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cd(1)                            User Commands                           cd(1)



NAME
       cd, chdir, pushd, popd, dirs - change working directory

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/cd [directory]

   sh
       cd [argument]

       chdir [argument]

   csh
       cd [dir]

       chdir [dir]

       pushd [+n | dir]

       popd [+ n]

       dirs [-l]

   ksh
       cd [-L] [-P] [arg]

       cd old new

DESCRIPTION
   /usr/bin/cd
       The /usr/bin/cd utility changes the current directory in the context of
       the cd utility only. This is in contrast to the version built into  the
       shell.  /usr/bin/cd  has  no  effect on the invoking process but can be
       used to determine whether or not a given directory can be  set  as  the
       current directory.

   sh
       The Bourne shell built-in cd changes the current directory to argument.
       The shell parameter HOME is the default argument. The  shell  parameter
       CDPATH  defines  the search path for the directory containing argument.
       Alternative directory names are separated by a colon (:).  The  default
       path  is  <&lt;null>&gt; (specifying the current directory). The current direc-
       tory is specified by a null path name,  which  can  appear  immediately
       after  the  equal sign or between the colon delimiters anywhere else in
       the path list. If argument begins with `/', `.', or `.. ',  the  search
       path is not used. Otherwise, each directory in the path is searched for
       argument. cd must have execute (search) permission in argument. Because
       a  new process is created to execute each command, cd would be ineffec-
       tive if it were written as a normal command; therefore,  it  is  recog-
       nized  by  and  is  internal  to  the  shell.  (See  pwd(1), sh(1), and
       chdir(2)).

       chdir is just another way to call cd.

   csh
       If dir is not specified, the C shell built-in  cd  uses  the  value  of
       shell  parameter  HOME as the new working directory. If dir specifies a
       complete path starting with ` / ', ` . ', or ` .. ',  dir  becomes  the
       new  working  directory.  If neither case applies, cd tries to find the
       designated directory relative to one of  the  paths  specified  by  the
       CDPATH  shell  variable.  CDPATH  has  the  same syntax as, and similar
       semantics to, the PATH shell variable. cd must  have  execute  (search)
       permission  in  dir.  Because  a new process is created to execute each
       command, cd would be ineffective if it were written as  a  normal  com-
       mand;  therefore,  it  is recognized by and is internal to the C-shell.
       (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

       chdir changes the shell's working directory to  directory  dir.  If  no
       argument  is given, change to the home directory of the user. If dir is
       a relative pathname not found in the current directory, check for it in
       those  directories listed in the cdpath variable. If dir is the name of
       a shell variable whose value starts with a /, change to  the  directory
       named by that value.

       pushd  pushes  a directory onto the directory stack. With no arguments,
       exchange the top two elements.

       +n       Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the stack and cd to it.



       dir      Push the current working directory onto the stack  and  change
                to dir.



       popd pops the directory stack and cd to the new top directory. The ele-
       ments of the directory stack are numbered from 0 starting at the top.

       +n       Discard the n'th entry in the stack.



       dirs prints the directory stack, most recent to  the  left;  the  first
       directory shown is the current directory. With the -l argument, produce
       an unabbreviated printout; use of the ~ notation is suppressed.

   ksh
       The Korn shell built-in cd command can be in either of  two  forms.  In
       the first form it changes the current directory to arg. If arg is - the
       directory is changed to the previous directory. The shell variable HOME
       is  the default arg. The environment variable PWD is set to the current
       directory. If the PWD is changed, the OLDPWD environment variable shall
       also be changed to the value of the old working directory, that is, the
       current working directory immediately  prior  to  the  call  to  change
       directory  (cd).  The shell variable CDPATH defines the search path for
       the directory containing arg. Alternative directory names are separated
       by a colon (:). The default path is null (specifying the current direc-
       tory). The current directory is specified by a null  path  name,  which
       can appear immediately after the equal sign or between the colon delim-
       iters anywhere else in the path list. If arg begins with a ` / ',  `  .
       ',  or ` .. ', then the search path is not used. Otherwise, each direc-
       tory in the path is searched for arg. If unsuccessful, cd  attempts  to
       change  directories  to the pathname formed by the concatenation of the
       value of PWD, a slash character, and arg.

       -L       Handles the operation dot-dot (..)  logically.  Symbolic  link
                components are not resolved before dot-dot components are pro-
                cessed.



       -P       Handles the operand dot-dot physically. Symbolic  link  compo-
                nents are resolved before dot-dot components are processed.



       If  both -L and -P options are specified, the last option to be invoked
       is used and the other is ignored. If neither -L nor  -P  is  specified,
       the operand is handled dot-dot logically.

       The  second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in
       the current directory name, PWD and tries to change to this new  direc-
       tory.

       The  cd  command  cannot  be executed by rksh. Because a new process is
       created to execute each command, cd would be  ineffective  if  it  were
       written  as  a  normal  command;  therefore, it is recognized by and is
       internal to the Korn shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       directory       An absolute or relative pathname of the directory  that
                       becomes  the  new working directory. The interpretation
                       of a relative pathname by  cd  depends  on  the  CDPATH
                       environment variable.



OUTPUT
       If a non-empty directory name from CDPATH is used, an absolute pathname
       of the new working directory is written to the standard output as  fol-
       lows:

              "%s\n", <new directory>


       Otherwise, there is no output.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of cd: LANG, LC_ALL,  LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

       CDPATH          A  colon-separated  list  of  pathnames  that  refer to
                       directories. If the directory operand  does  not  begin
                       with  a  slash ( / ) character, and the first component
                       is not dot or dot-dot, cd searches for directory  rela-
                       tive to each directory named in the CDPATH variable, in
                       the order listed. The new working directory sets to the
                       first  matching  directory  found.  An  empty string in
                       place of a directory pathname  represents  the  current
                       directory. If CDPATH is not set, it is treated as if it
                       were an empty string.



       HOME            The name of the home directory, used when no  directory
                       operand is specified.



       OLDPWD          A  pathname  of the previous working directory, used by
                       cd-.



       PWD             A pathname of the current working directory, set by  cd
                       after it has changed to that directory.




EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned by cd:

       0        The directory was successfully changed.



       >&gt;0       An error occurred.



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).   ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE   VALUE   AvailabilitySUNWcsu
       Interface StabilityStandard


SEE ALSO
       csh(1),  ksh(1),  pwd(1),  sh(1),  chdir(2), attributes(5), environ(5),
       standards(5)



SunOS 5.10                        13 Jul 2004                            cd(1)