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BUSYBOX(1)                          busybox                         BUSYBOX(1)



NAME
       BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux

SYNTAX
        BusyBox <function> [arguments...]  # or

        <function> [arguments...]          # if symlinked

DESCRIPTION
       BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a
       single small executable. It provides minimalist replacements for most
       of the utilities you usually find in GNU coreutils, util-linux, etc.
       The utilities in BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-
       featured GNU cousins; however, the options that are included provide
       the expected functionality and behave very much like their GNU
       counterparts.

       BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources
       in mind.  It is also extremely modular so you can easily include or
       exclude commands (or features) at compile time. This makes it easy to
       customize your embedded systems. To create a working system, just add
       /dev, /etc, and a Linux kernel.  BusyBox provides a fairly complete
       POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.

       BusyBox is extremely configurable.  This allows you to include only the
       components you need, thereby reducing binary size. Run 'make config' or
       'make menuconfig' to select the functionality that you wish to enable.
       Then run 'make' to compile BusyBox using your configuration.

       After the compile has finished, you should use 'make install' to
       install BusyBox. This will install the 'bin/busybox' binary, in the
       target directory specified by CONFIG_PREFIX. CONFIG_PREFIX can be set
       when configuring BusyBox, or you can specify an alternative location at
       install time (i.e., with a command line like 'make
       CONFIG_PREFIX=/tmp/foo install'). If you enabled any applet
       installation scheme (either as symlinks or hardlinks), these will also
       be installed in the location pointed to by CONFIG_PREFIX.

USAGE
       BusyBox is a multi-call binary.  A multi-call binary is an executable
       program that performs the same job as more than one utility program.
       That means there is just a single BusyBox binary, but that single
       binary acts like a large number of utilities.  This allows BusyBox to
       be smaller since all the built-in utility programs (we call them
       applets) can share code for many common operations.

       You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing a command as an argument on the
       command line.  For example, entering

               /bin/busybox ls

       will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.

       Of course, adding '/bin/busybox' into every command would be painful.
       So most people will invoke BusyBox using links to the BusyBox binary.

       For example, entering

               ln -s /bin/busybox ls
               ./ls

       will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if the 'ls' command has been
       compiled into BusyBox).  Generally speaking, you should never need to
       make all these links yourself, as the BusyBox build system will do this
       for you when you run the 'make install' command.

       If you invoke BusyBox with no arguments, it will provide you with a
       list of the applets that have been compiled into your BusyBox binary.

COMMON OPTIONS
       Most BusyBox commands support the --help argument to provide a terse
       runtime description of their behavior.  If the
       CONFIG_FEATURE_VERBOSE_USAGE option has been enabled, more detailed
       usage information will also be available.

COMMANDS
       Currently defined functions include:

               [, [[, addgroup, adduser, adjtimex, ar, arp, arping, ash, awk,
               basename, bbconfig, bbsh, brctl, bunzip2, busybox, bzcat, bzip2,
               cal, cat, catv, chat, chattr, chcon, chgrp, chmod, chown,
               chpasswd, chpst, chroot, chrt, chvt, cksum, clear, cmp, comm, cp,
               cpio, crond, crontab, cryptpw, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt,
               delgroup, deluser, devfsd, df, dhcprelay, diff, dirname, dmesg,
               dnsd, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg_deb, du, dumpkmap, dumpleases, e2fsck,
               echo, ed, eject, env, envdir, envuidgid, ether_wake, expand,
               expr, fakeidentd, false, fbset, fdflush, fdformat, fdisk,
               fetchmail, find, findfs, fold, free, freeramdisk, fsck,
               fsck_minix, ftpget, ftpput, fuser, getenforce, getopt, getsebool,
               getty, grep, gunzip, gzip, halt, hd, hdparm, head, hexdump,
               hostid, hostname, httpd, hwclock, id, ifconfig, ifdown,
               ifenslave, ifup, inetd, init, insmod, install, ip, ipaddr,
               ipcalc, ipcrm, ipcs, iplink, iproute, iprule, iptunnel, kbd_mode,
               kill, killall, killall5, klogd, lash, last, length, less, ln,
               load_policy, loadfont, loadkmap, logger, login, logname, logread,
               losetup, lpd, lpq, lpr, ls, lsattr, lsmod, lzmacat, makedevs,
               matchpathcon, md5sum, mdev, mesg, microcom, mkdir, mke2fs,
               mkfifo, mkfs_minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, modprobe, more, mount,
               mountpoint, mt, mv, nameif, nc, netstat, nice, nmeter, nohup,
               nslookup, od, openvt, passwd, patch, pgrep, pidof, ping, ping6,
               pivot_root, pkill, poweroff, printenv, printf, ps, pscan, pwd,
               raidautorun, rdate, readahead, readlink, readprofile, realpath,
               reboot, renice, reset, resize, restorecon, rm, rmdir, rmmod,
               route, rpm, rpm2cpio, rtcwake, run_parts, runcon, runlevel,
               runsv, runsvdir, rx, script, sed, selinuxenabled, sendmail, seq,
               sestatus, setarch, setconsole, setenforce, setfiles, setkeycodes,
               setlogcons, setsebool, setsid, setuidgid, sha1sum, slattach,
               sleep, softlimit, sort, split, start_stop_daemon, stat, strings,
               stty, su, sulogin, sum, sv, svlogd, swapoff, swapon, switch_root,
               sync, sysctl, syslogd, tac, tail, tar, taskset, tcpsvd, tee,
               telnet, telnetd, test, tftp, tftpd, time, top, touch, tr,
               traceroute, true, tty, ttysize, tune2fs, udhcpc, udhcpd, udpsvd,
               umount, uname, uncompress, unexpand, uniq, unix2dos, unlzma,
               unzip, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, vconfig, vi, vlock,
               watch, watchdog, wc, wget, which, who, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, zcip

COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
       addgroup
           addgroup   [-g GID] [user_name] group_name

           Add a group or add an user to a group

           Options:

                   -g GID  Group id

       adduser
           adduser    [OPTIONS] user_name

           Add an user

           Options:

                   -h DIR          Home directory
                   -g GECOS        GECOS field
                   -s SHELL        Login shell
                   -G GROUP        Add user to existing group
                   -S              Create a system user
                   -D              Do not assign a password
                   -H              Do not create home directory

       adjtimex
           adjtimex   [-q] [-o offset] [-f frequency] [-p timeconstant] [-t
           tick]

           Read and optionally set system timebase parameters. See
           adjtimex(2).

           Options:

                   -q              Quiet
                   -o offset       Time offset, microseconds
                   -f frequency    Frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
                                   (positive values make clock run faster)
                   -t tick         Microseconds per tick, usually 10000
                   -p timeconstant

       ar  ar         [-o] [-v] [-p] [-t] [-x] ARCHIVE FILES

           Extract or list FILES from an ar archive

           Options:

                   -o      Preserve original dates
                   -p      Extract to stdout
                   -t      List
                   -x      Extract
                   -v      Verbose

       arp arp [-vn]     [-H type] [-i if] -a [hostname] [-v]        [-i if]
           -d hostname [pub] [-v] [-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [temp]
           [-v] [-H type] [-i if] -s hostname hw_addr [netmask nm] pub
           [-v] [-H type] [-i if] -Ds hostname ifa [netmask nm] pub

           Manipulate ARP cache

           Options:

                   -a              Display (all) hosts
                   -s              Set new ARP entry
                   -d              Delete a specified entry
                   -v              Verbose
                   -n              Don't resolve names
                   -i IF           Network interface
                   -D              Read <hwaddr> from given device
                   -A, -p AF       Protocol family
                   -H HWTYPE       Hardware address type

       arping
           arping     [-fqbDUA] [-c count] [-w timeout] [-I dev] [-s sender]
           target

           Send ARP requests/replies

           Options:

                   -f              Quit on first ARP reply
                   -q              Quiet
                   -b              Keep broadcasting, don't go unicast
                   -D              Duplicated address detection mode
                   -U              Unsolicited ARP mode, update your neighbors
                   -A              ARP answer mode, update your neighbors
                   -c N            Stop after sending N ARP requests
                   -w timeout      Time to wait for ARP reply, in seconds
                   -I dev          Interface to use (default eth0)
                   -s sender       Sender IP address
                   target          Target IP address

       ash ash        [FILE]...  or: ash -c command [args]...

           The ash shell

       awk awk        [OPTION]... [program-text] [FILE...]

           Options:

                   -v var=val      Set variable
                   -F sep          Use sep as field separator
                   -f file         Read program from file

       basename
           basename   FILE [SUFFIX]

           Strip directory path and suffixes from FILE.  If specified, also
           remove any trailing SUFFIX.

           Example:

                   $ basename /usr/local/bin/foo
                   foo
                   $ basename /usr/local/bin/
                   bin
                   $ basename /foo/bar.txt .txt
                   bar

       bbconfig
           bbconfig

           Print the config file which built busybox

       bbsh
           bbsh       [FILE]...  or: bbsh -c command [args]...

           The bbsh shell (command interpreter)

       brctl
           brctl      COMMAND [BRIDGE [INTERFACE]]

           Manage ethernet bridges.

           Commands:

                   addbr BRIDGE            Create BRIDGE
                   delbr BRIDGE            Delete BRIDGE
                   addif BRIDGE IFACE      Add IFACE to BRIDGE
                   delif BRIDGE IFACE      Delete IFACE from BRIDGE
                   setageing BRIDGE TIME           Set ageing time
                   setfd BRIDGE TIME               Set bridge forward delay
                   sethello BRIDGE TIME            Set hello time
                   setmaxage BRIDGE TIME           Set max message age
                   setpathcost BRIDGE COST         Set path cost
                   setportprio BRIDGE PRIO         Set port priority
                   setbridgeprio BRIDGE PRIO       Set bridge priority
                   stp BRIDGE [1|0]                STP on/off

       bunzip2
           bunzip2    [OPTION]... [FILE]

           Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-' or omitted)

           Options:

                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -f      Force

       busybox
           busybox

           Hello world!

       bzcat
           bzcat      FILE

           Uncompress to stdout

       bzip2
           bzip2      [OPTION]... [FILE]...

           Compress FILE(s) with bzip2 algorithm.  When FILE is '-' or
           unspecified, reads standard input. Implies -c.

