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cat(1)                           User Commands                          cat(1)



NAME
       cat - concatenate and display files

SYNOPSIS
       cat [-nbsuvet] [file...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  cat utility reads each file in sequence and writes it on the stan-
       dard output. Thus:

       example% cat file
       prints file on your terminal, and:

       example% cat file1 file2 >>file3
       concatenates file1 and file2, and writes the results in  file3.  If  no
       input file is given, cat reads from the standard input file.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -n       Precede each line output with its line number.



       -b       Number  the lines, as -n, but omit the line numbers from blank
                lines.



       -u       The output is not buffered. (The default is buffered output.)



       -s       cat is silent about non-existent files.



       -v       Non-printing characters (with the exception of tabs, new-lines
                and  form-feeds) are printed visibly. ASCII control characters
                (octal 000 - 037) are printed as ^n, where  n  is  the  corre-
                sponding  ASCII  character in the range octal 100 - 137 (@, A,
                B, C, . . ., X, Y, Z, [, \, ], ^, and _);  the  DEL  character
                (octal 0177) is printed ^?. Other non-printable characters are
                printed as M-x, where x is the ASCII  character  specified  by
                the low-order seven bits.



       When used with the -v option, the following options may be used:

       -e       A  $  character will be printed at the end of each line (prior
                to the new-line).



       -t       Tabs will be printed as ^I's and formfeeds to  be  printed  as
                ^L's.



       The -e and -t options are ignored if the -v option is not specified.

OPERANDS
       The following operand is supported:

       file            A  path name of an input file. If no file is specified,
                       the standard input is used. If file is  `-',  cat  will
                       read  from  the  standard  input  at  that point in the
                       sequence. cat will not close and reopen standard  input
                       when it is referenced in this way, but will accept mul-
                       tiple occurrences of `-' as file.




USAGE
       See largefile(5) for the  description  of  the  behavior  of  cat  when
       encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1: Concatenating a file

       The following command:

       example% cat myfile

       writes the contents of the file myfile to standard output.

       Example 2: Concatenating two files into one

       The following command:

       example% cat doc1 doc2 >> doc.all
       concatenates the files doc1 and doc2 and writes the result to doc.all.

       Example  3:  Concatenating  two arbitrary pieces of input with a single
       invocation

       The command:

       example% cat start - middle - end >> file
       when standard input is a terminal, gets two arbitrary pieces  of  input
       from  the terminal with a single invocation of cat. Note, however, that
       if standard input is a regular file, this would be  equivalent  to  the
       command:

       cat start - middle /dev/null end >> file
       because  the  entire  contents of the file would be consumed by cat the
       first time `-' was used as a file operand and an end-of-file  condition
       would be detected immediately when `-' was referenced the second time.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See  environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of cat: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE,  LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0        All input files were output successfully.



       >>0       An error occurred.



ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


       tab()     allbox;     cw(2.750000i)|    cw(2.750000i)    lw(2.750000i)|
       lw(2.750000i).   ATTRIBUTE  TYPEATTRIBUTE   VALUE   AvailabilitySUNWcsu
       CSIenabled Interface StabilityStandard


SEE ALSO
       touch(1), attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
       Redirecting  the  output  of  cat onto one of the files being read will
       cause the loss of the data originally in the file being read. For exam-
       ple,

       example% cat filename1 filename2 >>filename1
       causes the original data in filename1 to be lost.



SunOS 5.10                        1 Feb 1995                            cat(1)