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wodim(1)                                                              wodim(1)



NAME
       wodim - write data to optical disk media

SYNOPSIS
       wodim [options] track1...trackn

NOTE
       There  may  be  similarities  and  differences between this program and
       other disk recording application(s). See the CREDITS and  AUTHORS  sec-
       tions below to learn about the origin of wodim.


DESCRIPTION
       wodim  is  used to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange Book
       CD-Recorder or to write DVD media on a DVD-Recorder.

       The device is the device file or label offered by the operating  system
       to access the recorder with SCSI GENERIC (sg) interface. Note that some
       operating systems may provide separate device nodes for  block-oriented
       and  sg  access. For example, on older Linux systems, the sg access was
       available through /dev/sg...  files while the block oriented access was
       done  through associated (but not identical) /dev/hd...  and /dev/sr...
       (or /dev/scd...  ) files.

       In any case, the user running wodim needs read and write access to  the
       particular  device file on a Linux system. It is recommended to be root
       or install the application as suid-root, because  certain  versions  of
       Linux  (kernel)  limit  the  set  of SCSI commands allowed for non-root
       users. Even if usage without root identity is possible in  many  cases,
       some  device  drivers  still  may fail, show unexplainable problems and
       generally the problems become harder to debug.  The  risk  for  buffer-
       underruns  is  also increased. See the PROCESS SCHEDULING PRIORITY sec-
       tion below for more details.

       There is an alternative way of specifying the device, using the  tradi-
       tional  SCSI descriptions in form of devicetype:bus/target/lun specifi-
       cation. However, the success of this method is not guaranteed since  it
       requires  an  adaptation  scheme for your architecture, and the numbers
       may vary depending on the hardware-internal numbering or on  the  order
       of hot-plug device detection. If your operating system does not provide
       a sufficient framework for keeping this numbers persistent, don't  rely
       on them. See -scanbus and --devices options below for details.

       There  are emulated SCSI compatible device systems, using the SCSI pro-
       tocols transported over various hardware/media types.  The  most  known
       examples is ATAPI ("IDE burners") or USB storage ("external USB case").
       If the pseudo-SCSI b/t/l device address specification is  used  instead
       of the native one, you need to prepend the "devicetype:" description to
       the emulated "bus/target/lun" device address.

       If a file /etc/wodim.conf exists, the parameter to the dev= option  may
       also be a drive name label in that file (see FILES section).

       As  a  special  exception,  the  device specification can be -1 or just
       omitted, which invokes automatic guessing of an appropriate device  for
       the  selected operation. However, this guessing is not available every-
       where and is not reliable; it is only available for the  user's  conve-
       nience in simple environments.

       In  Track  At  Once  mode, each track corresponds to a single file that
       contains the prepared data for that track.  If  the  argument  is  `-',
       standard  input  is  used  for that track.  Only one track may be taken
       from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to  track  rela-
       tion  may  not  be implemented.  In -clone mode, a single file contains
       all data for the whole disk.  To allow DVD writing on platforms that do
       not implement large file support, wodim concatenates all file arguments
       to a single track when writing to DVD media.


PROCESS SCHEDULING PRIORITY
       Wodim tries to get higher process  priority  using  different  methods.
       This  is important because the burn process is usually a realtime task,
       no long delays should  occur  while  transmitting  fresh  data  to  the
       recorder. This is especially important on systems with insufficient RAM
       where swapping can create delays of many seconds.

       A possible workaround on underpowered systems is the use of  the  burn-
       free or similar feature, allowing the recorder to resume.

       Root  permissions are usually required to get higher process scheduling
       priority.

       On SVr4 compliant systems, wodim uses the real time class  to  get  the
       highest  scheduling  priority  that is possible (higher than all kernel
       processes).  On systems with POSIX real time scheduling wodim uses real
       time  scheduling  too,  but  may not be able to gain a priority that is
       higher than all kernel processes.

       In order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS,  run
       at  highest priority and lock itself into core wodim either needs to be
       run as root, needs to be installed suid root  or  must  be  called  via
       RBACs pfexec mechanism.


GENERAL OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

       -version
              Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment  the  level of general verbosity by one.  This is used
              e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI command transport
              by  one.   This  helps  to  debug  problems  during  the writing
              process, that occur in the CD/DVD-Recorder.  If you  get  incom-
              prehensible  error messages you should use this flag to get more
              detailed output.  -VV will show data buffer content in addition.
              Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the reason for
              a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
              Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#)  or  increment  the
              misc  debug  level  by  one  (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
              equals to debug=2.  This may help to find problems while opening
              a  driver  for  libusal  as well as with sector sizes and sector
              types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be the  rea-
              son for a buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
              Tell the usal-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI
              commands are running.

       -silent, -s
              Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force to continue on some errors. Be  careful  when  using  this
              option.   wodim  implements several checks that prevent you from
              doing unwanted things like  damaging  CD-RW  media  by  improper
              drives.  Many  of the sanity checks are disabled when the -force
              option is used.

              This option also implements some tricks that will allow  you  to
              blank bad CD-RW disks.

       -immed Tell  wodim  to  set  the  SCSI  IMMED  flag in certain commands
              (load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session).  This can be  use-
              ful  on  broken systems with ATAPI harddisk and CD/DVD writer on
              the same bus  or  with  SCSI  systems  that  don't  use  discon-
              nect/reconnect.   These  systems  will  freeze while blanking or
              fixating a CD/DVD or while a DVD writer is filling up a  session
              to the minimum amount (approx. 800 MB).  Setting the -immed flag
              will request the command to return immediately while the  opera-
              tion proceeds in background, making the bus usable for the other
              devices and avoiding the system freeze.  This is an experimental
              feature  which  may  work  or not, depending on the model of the
              CD/DVD writer.  A correct solution would be to set up a  correct
              cabling but there seem to be notebooks around that have been set
              up the wrong way by the manufacturer.  As it  is  impossible  to
              fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed option has been added.

              A  second  experimental  feature  of  the -immed flag is to tell
              wodim to try to wait short times while  writing  to  the  media.
              This  is  expected  to free the IDE bus if the CD/DVD writer and
              the data source are connected to the same  IDE  cable.  In  this
              case,  the  CD/DVD  writer would otherwise usually block the IDE
              bus for nearly all the time making it impossible to  fetch  data
              from the source drive. See also minbuf= and -v option.

              Use  both  features  at  your own risk.  If it turns out that it
              would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
              write to the author and convince him.

       minbuf=value
              The  #  minbuf= option allows to define the minimum drive buffer
              fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
              to  free  the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD writer to be
              on the same IDE cable.  As the wait mode  currently  only  works
              when the verbose option -v has been specified, wodim implies the
              verbose option in case the -immed or minbuf=  option  have  been
              specified.   Valid  values for minbuf= are between 25 and 95 for
              25%...95% minimum drive buffer fill ratio.

