and always has some content on the media.



       -O       Keeps the disk open. cdrw closes the session, but it keeps the
                disk open so that another session can be  added  later  on  to
                create a multisession disk.



       -p       Sets the CD writing speed. For example, -p 4 sets the speed to
                4X. If this option is not specified,  cdrw  uses  the  default
                speed  of  the  CD  writer.  If this option is specified, cdrw
                tries to set the drive write speed to this value, but there is
                no guarantee of the actual speed that is used by the drive.



       -s       Specifies the source device for copying a CD or DVD.



       -S       Simulation  mode.  In  this mode, cdrw operates with the drive
                laser turned off, so nothing is written to the media. Use this
                option to verify if the system can provide data at a rate good
                enough for CD writing.



       -T       Audio format to use for extracting audio files or for  reading
                audio  files for audio CD creation. The audio-type can be sun,
                wav, cda, or aur.



       -v       Verbose mode.



       -x       Extracts audio data from an audio track.



EXAMPLES
       Example 1: Creating a data CD or DVD

       example% cdrw -i /local/iso_image

       Example 2: Creating a CD or DVD from a directory

       This example shows how to create a CD or DVD from  the  directory  tree
       /home/foo.

       example% mkisofs -r /home/foo 2>>/dev/null; cdrw -i -p 1

       Example 3: Extracting an audio track number

       This   example   shows   how   to  extract  audio  track  number  1  to
       /home/foo/song1.wav.

       example% cdrw -x -T wav 1 /home/foo/song1.wav

       Example 4: Using wav files

       This example shows how to create an audio CD from wav files on disk.

       example% cdrw -a song1.wav song2.wav song3.wav song4.wav

       Example 5: Erasing CD-RW or DVD-RW media

       This example shows how to erase rewritable media.

       example% cdrw -b all

       Example 6: Creating a data CD or DVD with multiple drives

       This example shows how to create a data CD or DVD on a system with mul-
       tiple CD, DVD-R, or DVD-RW drives.

       example% cdrw -d c1t6d0s2 -i /home/foo/iso-image

       Example 7: Checking data delivery rate

       This  example shows how to verify that the system can provide data to a
       CD-RW or a DVD drive at a rate sufficient for the write operation.

       example% cdrw -S -i /home/foo/iso-image

       Example 8: Running at a higher priority

       This example shows how to run cdrw at a higher priority (for root  user
       only).

       example# priocntl -e -p 60 cdrw -i /home/foo/iso-image

       Example 9: Creating a multi-session disk

       This  examples  shows  how  to  create the first session image by using
       mkisofs(1M) and recording it onto the disk without closing the disk.

       example% cdrw -O -i /home/foo/iso-image

       Additional sessions can be added to an open disk by creating  an  image
       with  mkisofs(1M)  using  the  session  start and next writable address
       reported by cdrw.

       example% cdrw -M

       Track No. |Type    |Start address
       ----------+--------+-------------
        1        |Data    | 0
       Leadout   |Data    | 166564

       Last session start address: 162140
       Next writable address: 173464

       example% mkisofs -o /tmp/image2 -r -C 0,173464 -M    /dev/rdsk/c0t2d0s2 /home/foo

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()    allbox;    cw(2.750000i)|     cw(2.750000i)     lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).  ATTRIBUTE TYPEATTRIBUTE VALUE AvailabilitySUNWcdrw


SEE ALSO
       audioconvert(1),   mkisofs(1M),  priocntl(1),  attributes(5),  rbac(5),
       scsa2usb(7D), sd(7D)

       System Administration Guide: Devices and File Systems

NOTES
       The CD writing process requires data to be supplied at a constant  rate
       to  the drive. Keep I/O activity to a minimum and shut down any related
       I/O applications while writing CDs.

       When making copies or extracting audio tracks,  use  an  MMC  compliant
       source CD-ROM drive. The CD writer can be used for this purpose.

       Before  writing  a  CD,  ensure that the media is blank by using the -M
       option. You can use the -S simulation mode to test the system  to  make
       sure  it  can  provide  data at the required rate. cdrw turns on buffer
       underrun protection for drives that support it and  will  recover  from
       most  stalls.  If  the system is not able to provide data at a constant
       rate or frequent stalling occurs, you can lower the speed by using  the
       -p  option.  You can also try to run cdrw at a higher priority by using
       the priocntl(1) command.

        If you know that the CD-R/RW drive  can  operate  at  different  write
       speeds,  use  the  -p option. Some commercially available drives handle
       the drive speed setting command differently, so use this  option  judi-
       ciously.

       Most  commercially  available drives allow writing beyond 74 minutes as
       long as the media has the capacity (such as 80-minute media).  However,
       the  ability  to  write beyond 74 minutes might not be supported by the
       drive in use. If the drive supports  this  feature,  then  use  the  -C
       option  to indicate that the tool should rely on the capacity indicated
       by the media.

       The cdrw command uses rbac(5) to control user access to the devices. By
       default, cdrw is accessible to all users but can be restricted to indi-
       vidual users. Refer to the System  Administration  Guide:  Devices  and
       File Systems for more information.



SunOS 5.10                        24 Sep 2004                          cdrw(1)