cd - Changes the current working directory
The C shell has a built-in version of the cd command. If you are using
the C shell, and want to guarantee that you are using the command
described here, you must specify the full path /usr/bin/cd. See the
csh(1) reference page for a description of the built-in command.
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The pathname (either full or relative) to be used as the new working
If (hyphen) is specified as the directory, the cd command changes your
current (working) directory to the directory name saved in the environ-
ment variable OLDPWD.
The cd command moves you from your present directory to another directory.
You must have execute (search) permission in the specified directory.
If you do not specify a directory, cd moves you to your login directory
($HOME in ksh and sh environments, or $home in csh environment). If the
specified directory name is a full pathname, it becomes the current working
directory. A full pathname begins with a / (slash) for the root directory,
with a . (dot) for the current working directory, or with a .. (dot dot)
for the parent directory. If the directory name is not a full pathname, cd
searches for it relative to one of the paths specified by the $CDPATH shell
variable (or $cdpath csh variable). This variable has the same syntax as,
and similar semantics to, the $PATH shell variable (or $path csh variable).
The following exit values are returned:
0 The directory was successfully changed.
>>0 An error occurred.
1. To change to your home directory, enter:
2. To change to a new directory, enter:
This changes the current working directory to /usr/include. Now file
pathnames that do not begin with / or ../ specify files located in
3. To go down one level of the directory tree, enter:
If the current working directory is /usr/include and if it contains a
subdirectory named sys, then /usr/include/sys becomes the current
4. To go up one level of the directory tree, enter:
The special filename .. (dot dot) always refers to the directory
immediately above the current working directory.
The following environment variables affect the execution of cd:
A colon-separated list of pathnames that refer to directories. If the
directory operand does not begin with a / (slash) character, and the
first component is not . (dot) or .. (dot dot), the cd command will
search for directory relative to each directory named in the CDPATH
variable, in the order listed. The new working directory will be set to
the first matching directory found. An empty string in place of a
directory pathname represents the current directory. If CDPATH is not
set, it will be treated as if it were an empty string.
The name of the home directory, used when no directory operand is
Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that
are unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding value
from the default locale is used. If any of the internationalization
variables contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of
the variables had been defined.
If set to a non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the
other internationalization variables.
Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to
multibyte characters in arguments).
Determines the locale for the format and contents of diagnostic mes-
sages written to standard error.
Determines the location of message catalogues for the processing of
A pathname of the previous working directory, used by the cd - form of
the command. The cd command sets this variable to your current working
directory before changing to a new current directory.
PWD A pathname of the current working directory, set by the cd command
after it has changed to that directory.
Commands: csh(1), ksh(1), pwd(1), Bourne shell sh(1b), POSIX shell sh(1p)