       -dummy The CD/DVD-Recorder will go through all steps of  the  recording
              process,  but the laser is turned off during this procedure.  It
              is recommended to run several tests before actually writing to a
              Compact  Disk  or Digital Versatile Disk, if the timing and load
              response of the system is not known.

       -clone Tells wodim to handle images  created  by  readom  -clone.   The
              -clone  may only be used in conjunction with with the -raw96r or
              with the -raw16 option.  Using -clone together with  -raw96r  is
              preferred as it allows to write all subchannel data.  The option
              -raw16 should only be used with drives that do  not  support  to
              write in -raw96r mode.

       -dao

       -sao   Set  SAO  (Session At Once) mode which is usually called Disk At
              Once mode.  This currently only works with MMC drives that  sup-
              port  Session  At  Once mode.  Note that wodim needs to know the
              size of each track in advance for this mode (see the genisoimage
              -print-size  option  and  the EXAMPLES section for more informa-
              tion).

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
              mode  in  previous wodim versions.  With most drives, this write
              mode is required for multi session recording.

       -raw   Set RAW writing mode.  Using this option  defaults  to  -raw96r.
              Note  that wodim needs to know the size of each track in advance
              for this mode (see the genisoimage -print-size  option  and  the
              EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
              Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
              of raw P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector  size  of  2448
              bytes.   This is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives best
              control over the CD writing process.  If you find  any  problems
              with  the  layout  of  a  disk or with sub channel content (e.g.
              wrong times on the display when playing the CD) and  your  drive
              supports  to write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should give it
              a try. There are several  CD  writers  with  bad  firmware  that
              result in broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  Writing
              data disks in raw mode needs significantly more  CPU  time  than
              other  write  modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may result in
              buffer underruns.  Note that wodim needs to  know  the  size  of
              each track in advance for this mode (see the genisoimage -print-
              size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
              Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
              of packed P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
              bytes.  This is the less preferred raw writing mode  as  only  a
              few  recorders  support it and some of these recorders have bugs
              in the firmware implementation.  Don't use  this  mode  if  your
              recorder  supports -raw96r or -raw16.  Writing data disks in raw
              mode needs significantly more CPU time than other  write  modes.
              If  your  CPU  is too slow, this may result in buffer underruns.
              Note that wodim needs to know the size of each track in  advance
              for  this  mode  (see the genisoimage -print-size option and the
              EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes
              of P-Q subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.
              If a recorder does not support -raw96r, this  is  the  preferred
              raw  writing  mode.   It  does  not  allow  to  write CD-Text or
              CD+Graphics but it is the only raw  writing  mode  in  cheap  CD
              writers.   As  these  cheap writers in most cases do not support
              -dao mode.  Don't  use  this  mode  if  your  recorder  supports
              -raw96r.   Writing  data  disks  in raw mode needs significantly
              more CPU time than other write modes. If your CPU is  too  slow,
              this  may  result in buffer underruns.  Note that wodim needs to
              know the size of each track in advance for this  mode  (see  the
              genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more
              information).

       -multi Allow multi session CDs to  be  made.  This  flag  needs  to  be
              present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want
              to create a session that will be the last session on the  media.
              The  fixation  will  be  done  in  a way that allows the CD/DVD-
              Recorder to append additional sessions later. This  is  done  by
              generation  a  TOC  with a link to the next program area. The so
              generated media is  not  100%  compatible  to  manufactured  CDs
              (except  for  CDplus).   Use only for recording of multi session
              CDs.  If this option is present, the default track type  is  CD-
              ROM  XA mode 2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048 bytes.  The XA
              sector subheaders will be created by the drive.  The Sony drives
              have  no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.  You have
              to specify the -data option in order  to  create  multi  session
              disks  on  these drives.  As long as wodim does not have a coder
              for converting data sectors to audio sectors, you need to  force
              CD-ROM  sectors  by  including  the  -data option if you like to
              record a multisession disk in SAO mode.  Not  all  drives  allow
              multisession CDs in SAO mode.

       -msinfo
              Retrieve  multi  session info in a form suitable for genisoimage
              and print it to standard output. See msifile= option for another
              version.

              This  option  makes  only sense with a CD that contains at least
              one closed session and is appendable (not finally  closed  yet).
              Some  drives  create  error messages if you try to get the multi
              session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       msifile=filename
              Like -msinfo option but also stores the multi session info in  a
              file.

       -toc   Retrieve  and  print  out  the  table of content or PMA of a CD.
              With this option, wodim will work with CD-R drives and with  CD-
              ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve  and  print  out the ATIP (absolute Time in Pre-groove)
              info of a CD/DVD recordable or CD/DVD re-writable  media.   With
              this  option,  wodim  will try to retrieve the ATIP info. If the
              actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info, it  may  be
              that  only  a reduced set of information records or even nothing
              is displayed. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives sup-
              port to read the ATIP info.

              If  wodim  is  able  to  retrieve the lead-in start time for the
              first session, it will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
              info  from  the media.  DVD media does not have ATIP information
              but there is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
              and printed.

       -fix   The  disk  will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will
              be written).  This may be used, if for some reason the disk  has
              been  written  but  not  fixated. This option currently does not
              work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the  tracks.  This  may  be
              used  to  create  an audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can
              usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there  are
              audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before try-
              ing to open the SCSI driver. This allows wodim to read its input
              from  a  pipe  even  when writing additional sessions to a multi
              session disk.  When writing another session to a  multi  session
              disk,  genisoimage needs to read the old session from the device
              before writing output.  This cannot be done if wodim  opens  the
              SCSI driver at the same time.

       -load  Load  the  media  and  exit. This only works with a tray loading
              mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the  Kodak  disk
              transporter.

       -lock  Load  the  media, lock the door and exit. This only works with a
              tray loading mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the
              Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing the work.  Some devices (e.g. Philips)
              need to eject the medium before creating a  new  disk.  Doing  a
              -dummy  test and immediately creating a real disk would not work
              on these devices.

       speed=#
              Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.  # is an inte-
              ger,  representing a multiple of the audio speed.  This is about
              150 KB/s for CD-ROM,  about  172 KB/s  for  CD-Audio  and  about
              1385 kB/s  for  DVD media.  If no speed option is present, wodim
              will try to get a drive  specific  speed  value  from  the  file
              /etc/wodim.conf  and  if  it cannot find one, it will try to get
              the speed value from the CDR_SPEED environment  and  later  from
              the  CDR_SPEED=  entry  in  /etc/wodim.conf.   If no speed value
              could be found, wodim uses a drive specific default speed.   The
              default for all new (MMC compliant) drives is to use the maximum
              supported by the drive.  If you use speed=0 with a MMC compliant
              drive,  wodim will switch to the lowest possible speed for drive
              and medium.  If you are using an old (non MMC)  drive  that  has
              problems with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

       blank=type
              Blank  a  CD-RW  and  exit  or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
              blanking type may be one of:

              help        Display a list of possible blanking types.

              all         Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

              fast        Minimally blank the disk. This  results  in  erasing
                          the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

              track       Blank a track.

              unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

              trtail      Blank the tail of a track.

              unclose     Unclose last session.

              session     Blank the last session.
       Not  all  drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary to use
       blank=all if a drive reports a specified command as being invalid.   If
       used  together  with  the -force flag, this option may be used to blank
       CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to
       specify  blank=all  because  some drives will not continue with certain
       types of bad CD-RW disks. Note also that wodim does  its  best  if  the
       -force  flag  is  used  but  it finally depends on the drive's firmware
       whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.

