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BVI(1)                           User Commands                          BVI(1)



NAME
       bvi, bview - visual editor for binary files

VERSION
       bvi-1.3.2

SYNOPSIS
       bvi   [-R] [-c cmd] [-f script] [-b begin] [-e end] [-s size] file...
       bview [-R] [-c cmd] [-f script] [-b begin] [-e end] [-s size] file...

OPTIONS
       file...
           A  list  of  filenames.  The first one will be the current file and
           will be read into  the  buffer.  The  cursor  will  be  positioned
           on the first line of the buffer.  You can get to the other files
           with the ":next" command.

       -R  "Readonly": The readonly flag is set for all the files, preventing
           accidental overwriting with a write command.


       -b begin
           causes bvi to load a file not from the start but from offset begin.


       -e end
           causes bvi to load a file not till end but till address end.


       -s size
           causes bvi not to load the complete file but only size bytes.


       -c cmd
           cmd will be  executed  after  the  first file  has been read. If
           the  cmd  contains spaces  it  must  be enclosed in double quotes
           (this depends on  the  shell  that  is  used).

       -f script
           This command provides a means for collecting a series of "ex"
           (colon) commands into a script file, then using this file to edit
           other files. Since there is no binary stream editor "bsed", you can
           use this option to make several global changes in a binary file.

DESCRIPTION
       Bvi stands for "Binary VIsual editor".  Bvi is a screen oriented editor
       for binary files; its command set is based on that of the vi(1) text
       editor.  As a binary editor does not have the concept of "lines" there
       are differences from Vi commands wherever the latter are line
       orientate.

COMPARISON
       The main differences between Vi and Bvi are:

       The screen is divided in three sections or panes: The byte offset
       (extreme left), the hex pane (middle), and an ascii pane (right) which
       shows as printable characters those bytes in the hex pane.  On an 80
       column terminal there will be sixteen hex values and their ASCII values
       on each screen line.  Note that (as one would expect) the first byte
       has the offset '0' (zero).

       You can toggle between the hex and ascii windows with the tab key
       (TAB).  Toggling between these two windows does not change the current
       position (offset) within the file.

       No "lines" concept: Files are treated as one long stream of bytes.  The
       characters "newline" and "carriage return" are not special, id est they
       never mark the end of lines.  Therefore the lines on the screen do not
       represent lines in the usual way.  Data is broken across screen lines
       arbitarily.  As a consequence there are no commands in bvi from ex or
       vi that are based on line numbers, eg "dd", "yy", 'C', 'S', 'o', 'O'.
       This also changes the meaning of "range" before the ":write" command to
       a byte offset, ie the command ":100,200w foo" writes all *bytes* (not
       lines) from offset 100 to offset 200 to the file "foo".

       No "text objects": There are also no text-specific arrangements like
       words, paragraphs, sentences, sections and so on.

       Extended "ruler": The bottom line of the screen shows the current
       address (byte offset) and the current character in these notations:

               octal, hexadecimal, decimal and ascii.

       Search patterns: All search commands understand these special
       characters:

            .    any character
            []   set of characters
            *    zero or more occurrences of previous char or set

       But as there is no concept of lines you cannot use the standard symbols
       ("anchors") for "begin-of-line" ('^') and "end-of-line" ('$').
       Searching for the start/end of lines must be done explicitly by adding
       these special characters to your search pattern using these meta
       sequences:

               \n   newline
               \r   return
               \t   tab
               \0   binary zero

       Additional search commands: Similar to the text search commands there
       are additional hex-search functions '\' and '#' which allow to search
       for any byte value.  Example:  "\62 76 69" will search for the string
       "bvi".  Spaces between hex value are optional, so searching for
       "6775636B6573" will find "guckes".

       Changing the length of data (insertion, deletion) moves the data to
       other addresses; this is bad for many cases (eg. databases, program
       files) and is thus disabled by default. You can enable this commands by
       typing

            :set memmove

       BVI Modes:

       Command Mode (Normal Mode):

       Input is treated as command.  Note that command mode is the default
       mode after startup and after escaping from input mode.  Use ESC
       (escape) to cancel a partial (uncompleted) command.

       Input Mode:

       Input is treated as replacement of current characters or (after the end
       of the file) is appended to the current file.  This mode is entered
       from command mode by typing one of 'i', 'I', 'A', 'r', or 'R'.  You can
       enter the characters from the keyboard (in the ASCII window) or
       hexadecimal values (in the HEX window).  Type TAB to switch between
       these two windows.  Type ESC to finish the current input and return to
       command mode.  Type CTRL-C to cancel current command abnormally.

