cat - concatenate and display
cat [ - ] [ -benstuv ] [ filename... ]
SYSTEM V SYNOPSIS
/usr/5bin/cat [ - ] [ -estuv ] [ filename... ]
The System V version of this command is available with the System V
software installation option. Refer to for information on how to
install optional software.
cat reads each filename in sequence and displays it on the standard
example% cat goodies
displays the contents of goodies on the standard output, and
example% cat goodies1 goodies2 >> goodies3
concatenates the first two files and places the result on the third.
If no filename argument is given, or if the argument `-' is given, cat
reads from the standard input. If the standard input is a terminal,
input is terminated by an EOF condition.
-b Number the lines, as -n, but omit the line numbers from blank
-e Display non-printing characters, as -v, and in addition display
a $ character at the end of each line.
-n Precede each line output with its line number.
-s Substitute a single blank line for multiple adjacent blank
-t Display non-printing characters, as -v, and in addition display
TAB characters as ^I (CTRL-I).
-u Unbuffered. If -u is not used, output is buffered in blocks, or
line-buffered if standard output is a terminal.
-v Display non-printing characters (with the exception of TAB and
NEWLINE characters) so that they are visible. Control charac-
ters print like ^X for CTRL-X; the DEL character (octal 0177)
print as `^?'. Non-ASCII characters (with the high bit set) are
displayed as M-x where M- stands for `meta' and x is the charac-
ter specified by the seven low order bits.
SYSTEM V OPTIONS
-e If the -v option is specified, display a $ character at the end
of each line.
-s Suppress messages about files which cannot be opened.
-t If the -v option is specified, display TAB characters as ^I
(CTRL-I) and FORMFEED characters as ^L (CTRL-L).
-v Display non-printing character (with the exception of TAB, NEW-
LINE, and FORMFEED characters) so that they are visible.
The environment variables LC_CTYPE, LANG, and LC_default control the
character classification throughout cat. On entry to cat, these envi-
ronment variables are checked in the following order: LC_CTYPE, LANG,
and LC_default. When a valid value is found, remaining environment
variables for character classification are ignored. For example, a new
setting for LANG does not override the current valid character classi-
fication rules of LC_CTYPE. When none of the values is valid, the
shell character classification defaults to the POSIX.1 "C" locale.
cp(1), ex(1), more(1), pg(1V), pr(1V), tail(1)
Beware of `cat a b >> a' and `cat a b >> b', which destroy the input
files before reading them.
19 July 1989 CAT(1V)