       -format
              Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW disc.  Formatting is currently only
              implemented  for DVD+RW media.  A 'maiden' DVD+RW media needs to
              be formatted before you may write  to  it.   However,  as  wodim
              autodetects  the  need for formatting in this case and auto for-
              mats the medium before it starts writing, the -format option  is
              only needed if you like to forcibly reformat a DVD+RW medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syn-
              tax as in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the
              size  is taken in bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a number
              is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m',  `s'  or  `f',
              the  size  is  multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.
              If the size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*',  multi-
              plication  of the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k will
              specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared  mem-
              ory that is needed for administration. This is at least one page
              of memory.  If no fs= option is present, wodim will try  to  get
              the  FIFO  size  value  from  the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.  The
              default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

              The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real time writing
              process.  It allows to run a pipe from genisoimage directly into
              wodim.  If the FIFO is active and a pipe from  genisoimage  into
              wodim  is  used to create a CD, wodim will abort prior to do any
              modifications on the disk if genisoimage dies before  it  starts
              writing.  The recommended FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
              As a rule of thumb, the FIFO size should be at  least  equal  to
              the  size  of  the internal buffer of the CD/DVD-Recorder and no
              more than half of the physical amount of RAM  available  in  the
              machine.   If  the  FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statistics
              will print a FIFO empty count of zero and the FIFO min  fill  is
              not  below  20%.   It  is not wise to use too much space for the
              FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to write a CD at a  speed  less
              than  20x  from  an  image  on  a  local  file system on an idle
              machine, your machine is either underpowered, has hardware prob-
              lems  or is mis-configured.  If you like to write DVDs or CDs at
              higher speed, it makes sense to use at least 16 MB for the FIFO.

              On old and small machines, you need to be more careful with  the
              FIFO  size.   If  your  machine has less than 256 MB of physical
              RAM, you should not set up a FIFO size that is more than  32 MB.
              The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
              table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
              14 MBytes  for  the  FIFO may cause the operating system in this
              case to spend much time to constantly  reload  the  MMU  tables.
              Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware problem. I
              have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

              Old Linux systems for non x86 platforms have broken  definitions
              for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
              kernel or manually tell wodim to use a smaller FIFO.

              If you have buffer underruns or similar problems  (like  a  con-
              stantly empty drive buffer) and observe a zero fifo empty count,
              you have hardware problems that prevents the data  from  flowing
              fast  enough  from the kernel memory to the drive. The FIFO size
              in this case is sufficient, but you should check for  a  working
              DMA setup.

       ts=#   Set  the  maximum  transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.
              The syntax for the ts= option is the same as for wodim  fs=#  or
              sdd bs=#.

              If  no ts= option has been specified, wodim defaults to a trans-
              fer size of 63 kB. If libusal gets lower values from the operat-
              ing  system,  the  value is reduced to the maximum value that is
              possible with the current operating system.  Sometimes,  it  may
              help  to  further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it, but
              note that it may take a long time to  find  a  better  value  by
              experimenting with the ts= option.

       dev=target
              Sets  the  SCSI target for the CD/DVD-Recorder, see notes above.
              A typical device specification is dev=6,0 .  A filename or  vir-
              tual device name can be passed instead of the symbolic SCSI num-
              bers.  The correct device/filename in this case can be found  in
              the  system specific manuals of the target operating system.  On
              a FreeBSD system without CAM support, you need to use  the  con-
              trol  device (e.g.  /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A correct device specifica-
              tion in this case may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

              On Linux and Windows 2000/XP, drives are accessible  with  their
              device  (or  drive) names or with the symbolic SCSI numbers (not
              recommended, mapping is  not  stable  and  could  be  completely
              removed in the future).

              If  no  dev  option is present, wodim will try to get the device
              from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

              If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the  charac-
              ters  ',',  '/',  '@' or ':', it is interpreted as an label name
              that may be found in the file /etc/wodim.conf  (see  FILES  sec-
              tion).

       gracetime=#
              Set  the grace time before starting to write to # seconds.  Val-
              ues below 2 seconds are not recommended to give  the  kernel  or
              volume management a chance to learn the new state.

       timeout=#
              Set  the  default  SCSI command timeout value to # seconds.  The
              default SCSI command timeout is the  minimum  timeout  used  for
              sending  SCSI  commands.  If a SCSI command fails due to a time-
              out, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout above
              the  timeout  value  of the failed command.  If the command runs
              correctly with a raised command timeout, please report the  bet-
              ter timeout value and the corresponding command to the author of
              the program.  If no timeout option is present, a default timeout
              of 40 seconds is used.

       driver=name
              Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
              reason for the existence of the driver=name option is  to  allow
              users  to  use  wodim  with drives that are similar to supported
              drives but not known directly by wodim.  All drives  made  after
              1997  should be MMC standard compliant and thus supported by one
              of the MMC drivers.  It is most unlikely that wodim is unable to
              find  the  right  driver  automatically.   Use  this option with
              extreme care. If a wrong driver is used for a device, the possi-
              bility of creating corrupted disks is high.  The minimum problem
              related to a wrong driver is that the speed= or -dummy will  not
              work.

              The following driver names are supported:

              help   To  get  a list of possible drivers together with a short
                     description.

              mmc_cd The generic SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  wodim finds a MMC compliant drive that does not
                     identify itself to support writing at all, or  that  only
                     identifies  to  support  media  or write modes not imple-
                     mented in wodim.

              mmc_cd_dvd
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD  driver  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  wodim  finds  a  MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant drive
                     that seems to support more than one medium type  and  the
                     tray  is  open  or no medium could be found to select the
                     right driver.  This  driver  tries  to  close  the  tray,
                     checks  the medium found in the tray and then branches to
                     the driver that matches the current medium.

              mmc_cdr
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever  wodim find a MMC compliant drive that only sup-
                     ports to write CDs or a multi system drive that  contains
                     a CD as the current medium.

              mmc_cdr_sony
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever wodim would otherwise select the mmc_cdr  driver
                     but   the   device   seems  to  be  made  by  Sony.   The
                     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as
                     this drive does not completely implement the MMC standard
                     and some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced  by
                     Sony  proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony drives
                     (even newer ones) still implement  the  Sony  proprietary
                     SCSI  commands  so it has not yet become a problem to use
                     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
                     drive that does not work with this driver, please report.