       Command line mode (Last Line Mode or : mode):

       Similar to vi, this mode is entered by typing one of the characters : /
       ? \ # !  The command is terminated and executed by typing a carriage
       return; to cancel a partially typed command, type ESC to cancel the
       current command and return to command mode.

ENVIRONMENT
       The editor recognizes the environment variable BVIINIT as  a command
       (or  list of commands) to run when it starts up. If this variable is
       undefined, the editor  checks  for  startup commands  in  the  file
       ~/.bvirc  file, which you must own.  However, if there is a .bvirc
       owned by you  in  the  current directory,  the  editor takes its
       startup commands from this file - overriding both the file in your home
       directory  and the environment variable.

TERMINOLOGY
       Characters names are abbreviated as follows:
            Abbr.     ASCII     name      aka
            CR        010       carriage return
            ^A        001       control-a
            ^H        008       control-h
            ^I        009       control-i      aka TAB
            ^U        021       control-u
            ^Z        026       control-z
            ESC       027       escape         aka ESC
            DEL       127       delete
            LEFT      ---       left  arrow
            RIGHT     ---       right arrow
            DOWN      ---       down  arrow
            UP        ---       up    arrow

COMMAND SUMMARY
       See the TERMINOLOGY for a summary on key name abbreviations used within
       the following description of commands.

       Abstract:
         Arrow keys move the cursor on the screen within the current window.

       Sample commands:
         :version    show version info
         <- v ^ ->   arrow keys move the cursor
         h j k l     same as arrow keys
         u           undo previous change
         ZZ          exit bvi, saving changes
         :q!         quit, discarding changes
         /text       search for text
         ^U ^D       scroll up or down

       Counts before bvi commands:
         Numbers may be typed as a prefix to some commands.
         They are interpreted in one of these ways.

         screen column       |
         byte of file        G
         scroll amount       ^D  ^U
         repeat effect       most of the rest

       Interrupting, canceling
         ESC         end insert or incomplete command
         DEL         (delete or rubout) interrupts

       File manipulation:
         ZZ          if file modified, write and exit;
                     otherwise, exit
         :w          write changed buffer to file
         :w!         write changed buffer to file, overriding
                     read-only ("forced" write)
         :q          quit when no changes have been made
         :q!         quit and discard all changes
         :e file     edit file
         :e!         re-read current file, discard all changes
         :e #        edit the alternate file
         :e! #       edit the alternate file, discard changes
         :w  file    write current buffer to file
         :w! file    write current buffer to file overriding
                     read-only (this "overwrites" the file)
         :sh         run the command as set with option "shell",
                     then return
         :!cmd       run the command cmd from "shell", then
                     return
         :n          edit next file in the argument list
         :f          show current filename, modified flag,
                     current byte offset, and percentage of
                     current position within buffer
         ^G          same as :f

       Additional edit commands
         You can insert/append/change bytes in ASCII/binary/decimal/
       hexadecimal or octal representation. You can enter several (screen)
       lines of input. A line with only a period (.) in it will terminate the
       command. You must not type in values greater than a byte value. This
       causes an abandonment of the command.  Pressing the CR key does not
       insert a newline - character into the file. If you use ASCII mode you
       can use the special characters \n, \r, \t and \0.

         :i aCR      insert bytes (ASCII) at cursor position
         :a bCR      append bytes (Binary) at end of file
         :c hCR      change bytes (hexadecimal) at cursor position

       Bit-level operations
         :and n      bitwise 'and' operation with value n
         :or  n      bitwise 'or' operation with value n
         :xor n      bitwise 'xor' operation with value n
         :neg        two's   complement
         :not        logical negation
         :sl i       shift  each byte i bits to the left
         :sr i       shift  each byte i bits to the right
         :rl i       rotate each byte i bits to the left
         :rr i       rotate each byte i bits to the right

       Command mode addresses
         :w foo         write current buffer to a file
                        named "foo"
         :5,10w foo     copy byte 5 through 100 into as
                        file named foo
         :.,.+20w foo   copy the current byte and the next
                        20 bytes to foo
         :^,'aw foo     write all bytes from the beginning
                        through marker 'a'
         :/pat/,$ foo   search pattern pat and and copy
                        through end of file