           Options:

                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -d      Decompress
                   -f      Force
                   -1..-9  Compression level

       cal cal        [-jy] [[month] year]

           Display a calendar

           Options:

                   -j      Use julian dates
                   -y      Display the entire year

       cat cat        [-u] [FILE]...

           Concatenate FILE(s) and print them to stdout

           Options:

                   -u      Use unbuffered i/o (ignored)

           Example:

                   $ cat /proc/uptime
                   110716.72 17.67

       catv
           catv       [-etv] [FILE]...

           Display nonprinting characters as ^x or M-x

           Options:

                   -e      End each line with $
                   -t      Show tabs as ^I
                   -v      Don't use ^x or M-x escapes

       chat
           chat       EXPECT [SEND [EXPECT [SEND...]]]

           Useful for interacting with a modem connected to stdin/stdout.  A
           script consists of one or more "expect-send" pairs of strings, each
           pair is a pair of arguments. Example: chat '' ATZ OK ATD123456
           CONNECT '' ogin: pppuser word: ppppass '~'

       chattr
           chattr     [-R] [-+=AacDdijsStTu] [-v version] files...

           Change file attributes on an ext2 fs

           Modifiers:

                   -       Remove attributes
                   +       Add attributes
                   =       Set attributes
           Attributes:

                   A       Don't track atime
                   a       Append mode only
                   c       Enable compress
                   D       Write dir contents synchronously
                   d       Do not backup with dump
                   i       Cannot be modified (immutable)
                   j       Write all data to journal first
                   s       Zero disk storage when deleted
                   S       Write file contents synchronously
                   t       Disable tail-merging of partial blocks with other files
                   u       Allow file to be undeleted
           Options:

                   -R      Recursively list subdirectories
                   -v      Set the file's version/generation number

       chcon
           chcon      [OPTIONS] CONTEXT FILE...       chcon [OPTIONS] [-u
           USER] [-r ROLE] [-l RANGE] [-t TYPE] FILE...       chcon [OPTIONS]
           --reference=RFILE FILE...

           Change the security context of each FILE to CONTEXT

                   -v,--verbose            Verbose
                   -c,--changes            Report changes made
                   -h,--no-dereference     Affect symlinks instead of their targets
                   -f,--silent,--quiet     Suppress most error messages
                   --reference=RFILE       Use RFILE's group instead of using a CONTEXT value
                   -u,--user=USER          Set user/role/type/range in the target
                   -r,--role=ROLE          security context
                   -t,--type=TYPE
                   -l,--range=RANGE
                   -R,--recursive          Recurse subdirectories

       chgrp
           chgrp      [-RhLHPcvf]... GROUP FILE...

           Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP

           Options:

                   -R      Recurse directories
                   -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
                   -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
                   -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
                   -P      Do not traverse symlinks (default)
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      Verbose
                   -f      Hide errors

           Example:

                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
                   $ chgrp root /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 andersen root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

       chmod
           chmod      [-Rcvf] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

           Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols
           +-= and one or more of the letters rwxst

           Options:

                   -R      Recurse directories
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      List all files
                   -f      Hide errors

           Example:

                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
                   $ chmod u+x /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -rwxrw-r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo*
                   $ chmod 444 /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

       chown
           chown      [-RhLHPcvf]... OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

           Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP

           Options:

                   -R      Recurse directories
                   -h      Affect symlinks instead of symlink targets
                   -L      Traverse all symlinks to directories
                   -H      Traverse symlinks on command line only
                   -P      Do not traverse symlinks (default)
                   -c      List changed files
                   -v      List all files
                   -f      Hide errors

           Example:

                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
                   $ chown root /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 root     andersen        0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
                   $ chown root.root /tmp/foo
                   ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -r--r--r--    1 root     root            0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

       chpasswd
           chpasswd   [--md5|--encrypt]

           Read user:password information from stdin and update /etc/passwd
           accordingly.

           Options:

                   -e,--encrypt    Supplied passwords are in encrypted form
                   -m,--md5        Use MD5 encryption instead of DES

       chpst
           chpst      [-vP012] [-u user[:group]] [-U user[:group]] [-e dir]
           [-/ dir] [-n nice] [-m bytes] [-d bytes] [-o files] [-p processes]
           [-f bytes] [-c bytes] prog args

           Change the process state and run specified program

           Options:

                   -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid and gid
                   -U USER[:GRP]   Set $UID and $GID in environment
                   -e DIR          Set environment variables as specified by files
                                   in DIR: file=1st_line_of_file
                   -/ DIR          Chroot to DIR
                   -n INC          Add INC to nice value
                   -m BYTES        Limit data segment, stack segment, locked physical pages,
                                   and total of all segment per process to BYTES each
                   -d BYTES        Limit data segment
                   -o N            Limit the number of open file descriptors per process to N
                   -p N            Limit number of processes per uid to N
                   -f BYTES        Limit output file size to BYTES
                   -c BYTES        Limit core file size to BYTES
                   -v              Verbose
                   -P              Run prog in a new process group
                   -0              Close standard input
                   -1              Close standard output
                   -2              Close standard error

       chroot
           chroot     NEWROOT [COMMAND...]