              mmc_dvd
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-2  DVD-R/DVD-RW  driver is auto-
                     selected whenever wodim finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3  compliant
                     drive  that  supports  to  write  DVDs and an appropriate
                     medium is loaded.  There is no Track At Once mode for DVD
                     writers.

              mmc_dvdplus
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R/DVD+RW  driver is auto-
                     selected whenever one of the DVD+ media  types  that  are
                     incompatible to each other is found.  It checks media and
                     then branches to the  driver  that  matches  the  current
                     medium.

              mmc_dvdplusr
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R driver is auto-selected
                     whenever a  DVD+R  medium  is  found  in  an  appropriate
                     writer.   Note  that  for  unknown  reason,  the DVD-Plus
                     alliance does not like that there is  a  simulation  mode
                     for  DVD+R  media.  The author of wodim tries to convince
                     manufacturers to implement a simulation  mode  for  DVD+R
                     and  implement  support.   DVD+R  only supports one write
                     mode that is somewhere between Track At Once  and  Packet
                     writing;  this  mode  is  selected  in  wodim  via  a the
                     -dao/-sao option.

              mmc_dvdplusrw
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  a  DVD+RW  medium  is  found  in an appropriate
                     writer.  As DVD+RW media needs to be formatted before its
                     first  use,  wodim auto-detects this media state and per-
                     forms a format before it starts to write.  Note that  for
                     unknown  reason, the DVD-Plus alliance does not like that
                     there is a simulation mode nor  a  way  to  erase  DVD+RW
                     media.  DVD+RW only supports one write mode that is close
                     to Packet writing; this mode is selected in wodim  via  a
                     the -dao/-sao option.

              cw_7501
                     The  driver  for  Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is auto-
                     selected when wodim finds this old pre MMC drive.   wodim
                     supports all write modes for this drive type.

              kodak_pcd_600
                     The  driver for Kodak PCD-600 is auto-selected when wodim
                     finds this old pre MMC drive which  has  been  the  first
                     high  speed  (6x)  CD  writer for a long time. This drive
                     behaves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

              philips_cdd521
                     The driver for  Philips  CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when
                     wodim  finds  a Philips CDD-521 drive (which is the first
                     CD writer ever made) or one of the other drives that  are
                     known  to  behave  similar  to  this  drive.  All Philips
                     CDD-521 or similar drives  (see  other  drivers  in  this
                     list) do not support Session At Once recording.

              philips_cdd521_old
                     The  driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds a Philips  CDD-521  with  very  old  firmware
                     which has some known limitations.

              philips_cdd522
                     The  driver  for  Philips  CDD-522  is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds a Philips CDD-522 which is the  successor  of
                     the  521  or one of its variants with Kodak label.  wodim
                     does not support Session At  Once  recording  with  these
                     drives.

              philips_dumb
                     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assump-
                     tions is never auto-selected.  It may  be  used  by  hand
                     with drives that behave similar to the Philips CDD-521.

              pioneer_dws114x
                     The  driver  for  Pioneer  DW-S114X is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds one of the old non MMC CD writers  from  Pio-
                     neer.

              plasmon_rf4100
                     The  driver  for  Plasmon  RF  4100 is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521.

              ricoh_ro1060c
                     The driver for Ricoh RO-1060C is auto-selected when wodim
                     finds this drive. There is no real support for this drive
                     yet.

              ricoh_ro1420c
                     The driver for Ricoh RO-1420C is auto-selected when wodim
                     finds  a  drive with this specific variant of the Philips
                     CDD-521 command set.

              scsi2_cd
                     The generic SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver is  auto-selected  when-
                     ever  wodim  finds  a pre MMC drive that does not support
                     writing or a pre MMC writer  that  is  not  supported  by
                     wodim.

              sony_cdu924
                     The  driver  for  Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948 is auto-selected
                     whenever wodim finds one of the old pre  MMC  CD  writers
                     from Sony.

              teac_cdr50
                     The  driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010,
                     Pinnacle RCD-5020 is auto-selected whenever  one  of  the
                     drives  is found that is known to the non MMC command set
                     used by TEAC and JVC.  Note that  many  drives  from  JVC
                     will not work because they do not correctly implement the
                     documented command set and JVC has been unwilling to  fix
                     or  document  the bugs.  There is no support for the Ses-
                     sion At Once write mode yet.

              tyuden_ew50
                     The driver for Taiyo Yuden EW-50  is  auto-selected  when
                     wodim  finds  a  drive  with this specific variant of the
                     Philips CDD-521 command set.

              yamaha_cdr100
                     The driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is  auto-selected
                     when  wodim  finds one of the old pre MMC CD writers from
                     Yamaha.  There is no support  for  the  Session  At  Once
                     write mode yet.

              cdr_simul
                     The simulation CD-R driver allows to run timing and speed
                     tests with parameters that match the behavior of CD writ-
                     ers.

              dvd_simul
                     The  simulation  DVD-R  driver  allows  to run timing and
                     speed tests with parameters that match  the  behavior  of
                     DVD writers.

              There  are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and
              dvd_simul.  These driver entries are  designed  to  make  timing
              tests  at  any speed or timing tests for drives that do not sup-
              port the -dummy option.   The  simulation  drivers  implement  a
              drive  with  a  buffer  size of 1 MB that can be changed via the
              CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE environment variable.  The  simulation  driver
              correctly  simulates  even  a buffer underrun condition.  If the
              -dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted in  case
              of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
              Set  driver  specific options. The options are specified a comma
              separated  list.   To  get  a  list   of   valid   options   use
              driveropts=help  together  with  the -checkdrive option.  If you
              like to set driver options without running a typical wodim task,
              you need to use the -setdropts option in addition, otherwise the
              command line parser in wodim will  complain.   Currently  imple-
              mented driver options are:

              burnfree
                     Turn  the  support  for  Buffer Underrun Free writing on.
                     This only works for drives that support  Buffer  Underrun
                     Free  technology, which is available on most drives manu-
                     factured in this millennium.  This may be  called:  Sanyo
                     BURN-Proof, Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or sim-
                     ilar.

                     This option is deprecated and is mentioned here for docu-
                     mentation purposes only. The BURN-Free feature is enabled
                     by default if the drive supports  it.   However,  use  of
                     BURN-Free  may cause decreased burning quality. Therefore
                     it can be useful to disable it for certain purposes,  eg.
                     when creating a master copy for mass CD production.

              noburnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

              varirec=value
                     Turn  on  the Plextor VariRec writing mode. The mandatory
                     parameter value is the laser power offset  and  currently
                     may  be  selected from -2, -1, 0, 1, 2.  In addition, you
                     need to set the write  speed  to  4  in  order  to  allow
                     VariRec to work.

              gigarec=value
                     Manage  the  Plextor  GigaRec writing mode. The mandatory
                     parameter value is the disk capacity  ratio  compared  to
                     normal  recording and currently may be selected from 0.6,
                     0.7, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values < 1.0 are  used,
                     then  the effect is similar to the Yamaha Audio Master Q.
                     R.  feature. If values > 1.0  are  used,  then  the  disk
                     capacity is increased.