       Positioning within file:
         ^B      backward screen
         ^F      forward  screen
         ^D      scroll down half screen
         ^U      scroll up   half screen
         nG      go to the specified character
                 (end default), where n is a decimal address
         /pat    next line matching pat
         ?pat    previous line matching pat
         \hex    jump to next     occurrence of hex string hex
         #hex    jump to previous occurrence of hex string hex
         n       repeat last search command
         N       repeat last search command, but in opposite
                 direction

       Adjusting the screen:
         ^L      clear and redraw screen
         zCR     redraw screen with current line at top of screen
         z-      redraw screen with current line at bottom of
                 screen
         z.      redraw screen with current line at center of
                 screen
         /pat/z- search for pattern pat and then move currents
                 line to bottom
         ^E      scroll screen down 1 line
         ^Y      scroll screen up   1 line

       Marking and returning:
         mx      mark current position with lower-case letter x
                 Note: this command works for all lower-case letters
         'x      move cursor to mark x in ASCII section
         `x      move cursor to mark x in HEX section
         ''      move cursor to previous context in ASCII section
         ``      move cursor to previous context in HEX section

       Line positioning:
         H           jump to first      line on screen ("top")
         L           jump to last       line on screen ("low")
         M           jump to middle     line on screen ("middle")
         -           jump onto previous line on screen
         +           jump onto next     line on screen
         CR          same as +
         DOWN or j   next     line, same column
         UP   or k   previous line, same column

       Character positioning:
         ^           first byte in HEX window
         $           end of screen line
         l or RIGHT  jump onto next byte (within current
                     screen line)
         h or LEFT   jump onto previous byte (within current
                     screen line)
         ^H          same as LEFT
         space       same as RIGHT
         fx          find next     occurrence of character x
         Fx          find previous occurrence of character x
         n|          jump onto nth byte/character within current
                     line

       Strings:
         (works similar to the strings(1) command)
         Note:  "Words" are defined as strings of "nonprinting
         characters".
         e       jump to next     end   of word
         w       jump to next     begin of word
         b       jump to previous begin of word
         W       forward to next string delimited with a
                 \0 or \n
         B       back to previous string delimited with a
                 nonprinting char

       Corrections during insert:
         ^H      erase last character (backspace)
         erase   your erase character, same as ^H (backspace)
         ESC     ends insertion, back to command mode

       Append and replace:
         A       append at end of file
         rx      replace current bte with char 'x'
         R       enter replace mode; for all subsequent input,
                 the current byte is overwritten with the next
       input character; leave replace mode with ESC.

       Miscellaneous Operations:
         TAB     toggle between ASCII and HEX section

       Yank and Put:
         3ySPACE yank 3 characters
         p       insert contents of yank buffer
         o       replace text with content of yank buffer
         P       put back at end of file

       Undo, Redo:
         u       undo last change
                 Note:  Only the last change can be undone.
                 Therefore this commands toggles between the
                 last and second-t-last state of the buffer.

       Setting Options:
         With the :set command you can set options in bvi

         Option     Default  Description

         autowrite  noaw     Save current file, if modified, if you
                             give a :n, :r or ! command
         columns    cm=16    on an 80 character wide terminal
         ignorecase noic     Ignores letter case in searching
         magic      nomagic  Makes . [ * special in patterns
         memmove    nomm     enables insert and delete commands
         offset     of=0     adds an offset to the diplayed addresses
         readonly   noro     If set, write fails unless you use ! after command
         scroll     sc=1/2 window
                             Number of lines scrolled by ^U and ^D
         showmode   mo       Displays statusline on bottom of the screen
         terse      noterse  Let you obtain shorter error messages
         window     window=screensize
                             Lines in window, can be reduced at slow terminals
         wordlength wl=4     Length of an ASCII-string found by w, W, b or B
         wrapscan   ws       Searches wrap around past the end of the file
         unixstyle  nous     The representation of ascii characters below
                             32 is displayed in the statusline as shown
                             in ascii(7) if unset rather in DOS-style (^A)


AUTHOR
       bvi was developed by Gerhard Buergmann, Vienna, Austria
       Gerhard.Buergmann@puon.at

WWW
       Bvi Homepage:  http://bvi.sourceforge.net/
       Vi Pages:      http://www.guckes.net/vi/clones.php3
                      (all about Vi and its clones)

FILES
        $HOME/.bvirc          editor startup file
        ./.bvirc              editor startup file

BUGS
       Bvi does not update the screen when the terminal changes its size.

SEE ALSO
       vi(1), strings(1), ascii(5)




3rd Berkeley Distribution      BVI Version 1.3.2                        BVI(1)