           Run COMMAND with root directory set to NEWROOT

           Example:

                   $ ls -l /bin/ls
                   lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root          12 Apr 13 00:46 /bin/ls -> /BusyBox
                   # mount /dev/hdc1 /mnt -t minix
                   # chroot /mnt
                   # ls -l /bin/ls
                   -rwxr-xr-x    1 root     root        40816 Feb  5 07:45 /bin/ls*

       chrt
           chrt       [OPTION]... [prio] [pid | command [arg]...]

           Manipulate real-time attributes of a process

           Options:

                   -p      Operate on pid
                   -r      Set scheduling policy to SCHED_RR
                   -f      Set scheduling policy to SCHED_FIFO
                   -o      Set scheduling policy to SCHED_OTHER
                   -m      Show min and max priorities

           Example:

                   $ chrt -r 4 sleep 900; x=$!
                   $ chrt -f -p 3 $x
                   You need CAP_SYS_NICE privileges to set scheduling attributes of a process

       chvt
           chvt       N

           Change the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN

       cksum
           cksum      FILES...

           Calculate the CRC32 checksums of FILES

       clear
           clear

           Clear screen

       cmp cmp        [-l] [-s] FILE1 [FILE2 [SKIP1 [SKIP2]]]

           Compares FILE1 vs stdin if FILE2 is not specified

           Options:

                   -l      Write the byte numbers (decimal) and values (octal)
                           for all differing bytes
                   -s      Quiet

       comm
           comm       [-123] FILE1 FILE2

           Compare FILE1 to FILE2, or to stdin if - is specified

           Options:

                   -1      Suppress lines unique to FILE1
                   -2      Suppress lines unique to FILE2
                   -3      Suppress lines common to both files

       cp  cp         [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST

           Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

           Options:

                   -a      Same as -dpR
                   -c      Preserve security context
                   -d,-P   Preserve links
                   -H,-L   Dereference all symlinks (default)
                   -p      Preserve file attributes if possible
                   -f      Force overwrite
                   -i      Prompt before overwrite
                   -R,-r   Recurse directories
                   -l,-s   Create (sym)links

       cpio
           cpio       -[dimtuv][F cpiofile]

           Extract or list files from a cpio archive Main operation mode:

                   d       Make leading directories
                   i       Extract
                   m       Preserve mtime
                   t       List
                   v       Verbose
                   u       Unconditional overwrite
                   F       Input from file

       crond
           crond      -fbS -l N -d N -L LOGFILE -c DIR

                   -f      Foreground
                   -b      Background (default)
                   -S      Log to syslog (default)
                   -l      Set log level. 0 is the most verbose, default 8
                   -d      Set log level, log to stderr
                   -L      Log to file
                   -c      Working dir

       crontab
           crontab    [-c DIR] [-u USER] [-ler]|[FILE]

                   -c      Crontab directory
                   -u      User
                   -l      List crontab
                   -e      Edit crontab
                   -r      Delete crontab
                   FILE    Replace crontab by FILE ('-': stdin)

       cryptpw
           cryptpw    [-a des|md5] [string]

           Output crypted string.  If string isn't supplied on cmdline, read
           it from stdin.

           Options:

                   -a      Algorithm to use (default: md5)

       cut cut        [OPTION]... [FILE]...

           Print selected fields from each input FILE to standard output

           Options:

                   -b LIST Output only bytes from LIST
                   -c LIST Output only characters from LIST
                   -d CHAR Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
                   -s      Output only the lines containing delimiter
                   -f N    Print only these fields
                   -n      Ignored

           Example:

                   $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 1 -d ' '
                   Hello
                   $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 2 -d ' '
                   world

       date
           date       [OPTION]... [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]] [+FORMAT]

           Display current time in the given FORMAT, or set system date

           Options:

                   -R              Output RFC-822 compliant date string
                   -d STRING       Display time described by STRING, not 'now'
                   -I[TIMESPEC]    Output an ISO-8601 compliant date/time string
                                   TIMESPEC='date' (or missing) for date only,
                                   'hours', 'minutes', or 'seconds' for date and
                                   time to the indicated precision
                   -D hint         Use 'hint' as date format, via strptime()
                   -s STRING       Set time described by STRING
                   -r FILE         Display the last modification time of FILE
                   -u              Print or sets Coordinated Universal Time

           Example:

                   $ date
                   Wed Apr 12 18:52:41 MDT 2000

       dc  dc         expression...

           This is a Tiny RPN calculator that understands the following
           operations: +, add, -, sub, *, mul, /, div, %, mod, **, exp, and,
           or, not, eor.  For example: 'dc 2 2 add' -> 4, and 'dc 8 8 \* 2 2 +
           /' -> 16.