                     Not  all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a drive
                     uses the GigaRec feature, the write speed is  limited  to
                     8x.

              audiomaster
                     Turn on the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  feature which usu-
                     ally should result in high quality  CDs  that  have  less
                     reading  problems  in  Hi-Fi  players.  As this is imple-
                     mented as a variant of the Session at Once write mode, it
                     will  only work if you select SAO write mode and there is
                     no need to turn it off.  The Audio Master mode will  work
                     with  a limited speed but may also be used with data CDs.
                     In Audio Master mode, the pits on the CD will be  written
                     larger  then  usual  so  the  capacity  of  the medium is
                     reduced when turning this feature on.   A  74  minute  CD
                     will  only  have a capacity of 63 minutes if Audio Master
                     is active and the capacity of a  80  minute  CD  will  be
                     reduced to 68 minutes.

              forcespeed
                     Normally,  modern  drives know the highest possible speed
                     for different media and may reduce the speed in order  to
                     grant best write quality.  This technology may be called:
                     Plextor PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum  Write
                     Speed  Control  or  similar.   Some drives (e.g. Plextor,
                     Ricoh and Yamaha) allow to force the  drive  to  use  the
                     selected  speed  even  if  the  medium is so bad that the
                     write quality would be poor. This  option  tells  such  a
                     drive  to  force  to use the selected speed regardless of
                     the medium quality.

                     Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive
                     should  know better which medium will work at full speed.
                     The default is to turn forcespeed off, regardless of  the
                     defaults of the drive.

              noforcespeed
                     Turn off the force speed feature.

              speedread
                     Some  ultra  high  speed  drives  such  as 48x and faster
                     drives from Plextor limit  the  read  speed  for  unknown
                     media  to  e.g.  40x  in order to avoid damaged disks and
                     drives.  Using this option tells the drive  to  read  any
                     media  as  fast as possible.  Be very careful as this may
                     cause the media to break  in  the  drive  while  reading,
                     resulting in a damaged media and drive!

              nospeedread
                     Turn off unlimited read speed.

              singlesession
                     Turn  the  drive  into a single session only drive.  This
                     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
                     with  extremely  non-standard additional (broken/illegal)
                     TOC entries in the TOC from the second or higher session.
                     Some of these disks become usable if only the information
                     from the first session is used.  You need to enable  Sin-
                     gle Session mode before you insert the defective disk!

              nosinglesession
                     Turn off single session mode. The drive will again behave
                     as usual.

              hidecdr
                     Hide the fact that a medium might be a recordable medium.
                     This  allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and applica-
                     tions believe that the media in the drive is not a CD-R.

              nohidecdr
                     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

              tattooinfo
                     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
                     image  size  information  for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature.
                     The images always have a line length of 3744 pixel.  Line
                     number  0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the disk.
                     If you know the inner and outer radius you will  be  able
                     to  create  a  pre  distorted image that later may appear
                     undistorted on the disk.

              tattoofile=name
                     Use this option together with  -checkdrive  to  write  an
                     image  prepared  for  the  Yamaha  DiskT@2 feature to the
                     medium.  The file must be a file with raw image B&W  data
                     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
                     call to tattoofile=name .   If  the  size  of  the  image
                     equals  the  maximum  possible  size  (3744 x 320 pixel),
                     wodim will use the first part of  the  file.  This  first
                     part  then  will  be written to the leftover space on the
                     CD.

                     Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable  from
                     the pick up side of the CD.

       -setdropts
              Set  the  driveropts  specified  by  driveropts=option list, the
              speed of the drive and the dummy flag  and  exit.   This  allows
              wodim  to  set  drive  specific parameters that are not directly
              used by wodim like e.g.  single session mode, hide cdr and simi-
              lar.  It is needed in case that driveropts=option list should be
              called without planning to run a typical wodim task.

       -checkdrive
              Checks if a driver for the current drive is  present  and  exit.
              If the drive is a known drive, wodim uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print  the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as
              obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values marked  with  kB  use  1000
              bytes  as  kilo-byte,  values  marked  with KB use 1024 bytes as
              Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

       -scanbus
              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print  the  inquiry
              strings.  This  option  may  be used to find SCSI address of the
              CD/DVD-Recorder on a system. If some device types are invisible,
              try  using  dev=ATA:  or similar option to give a hint about the
              device type you are looking for.  The  numbers  printed  out  as
              labels  are  computed  by: bus * 100 + target.  On platforms and
              device systems without persistent  SCSI  number  management  the
              results are not reliable. Use the .B --devices option instead.

       --devices
              Look  for  useable  devices using the system specific functions,
              eg. probing with usual device nodes in /dev/*, and  display  the
              detections using symbolic device names in OS specific syntax.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This
              works not on all operating systems.

       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If  you  use  wodim
              only,  this should never be needed; but other software may leave
              a drive in an unusable condition.  Calling wodim -reset  may  be
              needed if a previous write has been interrupted and the software
              did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -overburn
              Allow wodim to write more than the official size  of  a  medium.
              This  feature  is  usually called overburning and depends on the
              fact that most blank media may hold more space than the official
              size.  As  the official size of the lead-out area on the disk is
              90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there  are
              at least 150 sectors of lead out, all media may be overburned by
              at least 88 seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD recorders  only  do
              overburning  in  SAO  or RAW mode. Known exceptions are TEAC CD-
              R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.   Some  drives  do
              not  allow  to  overburn as much as you might like and limit the
              size of a CD to e.g. 76 minutes. This  problem  may  be  circum-
              vented  by writing the CD in RAW mode because this way the drive
              has no chance to find the size before starting to  burn.   There
              is  no  guarantee  that  your drive supports overburning at all.
              Make a test to check if your drive implements the feature.

       -ignsize
              Ignore the known size of the medium. This option should be  used
              with  extreme  care, it exists only for debugging purposes don't
              use it for other reasons.  It is not needed to write disks  with
              more than the nominal capacity.  This option implies -overburn.

       -useinfo
              Use  *.inf  files to overwrite audio options.  If this option is
              used, the pregap size information is read from  the  *.inf  file
              that  is  associated  with the file that contains the audio data
              for a track.

              If used together with the -audio option, wodim may  be  used  to
              write  audio  CDs from a pipe from icedax if you call wodim with
              the *.inf files as track parameter list instead of  using  audio
              files.   The  audio  data  is read from stdin in this case.  See
              EXAMPLES section below.  wodim first verifies that stdin is  not
              connected  to  a  terminal  and  runs some heuristic consistency
              checks on the *.inf files and then sets the track  lengths  from
              the information in the *.inf files.

              If  you like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called
              with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the write speed to a value
              below  the  read  speed of the source drive and switch the burn-
              free option for the recording drive on.

       defpregap=#
              Set the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track  number
              1.   This  option currently only makes sense with the TEAC drive
              when creating track-at-once disks without the 2  second  silence
              before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

       -packet
              Set Packet writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       pktsize=#
              Set  the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is an
              experimental interface.

       -noclose
              Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ-
              ing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
              Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write CD-Text information based on information taken from a file
              that contains ascii information for  the  text  strings.   wodim
              supports  CD-Text  information based on the content of the *.inf
              files created by icedax and CD-Text  information  based  on  the
              content  from  a  CUE  sheet file.  If a CUE sheet file contains
              both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
              the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

              You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
              wodim to read the *.inf files or cuefile=filename  in  order  to
              tell wodim to read a CUE sheet file in addition.  If you like to
              write your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf files or  the
              CUE sheet file with a text editor and change the fields that are
              relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
              Write CD-Text based on information  found  in  the  binary  file
              filename.   This  file must contain information in a data format
              defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the  Red  Book.  The
              four  byte  size  header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
              optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
              ambiguous.   This  is the best option to be used to copy CD-Text
              data from existing CDs that already carry  CD-Text  information.
              To  get  data in a format suitable for this option use wodim -vv
              -toc  to  extract  the  information   from   disk.    If   both,
              textfile=filename  and  CD-Text  information from *.inf or *.cue
              files are present, textfile=filename will  overwrite  the  other
              information.

       cuefile=filename
              Take  all  recording related information from a CDRWIN compliant
              CUE sheet file.  No track files are allowed when this option  is
              present and the option -dao is currently needed in addition.


TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       isrc=ISRC_number
              Set  the  International  Standard  Recording Number for the next
              track to ISRC_number.

       index=list
              Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
              separated  list  of  numbers that are counting from index 1. The
              first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
              must  be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75 seconds)
              that represent the start of the indices. An index  list  in  the
              form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
              2 100 seconds from the start of the track and index 3  200  sec-
              onds from the start of the track.

       -audio If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-DA (similar to Red Book) audio format.  The  file  with  data
              for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
              44100 samples/s.  The byte order should be  the  following:  MSB
              left,  LSB  left,  MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and so on. The
              track should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible  to
              put  the  master  image  of an audio track on a raw disk because
              data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
              process.

              If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a
              structured audio data file.  wodim assumes that the file in this
              case  is  a Sun audio file or a Microsoft .WAV file and extracts
              the audio data from the files by  skipping  over  the  non-audio
              header  information.   In  all other cases, wodim will only work
              correctly if the audio data stream does  not  have  any  header.
              Because many structured audio files do not have an integral num-
              ber of blocks (1/75th second) in length, it is  often  necessary
              to specify the -pad option as well.  wodim recognizes that audio
              data in a .WAV file is  stored  in  Intel  (little-endian)  byte
              order,  and  will  automatically  byte-swap  the  data if the CD
              recorder requires big-endian data.  wodim will reject any  audio
              file  that  does  not  match the Red Book requirements of 16-bit
              stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

              Using other structured audio data formats as input to wodim will
              usually  work  if  the  structure  of  the data is the structure
              described above (raw pcm data in big-endian byte  order).   How-
              ever,  if  the  data  format  includes a header, you will hear a
              click at the start of a track.

              If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim  defaults
              to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data
              for all other files.

       -swab  If this flag is present, audio data is assumed to  be  in  byte-
              swapped  (little-endian)  order.   Some types of CD-Writers e.g.
              Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
              be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
              audio data to be presented  in  the  big-endian  (network)  byte
              order  normally used by the SCSI protocol.  wodim knows if a CD-
              Recorder needs audio data in big- or  little-endian  order,  and
              corrects the byte order of the data stream to match the needs of
              the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data  stream
              is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

              Note  that the verbose output of wodim will show you if swapping
              is necessary to make the byte order of the input  data  fit  the
              required byte order of the recorder.  wodim will not show you if
              the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a multiple
              of 2048 bytes.  The file  with  track  data  should  contain  an
              ISO-9660  or  Rock  Ridge  filesystem image (see genisoimage for
              more details). If the track data is  an  ufs  filesystem  image,
              fragment  size  should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives
              with 2 KB sector size to be used for reading.

              -data is the default, if no other flag is present and  the  file
              does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file types.

              If  neither -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim defaults
              to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data
              for all other files.

       -mode2 If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data size is a multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a multiple of
              2048 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers will be  created  by  the
              drive.  With this option, the write mode is the same as with the
              -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a multiple of
              2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are part of the user data
              and  have  to  be  supplied by the application that prepares the
              data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-ROM  XA  mode 2 form 2 format. The data is a multiple of 2324
              bytes.  The XA sector sub headers will be created by the drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in  a
              way  that  allows a mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1/2 format. The
              data size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector sub  head-
              ers  are  part  of  the user data and have to be supplied by the
              application that prepares the data to be written.  The  CRC  and
              the  P/Q  parity  ECC/EDC  information  (depending on the sector
              type) have to be supplied by the application that  prepares  the
              data to be written.

       -cdi   If  this  flag  is  present, the TOC type for the disk is set to
              CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -isosize
              Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.
              This  option  is  needed  if you want wodim to directly read the
              image of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO  master
              CD. In the first case the option -isosize is needed to limit the
              size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second
              case the option -isosize is needed to prevent wodim from reading
              the two run out blocks that are appended by each CD-recorder  in
              track  at once mode. These two run out blocks cannot be read and
              would cause a buffer underrun that would cause a defective copy.
              Do  not  use  this option on files created by genisoimage and in
              case wodim reads the track data from stdin.  In the first  case,
              you  would prevent wodim from writing the amount of padding that
              has been appended by genisoimage and in the latter case, it will
              not work because stdin is not seekable.

              If  -isosize  is  used for a track, wodim will automatically add
              padding for this track as if the -pad option has been  used  but
              the  amount  of  padding may be less than the padding written by
              genisoimage.  Note that if you use -isosize on a track that con-
              tains Sparc boot information, the boot information will be lost.

              Note  also that this option cannot be used to determine the size
              of a file system if the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will  be
              added  to  the  end  of this and each subsequent data track.  In
              this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
              It  will  remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.  If the
              -pad option refers to an audio track, wodim will pad  the  audio
              data  to be a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data padding is
              done with binary zeroes which is equal to absolute silence.