           Options: p - Print the value on the top of the stack, without
           altering the stack f - Print the entire contents of the stack
           without altering anything o - Pop the value off the top of the
           stack and use it to set the output radix

               Only 10 and 16 are supported

           Example:

                   $ dc 2 2 + p
                   4
                   $ dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + / p
                   16
                   $ dc 0 1 and p
                   0
                   $ dc 0 1 or p
                   1
                   $ echo 72 9 div 8 mul p | dc
                   64

       dd  dd         [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [ibs=N] [obs=N] [bs=N] [count=N]
           [skip=N]      [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noerror|sync]

           Copy a file with converting and formatting

           Options:

                   if=FILE         Read from FILE instead of stdin
                   of=FILE         Write to FILE instead of stdout
                   bs=N            Read and write N bytes at a time
                   ibs=N           Read N bytes at a time
                   obs=N           Write N bytes at a time
                   count=N         Copy only N input blocks
                   skip=N          Skip N input blocks
                   seek=N          Skip N output blocks
                   conv=notrunc    Don't truncate output file
                   conv=noerror    Continue after read errors
                   conv=sync       Pad blocks with zeros

           Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k
           (x1024), MD (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G
           (x1073741824)

           Example:

                   $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram1 bs=1M count=4
                   4+0 records in
                   4+0 records out

       deallocvt
           deallocvt  [N]

           Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

       delgroup
           delgroup   [USER] GROUP

           Delete group GROUP from the system or user USER from group GROUP

       deluser
           deluser    USER

           Delete user USER from the system

       devfsd
           devfsd     mntpnt [-v][-fg][-np]

           Manage devfs permissions and old device name symlinks

           Options:

                   mntpnt  The mount point where devfs is mounted
                   -v      Print the protocol version numbers for devfsd
                           and the kernel-side protocol version and exit
                   -fg     Run in foreground
                   -np     Exit after parsing the configuration file
                           and processing synthetic REGISTER events,
                           do not poll for events

       df  df             DF_HAS_OPTIONS("[-") hmki     DF_HAS_OPTIONS("] ")
           "[FILESYSTEM...]

           Print filesystem usage statistics

                   DF_HAS_OPTIONS("
           Options:")

                   -h      Human readable (e.g. 1K 243M 2G)
                   -m      1024*1024 blocks
                   -k      1024 blocks
                   -i      Inodes

           Example:

                   $ df
                   Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
                   /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /
                   /dev/sda1                64216     36364     27852  57% /boot
                   $ df /dev/sda3
                   Filesystem           1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
                   /dev/sda3              8690864   8553540    137324  98% /

       dhcprelay
           dhcprelay  [client_device_list] [server_device]

           Relay dhcp requests from client devices to server device

       diff
           diff       [-abdiNqrTstw] [-L LABEL] [-S FILE] [-U LINES] FILE1
           FILE2

           Compare files line by line and output the differences between them.
           This implementation supports unified diffs only.

           Options:

                   -a      Treat all files as text
                   -b      Ignore changes in the amount of whitespace
                   -d      Try hard to find a smaller set of changes
                   -i      Ignore case differences
                   -L      Use LABEL instead of the filename in the unified header
                   -N      Treat absent files as empty
                   -q      Output only whether files differ
                   -r      Recursively compare subdirectories
                   -S      Start with FILE when comparing directories
                   -T      Make tabs line up by prefixing a tab when necessary
                   -s      Report when two files are the same
                   -t      Expand tabs to spaces in output
                   -U      Output LINES lines of context
                   -w      Ignore all whitespace

       dirname
           dirname    FILENAME

           Strip non-directory suffix from FILENAME

           Example:

                   $ dirname /tmp/foo
                   /tmp
                   $ dirname /tmp/foo/
                   /tmp

       dmesg
           dmesg      [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

           Print or control the kernel ring buffer

           Options:

                   -c              Clear ring buffer after printing
                   -n LEVEL        Set console logging level
                   -s SIZE         Buffer size

       dnsd
           dnsd       [-c config] [-t seconds] [-p port] [-i iface-ip] [-d]

           Small static DNS server daemon

           Options:

                   -c      Config filename
                   -t      TTL in seconds
                   -p      Listening port
                   -i      Listening ip (default all)
                   -d      Daemonize

       dos2unix
           dos2unix   [option] [FILE]

           Convert FILE from dos to unix format.  When no file is given, use
           stdin/stdout.

           Options:

                   -u      dos2unix
                   -d      unix2dos

       dpkg
           dpkg       [-ilCPru] [-F option] package_name

           Install, remove and manage Debian packages

           Options:

                   -i              Install the package
                   -l              List of installed packages
                   -C              Configure an unpackaged package
                   -F depends      Ignore dependency problems
                   -P              Purge all files of a package
                   -r              Remove all but the configuration files for a package
                   -u              Unpack a package, but don't configure it

       dpkg-deb
           dpkg-deb   [-cefxX] FILE [argument]

           Perform actions on Debian packages (.debs)

           Options:

                   -c      List contents of filesystem tree
                   -e      Extract control files to [argument] directory
                   -f      Display control field name starting with [argument]
                   -x      Extract packages filesystem tree to directory
                   -X      Verbose extract

           Example:

                   $ dpkg-deb -X ./busybox_0.48-1_i386.deb /tmp

       du  du         [-aHLdclsxhmk] [FILE]...

           Summarize disk space used for each FILE and/or directory.  Disk
           space is printed in units of 1024 bytes.