              -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

       padsize=#
              Set the amount of data to be appended as  padding  to  the  next
              track  to  #.   Opposed  to the behavior of the -pad option, the
              value for padsize= is reset to zero for each new  track.   wodim
              assumes  a  sector  size  of 2048 bytes for the padsize= option,
              independent from the real sector size and independent  from  the
              write  mode.  The megabytes mentioned in the verbose mode output
              however are counting the output sector size which is  e.g.  2448
              bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96 mode.  See fs= option for possi-
              ble arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 minutes on a CD, you
              may  write  padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this option if your CD-drive
              is not able to read the last sectors of a track or if  you  want
              to  be  able  to read the CD on a Linux system with the ISO-9660
              filesystem read ahead bug.  If an empty file is used  for  track
              data,  this option may be used to create a disk that is entirely
              made of padding.  This may e.g. be used to  find  out  how  much
              overburning is possible with a specific media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

       -shorttrack
              Allow all subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track length
              standard which requires a minimum track  length  of  4  seconds.
              This  option  is  only useful when used in SAO or RAW mode.  Not
              all drives support this  feature.  The  drive  must  accept  the
              resulting CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -noshorttrack
              Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
              least 4 seconds.

       pregap=#
              Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently
              only makes sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once
              disks without the 2 second silence before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

       -preemp
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries  for  subsequent  audio
              tracks  will  indicate that the audio data has been sampled with
              50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.  The data, however is not  modified
              during  the  process  of  transferring  from file to disk.  This
              option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nopreemp
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries  for  subsequent  audio
              tracks  will indicate that the audio data has been mastered with
              linear data - this is the default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries  for  subsequent  audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission to be copied  without  limit.   This  option  has  no
              effect on data tracks.

       -nocopy
              If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission to be copied only once for personal use - this is the
              default.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries  for  subsequent  audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              no permission to be copied anymore.

       tsize=#
              If the master image for the next track has been stored on a  raw
              disk,  use  this  option  to specify the valid amount of data on
              this disk. If the image of the next track is stored in a regular
              file,  the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
              this track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem  image
              use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys-
              tem image.
              In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC pro-
              gramming  interface,  even in Track at Once mode, wodim needs to
              know the size of each track before starting to write  the  disk.
              wodim  now  checks this and aborts before starting to write.  If
              this happens you will need to run genisoimage -print-size before
              and  use  the  output  (with `s' appended) as an argument to the
              tsize= option of wodim (e.g. tsize=250000s).
              See fs= option for possible arguments.


EXAMPLES
       For all examples below, it will be assumed that the CD/DVD-Recorder  is
       connected to the primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is
       set to 2.

       To record a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from the file cdim-
       age.raw:

           wodim -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To  create  an  image  for a ISO 9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge exten-
       sions:

           genisoimage -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

           mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

           mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
           ls -lR /mnt
           umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient and the  structure  of
       the  filesystem  is not too complex, wodim will run without creating an
       image of the ISO 9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

           genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The recommended minimum FIFO  size  for  running  this  pipeline  is  4
       MBytes.  As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs only be
       present if you want to use a different FIFO size.  If  your  system  is
       loaded,  you  should  run  genisoimage  in the real time class too.  To
       raise the priority of genisoimage replace the command

           genisoimage -R /master/tree
       by
           priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

           nice --18 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on systems that  don't  have  UNIX  International  compliant  real-time
       scheduling.

       wodim  runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run genisoimage at no
       more than priority 58. On other systems, you should run genisoimage  at
       no less than nice --18.

       Creating  a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested on
       a Sparcstation-2 with a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up  to  quad  speed
       when  the machine was not loaded.  A faster machine may be able to han-
       dle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with  each  track  con-
       tained in a file named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           wodim -v speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check  if  it will be ok to use double speed for the example above.
       Use the dummy write option:

           wodim -v -dummy speed=2 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from  cdimage.raw
       on  the first track, the other tracks being audio tracks from the files
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           wodim -v dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To handle drives that need to know the size of a track before  starting
       to write, first run

           genisoimage -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

           genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of genisoimage.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

           icedax dev=/dev/cdrom -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

           wodim dev=/dev/cdrw -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This  will  try  to  copy track indices and to read CD-Text information
       from disk.  If there is no CD-Text information, icedax will try to  get
       the information from freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio CD from a pipe (without intermediate files), first run

           icedax dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

           icedax dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
           wodim dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This  will  get  all  information  (including track size info) from the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data from stdin.

       If you like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called with  a
       large  enough  FIFO  size  (e.g.  fs=128m), reduce the write speed to a
       value below the read speed of the source drive  (e.g.   speed=12),  and
       get a CD/DVD drive with BURN-Free feature if it is not available yet.

       To  set  drive  options without writing a CD (e.g. to switch a drive to
       single session mode), run

           wodim dev=1,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no CD is in the drive, call

           wodim dev=1,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

           readom dev=b,t,l -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by  inten-
       tion) by calling:

           readom dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       will  create  the  files  somefile and somefile.toc.  Then write the CD
       using:

           wodim dev=1,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile



ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
              This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the
              open  call  of the SCSI transport library or a label in the file
              /etc/wodim.conf.

       CDR_SPEED
              Sets the default  speed  value  for  writing  (see  also  speed=
              option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
              Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
              If  this  environment  variable  is set, wodim will allow you to
              write at the full RAW encoding  speed  a  single  CPU  supports.
              This  will  create  high potential of buffer underruns. Use with
              care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
              If this environment variable is set, wodim  will  allow  you  to
              write  at  the  full DMA speed the system supports.  There is no
              DMA reserve for reading the data that  is  to  be  written  from
              disk.   This will create high potential of buffer underruns. Use
              with care.

       RSH    If the RSH environment is present, the  remote  connection  will
              not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed to
              by RSH.  Use e.g.  RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to  create  a  secure  shell
              connection.

              Note  that this forces wodim to create a pipe to the rsh(1) pro-
              gram and disallows wodim to directly access the  network  socket
              to  the  remote server.  This makes it impossible to set up per-
              formance parameters and slows down the connection compared to  a
              root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
              not  be  the  program  /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the  program
              pointed  to  by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server program
              name will be ignored if you log in using  an  account  that  has
              been created with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.


FILES
       /etc/wodim.conf
              Default   values  can  be  set  for  the  following  options  in
              /etc/wodim.conf.  For example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

              CDR_DEVICE
                     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
                     to the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
                     in the file /etc/wodim.conf that  allows  to  identify  a
                     specific drive on the system.

              CDR_SPEED
                     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also speed=
                     option).

              CDR_FIFOSIZE
                     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
                     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              Any other keyword (label) is an identifier (symbolic name) for a
              specific drive
                     on  the  system.   Such an identifier may not contain the
                     characters ',', '/', '@' or ':'.

                     Each line that follows a label contains a whitespace sep-
                     arated  list  of items.  Currently, four items are recog-
                     nized: the  drive's  target  specification,  the  default
                     speed  that  should  be  used for this drive, the default
                     FIFO size that should be used for this  drive  and  drive
                     specific  options.  The values for speed and fifosize may
                     be set to -1 to tell wodim to use  the  global  defaults.
                     target  can  be  -1 to use the auto-guessing of the drive
                     (see above).