           Options:

                   -a      Show file sizes too
                   -H      Follow symlinks on command line
                   -L      Follow all symlinks
                   -d N    Limit output to directories (and files with -a) of depth < N
                   -c      Show grand total
                   -l      Count sizes many times if hard linked
                   -s      Display only a total for each argument
                   -x      Skip directories on different filesystems
                   -h      Sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
                   -m      Sizes in megabytes
                   -k      Sizes in kilobytes (default)

           Example:

                   $ du
                   16      ./CVS
                   12      ./kernel-patches/CVS
                   80      ./kernel-patches
                   12      ./tests/CVS
                   36      ./tests
                   12      ./scripts/CVS
                   16      ./scripts
                   12      ./docs/CVS
                   104     ./docs
                   2417    .

       dumpkmap
           dumpkmap

           Print out a binary keyboard translation table to standard output

           Example:

                   $ dumpkmap > keymap

       dumpleases
           dumpleases [-r|-a] [-f LEASEFILE]

           Display DHCP leases granted by udhcpd

           Options:

                   -f,--file=FILE  Leases file to load
                   -r,--remaining  Interpret lease times as time remaining
                   -a,--absolute   Interpret lease times as expire time

       e2fsck
           e2fsck     [-panyrcdfvstDFSV] [-b superblock] [-B blocksize] [-I
           inode_buffer_blocks] [-P process_inode_size] [-l|-L
           bad_blocks_file] [-C fd] [-j external_journal] [-E
           extended-options] device

           Check ext2/ext3 file system

           Options:

                   -p              Automatic repair (no questions)
                   -n              Make no changes to the filesystem
                   -y              Assume 'yes' to all questions
                   -c              Check for bad blocks and add them to the badblock list
                   -f              Force checking even if filesystem is marked clean
                   -v              Verbose
                   -b superblock   Use alternative superblock
                   -B blocksize    Force blocksize when looking for superblock
                   -j journal      Set location of the external journal
                   -l file         Add to badblocks list
                   -L file         Set badblocks list

       echo
           echo       [-neE] [ARG...]

           Print the specified ARGs to stdout

           Options:

                   -n      Suppress trailing newline
                   -e      Interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., \t=tab)
                   -E      Disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters

           Example:

                   $ echo "Erik is cool"
                   Erik is cool
                   $ echo -e "Erik\nis\ncool"
                   Erik
                   is
                   cool
                   $ echo "Erik\nis\ncool"
                   Erik\nis\ncool

       ed  ed         #define ed_full_usage

       eject
           eject      [-t] [-T] [DEVICE]

           Eject specified DEVICE (or default /dev/cdrom)

           Options:

                   -s      SCSI device
                   -t      Close tray
                   -T      Open/close tray (toggle)

       env env        [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [command]

           Print the current environment or run a program after setting up the
           specified environment

           Options:

                   -, -i   Start with an empty environment
                   -u      Remove variable from the environment

       envdir
           envdir     dir prog args

           Set various environment variables as specified by files in the
           directory dir, then run prog

       envuidgid
           envuidgid  account prog args

           Set $UID to account's uid and $GID to account's gid, then run prog

       ether_wake
           ether_wake [-b] [-i iface] [-p aa:bb:cc:dd[:ee:ff]] MAC

           Send a magic packet to wake up sleeping machines.  MAC must be a
           station address (00:11:22:33:44:55) or a hostname with a known
           'ethers' entry.

           Options:

                   -b              Send wake-up packet to the broadcast address
                   -i iface        Interface to use (default eth0)
                   -p pass         Append four or six byte password PW to the packet

       expand
           expand     [-i] [-t NUM] [FILE|-]

           Convert tabs to spaces, writing to standard output.

           Options:

                   -i,--initial    Do not convert tabs after non blanks
                   -t,--tabs=N     Tabstops every N chars

       expr
           expr       EXPRESSION

           Print the value of EXPRESSION to standard output.

           EXPRESSION may be:

                   ARG1 | ARG2     ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
                   ARG1 & ARG2     ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
                   ARG1 < ARG2     1 if ARG1 is less than ARG2, else 0. Similarly:
                   ARG1 <= ARG2
                   ARG1 = ARG2
                   ARG1 != ARG2
                   ARG1 >= ARG2
                   ARG1 > ARG2
                   ARG1 + ARG2     Sum of ARG1 and ARG2. Similarly:
                   ARG1 - ARG2
                   ARG1 * ARG2
                   ARG1 / ARG2
                   ARG1 % ARG2
                   STRING : REGEXP         Anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
                   match STRING REGEXP     Same as STRING : REGEXP
                   substr STRING POS LENGTH Substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
                   index STRING CHARS      Index in STRING where any CHARS is found, or 0
                   length STRING           Length of STRING
                   quote TOKEN             Interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
                                           it is a keyword like 'match' or an
                                           operator like '/'
                   (EXPRESSION)            Value of EXPRESSION

           Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.
           Comparisons are arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else
           lexicographical. Pattern matches return the string matched between
           \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the
           number of characters matched or 0.

       fakeidentd
           fakeidentd [-fiw] [-b ADDR] [STRING]

           Provide fake ident (auth) service

           Options:

                   -f      Run in foreground
                   -i      Inetd mode
                   -w      Inetd 'wait' mode
                   -b ADDR Bind to specified address
                   STRING  Ident answer string (default is 'nobody')

       false
           false

           Return an exit code of FALSE (1)

           Example:

                   $ false
                   $ echo $?
                   1

       fbset
           fbset      [options] [mode]

           Show and modify frame buffer settings

           Example:

                   $ fbset
                   mode "1024x768-76"
                           # D: 78.653 MHz, H: 59.949 kHz, V: 75.694 Hz
                           geometry 1024 768 1024 768 16
                           timings 12714 128 32 16 4 128 4
                           accel false
                           rgba 5/11,6/5,5/0,0/0
                   endmode

       fdflush
           fdflush    DEVICE

           Force floppy disk drive to detect disk change

       fdformat
           fdformat   [-n] DEVICE

           Format floppy disk

           Options:

                   -n      Don't verify after format

       fdisk
           fdisk      [-uls] [-C CYLINDERS] [-H HEADS] [-S SECTORS] [-b SSZ]
           DISK

           Change partition table

           Options:

                   -u              Start and End are in sectors (instead of cylinders)
                   -l              Show partition table for each DISK, then exit
                   -s              Show partition sizes in kb for each DISK, then exit
                   -b 2048         (for certain MO disks) use 2048-byte sectors
                   -C CYLINDERS    Set number of cylinders/heads/sectors
                   -H HEADS

                   -S SECTORS

       fetchmail
           fetchmail  [-w timeout] [-U user] -P password [-X] [-t] [-z]
           server[:port] maildir [prog]

           Fetch content of remote mailbox to local Maildir.

           Options:

                   -w timeout      Set timeout on network operations
                   -U username     Authenticate with specified username/password
                   -P password
                   -X              Use openssl connection helper for secured servers
                   -t              Get only headers
                   -z              Delete messages on server
                   prog            Run prog <message_file> on message delivery

       find
           find       [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]

           Search for files. The default PATH is the current directory,
           default EXPRESSION is '-print'

           EXPRESSION may consist of:

                   -follow         Dereference symlinks
                   -xdev           Don't descend directories on other filesystems
                   -maxdepth N     Descend at most N levels. -maxdepth 0 applies
                                   tests/actions to command line arguments only
                   -name PATTERN   File name (w/o directory name) matches PATTERN
                   -iname PATTERN  Case insensitive -name
                   -path PATTERN   Path matches PATTERN
                   -regex PATTERN  Path matches regex PATTERN
                   -type X         File type is X (X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
                   -perm NNN       Permissions match any of (+NNN), all of (-NNN),
                                   or exactly (NNN)
                   -mtime DAYS     Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly (N) days
                   -mmin MINS      Modified time is greater than (+N), less than (-N),
                                   or exactly (N) minutes
                   -newer FILE     Modified time is more recent than FILE's
                   -inum N         File has inode number N
                   -user NAME      File is owned by user NAME (numeric user ID allowed)
                   -group NAME     File belongs to group NAME (numeric group ID allowed)
                   -depth          Process directory name after traversing it
                   -size N[bck]    File size is N (c:bytes,k:kbytes,b:512 bytes(def.)).
                                   +/-N: file size is bigger/smaller than N
                   -print          Print (default and assumed)
                   -print0         Delimit output with null characters rather than
                                   newlines        USE_FEATURE_FIND_CONTEXT (
                   -context        File has specified security context")
                   -exec CMD ARG ; Execute CMD with all instances of {} replaced by the
                                   matching files
                   -prune          Stop traversing current subtree
                   -delete         Delete files, turns on -depth option
                   (EXPR)          Group an expression

           Example:

                   $ find / -name passwd
                   /etc/passwd

       findfs
           findfs     LABEL=label or UUID=uuid

           Find a filesystem device based on a label or UUID.

           Example:

                   $ findfs LABEL=MyDevice

       fold
           fold       [-bs] [-w WIDTH] [FILE]

           Wrap input lines in each FILE (standard input by default), writing
           to standard output

           Options:

                   -b      Count bytes rather than columns
                   -s      Break at spaces
                   -w      Use WIDTH columns instead of 80

       free
           free

           Display the amount of free and used system memory

           Example:

                   $ free
                                 total         used         free       shared      buffers
                     Mem:       257628       248724         8904        59644        93124
                    Swap:       128516         8404       120112
                   Total:       386144       257128       129016

       freeramdisk
           freeramdisk DEVICE

           Free all memory used by the specified ramdisk

           Example:

                   $ freeramdisk /dev/ram2

       fsck
           fsck       [-ANPRTV] [-C fd] [-t fstype] [fs-options] [filesys...]

           Check and repair filesystems

           Options:

                   -A      Walk /etc/fstab and check all filesystems
                   -N      Don't execute, just show what would be done
                   -P      With -A, check filesystems in parallel
                   -R      With -A, skip the root filesystem
                   -T      Don't show title on startup
                   -V      Verbose
                   -C n    Write status information to specified filedescriptor
                   -t type List of filesystem types to check

       fsck.minix
           fsck.minix [-larvsmf] /dev/name

           Perform a consistency check for MINIX filesystems

           Options:

                   -l      List all filenames
                   -r      Perform interactive repairs
                   -a      Perform automatic repairs
                   -v      Verbose
                   -s      Output super-block information
                   -m      Activate MINIX-like "mode not cleared" warnings
                   -f      Force file system check

       ftpget
           ftpget     [options] remote-host local-file remote-file

           Retrieve a remote file via FTP

           Options:

                   -c,--continue   Continue previous transfer
                   -v,--verbose    Verbose
                   -u,--username   Username
                   -p,--password   Password
                   -P,--port       Port number

       ftpput
           ftpput     [options] remote-host remote-file local-file

           Store a local file on a remote machine via FTP

           Options:

                   -v,--verbose    Verbose
                   -u,--username   Username
                   -p,--password   Password
                   -P,--port       Port number

       fuser
           fuser      [options] FILE or PORT/PROTO

           Find processes which use FILEs or PORTs

           Options:

                   -m      Find processes which use same fs as FILEs
                   -4      Search only IPv4 space
                   -6      Search only IPv6 space
                   -s      Silent: just exit with 0 if any processes are found
                   -k      Kill found processes (otherwise display PIDs)
                   -SIGNAL Signal to send (default: TERM)

       getenforce
           getenforce #define getenforce_full_usage

       getopt
           getopt     [OPTIONS]...