                     The value for driveropts may be omitted or set to  ""  if
                     no  driveropts  are  used.   A typical line may look this
                     way:

                     plex760= 0,5,0 12   50m  varirec=1

                     pioneer= /dev/hdd   -1   -1

                     This tells wodim that a drive named plex760 is at scsibus
                     0, target 5, lun 0 and should be used with speed 12 and a
                     FIFO size of 50 MB. It also  uses  some  device  specific
                     parameter.   A  second  drive  may  is accessible via the
                     device file /dev/hdd and uses the default speed  and  the
                     default FIFO size.


SEE ALSO
       icedax(1), readom(1), genisoimage(1), ssh(1).


NOTES
       On  Solaris  you  need to stop the volume management if you like to use
       the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even things like wodim -scanbus
       will not work if the volume management is running.

       Disks  made  in  Track  At  Once  mode are not suitable as a master for
       direct mass production by CD manufacturers.  You will need the disk  at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At Once will normally be read in all CD  players.  Some  old  audio  CD
       players  however  may  produce  a  two  second  click between two audio
       tracks.

       The minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If  you  write
       smaller  tracks,  the CD-Recorder will add dummy blocks. This is not an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming  drives  are  sup-
       ported in single and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned on if you are using wodim on an  unknown  sys-
       tem.  Writing a CD is a real-time process.  NFS, CIFS and other network
       file systems won't always deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If
       you  want to use wodim with CD-images that are located on a NFS mounted
       filesystem, be sure that the FIFO size is big enough.  If you  want  to
       make sure that buffer underruns are not caused by your source disk, you
       may use the command

           wodim -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.

       There are also cases where you either need to be root or install  wodim
       executable with suid-root permissions. First, if you are using a device
       manufactured before 1999 which requires a non-MMC  driver,  you  should
       run  wodim  in  dummy  mode  before writing data. If you find a problem
       doing this, please report it to the cdrkit maintainers (see below).

       Second, certain functionality may be unusable because of  Linux's  SCSI
       command  filtering.  When  using wodim for anything except of pure data
       writing, you should also test the process  in  dummy  mode  and  report
       trouble to the contact address below.

       If  you  still want to run wodim with root permissions, you can set the
       permissions of the executable to suid-root. See the additional notes of
       your  system/program  distribution  or README.suidroot which is part of
       the cdrkit source.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon-
       nect to either the SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-Recorder or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the  data  should
       be  on  track  1  otherwise  you should create a CDplus disk which is a
       multi session disk with the first session containing the  audio  tracks
       and the following session containing the data track.

       Many  operating  systems  are  not able to read more than a single data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       If you have more information or  SCSI  command  manuals  for  currently
       unsupported CD/DVD/BR/HD-DVD-Recorders, please contact the cdrkit main-
       tainers (see below).

       Many CD recorders have bugs and often require a firmware update to work
       correctly.  If  you  experience  problems  which  cannot  be  solved or
       explained by the notes above, please look for instructions on the home-
       page of the particular manufacturer.

       Some  bugs  will  force  you to power cycle the device or to reboot the
       machine.

       The FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of data has been
       written  to  the  CD/DVD-Recorder. For this reason, there will never be
       100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.


DIAGNOSTICS
       You have 4 seconds to abort wodim start after you see the message:

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s  session.   In  most
       shells you can do that by pressing Ctrl-C.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

              wodim: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The  first  line  gives information about the transport of the command.
       The text after the first colon gives the error text for the system call
       from  the  view  of  the  kernel. It usually is: I/O error unless other
       problems happen. The next words contain a  short  description  for  the
       SCSI  command  that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there were
       any problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.  fatal
       error  means that it was not possible to transport the command (i.e. no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed
       command.

       The  third  line  gives information on the SCSI status code returned by
       the command, if the transport of the command succeeds.  This  is  error
       information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The fifth line is the error text for the sense key if  available,  fol-
       lowed  by  the  segment  number that is only valid if the command was a
       copy command. If the error message is not directly related to the  cur-
       rent command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qual-
       ifier if available.  If the type of the device is known, the sense data
       is  decoded  from  tables  in scsierrs.c .  The text is followed by the
       error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that is related to the  failed
       command  and  text for several error flags. The block number may not be
       valid.

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time
       that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:

              Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
              wodim: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It  simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size
       has been expanded to 300 sectors.

BUGS
       netscsid does not work properly and is generally  unmaintained.  It  is
       probably  not compatible with rscsi from cdrtools either. Good bugfixes
       are welcome, talk to Cdrkit maintainers.

       cuefile support is very limited, only one file is allowed.  For  volun-
       teers, see TODO file in the source.

       Specifying an audio file multiple times causes corruption of the second
       track (effectively no data plus minimum padding).

       Some of the bugs may be fixed in Joerg Schilling's cdrtools. See  there
       for details, URL attached below.


CREDITS
       Joerg Schilling (schillingATfokus.de)
                      For writing cdrecord and libscg which represent the most
                      parts of wodim's code.

       Bill Swartz    (Bill_SwartzATtwolf.com)
                      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsomeATwdc.com)
                      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (ericATandante.com)
                      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadioATnetvision.il)
                      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnagATguardian.no)
                      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplattATfeghoot.org)
                      For creating the experimental  packet  writing  support,
                      the  first implementation of CD-RW blanking support, the
                      first .wav file decoder and  many  nice  discussions  on
                      cdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (crossATeng.net)
                      For the first implementation of a BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grantATtorque.net)
                      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen-
                      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (kenATkdm.org)
                      for providing the CAM port  for  FreeBSD  together  with
                      Michael Smith (msmithATfreebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heikoAThexco.de)
                      for  making  libedc_ecc  available  (needed to write RAW
                      data sectors).


MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the development of wodim, you  may
       join the developer mailing list via this URL:

       https://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006

       The mail address of the list is: debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org


AUTHORS
       wodim  is  currently  maintained  as  part of the cdrkit project by its
       developers. Most of the code and this manual page was originally  writ-
       ten by:

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       This application is derived from "cdrecord" as included in the cdrtools
       package [1] created by Joerg Schilling, who deserves most of the credit
       for  its  success.  However, he is not involved into the development of
       this spinoff and therefore he shall not be  held  responsible  for  any
       problems  caused by it. Do not refer to this application as "cdrecord",
       do not try to get support for wodim by contacting the original authors.

       Additional information can be found on:
       https://alioth.debian.org/projects/debburn/

       If you have support questions, send them to

       debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to this list or to

       submit@bugs.debian.org

       writing at least a short description into  the  Subject  and  "Package:
       cdrkit" in the first line of the mail body.

SOURCES
       [1] Cdrtools 2.01.01a08 from May 2006, http://cdrecord.berlios.de




                                  Version 2.0                         wodim(1)