           Parse command options

                   -a,--alternative                Allow long options starting with single -
                   -l,--longoptions=longopts       Long options to be recognized
                   -n,--name=progname              The name under which errors are reported
                   -o,--options=optstring          Short options to be recognized
                   -q,--quiet                      Disable error reporting by getopt(3)
                   -Q,--quiet-output               No normal output
                   -s,--shell=shell                Set shell quoting conventions
                   -T,--test                       Test for getopt(1) version
                   -u,--unquoted                   Don't quote the output

           Example:

                   $ cat getopt.test
                   #!/bin/sh
                   GETOPT=`getopt -o ab:c:: --long a-long,b-long:,c-long:: \
                          -n 'example.busybox' -- "$@"`
                   if [ $? != 0 ]; then  exit 1; fi
                   eval set -- "$GETOPT"
                   while true; do
                    case $1 in
                      -a|--a-long) echo "Option a"; shift;;
                      -b|--b-long) echo "Option b, argument '$2'"; shift 2;;
                      -c|--c-long)
                        case "$2" in
                          "") echo "Option c, no argument"; shift 2;;
                          *)  echo "Option c, argument '$2'"; shift 2;;
                        esac;;
                      --) shift; break;;
                      *) echo "Internal error!"; exit 1;;
                    esac
                   done

       getsebool
           getsebool  -a or getsebool boolean...

                   -a      Show all SELinux booleans

       getty
           getty      [OPTIONS] BAUD_RATE TTY [TERMTYPE]

           Open a tty, prompt for a login name, then invoke /bin/login

           Options:

                   -h              Enable hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control
                   -i              Do not display /etc/issue before running login
                   -L              Local line, do not do carrier detect
                   -m              Get baud rate from modem's CONNECT status message
                   -w              Wait for a CR or LF before sending /etc/issue
                   -n              Do not prompt the user for a login name
                   -f issue_file   Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue
                   -l login_app    Invoke login_app instead of /bin/login
                   -t timeout      Terminate after timeout if no username is read
                   -I initstring   Init string to send before anything else
                   -H login_host   Log login_host into the utmp file as the hostname

       grep
           grep       [-HhrilLnqvsoweFEABC] PATTERN [FILEs...]

           Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input

           Options:

                   -H      Prefix output lines with filename where match was found
                   -h      Suppress the prefixing filename on output
                   -r      Recurse subdirectories
                   -i      Ignore case distinctions
                   -l      List names of files that match
                   -L      List names of files that do not match
                   -n      Print line number with output lines
                   -q      Quiet. Return 0 if PATTERN is found, 1 otherwise
                   -v      Select non-matching lines
                   -s      Suppress file open/read error messages
                   -c      Only print count of matching lines
                   -o      Show only the part of a line that matches PATTERN
                   -m MAX  Match up to MAX times per file
                   -w      Match whole words only
                   -F      PATTERN is a set of newline-separated strings
                   -E      PATTERN is an extended regular expression
                   -e PTRN Pattern to match
                   -f FILE Read pattern from file
                   -A      Print NUM lines of trailing context
                   -B      Print NUM lines of leading context
                   -C      Print NUM lines of output context

           Example:

                   $ grep root /etc/passwd
                   root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
                   $ grep ^[rR]oo. /etc/passwd
                   root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash

       gunzip
           gunzip     [OPTION]... [FILE]...

           Uncompress FILEs (or standard input)

           Options:

                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -f      Force
                   -t      Test file integrity

           Example:

                   $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   557009 Apr 11 10:55 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
                   $ gunzip /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
                   $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar

       gzip
           gzip       [OPTION]... [FILE]...

           Compress FILEs (or standard input)

           Options:

                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -d      Decompress
                   -f      Force

           Example:

                   $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/busybox.tar
                   $ gzip /tmp/busybox.tar
                   $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen   554058 Apr 14 17:49 /tmp/busybox.tar.gz

       halt
           halt       [-d delay] [-n] [-f]

           Halt the system

           Options:

                   -d      Delay interval for halting
                   -n      No call to sync()
                   -f      Force halt (don't go through init)
                   -w      Only write a wtmp record

       hd  hd         FILE...

           hd is an alias for hexdump -C

       hdparm
           hdparm     [options] [device] ..

           Options:

                   -a      Get/set fs readahead
                   -A      Set drive read-lookahead flag (0/1)
                   -b      Get/set bus state (0 == off, 1 == on, 2 == tristate)
                   -B      Set Advanced Power Management setting (1-255)
                   -c      Get/set IDE 32-bit IO setting
                   -C      Check IDE power mode status
                   -d      Get/set using_dma flag
                   -D      Enable/disable drive defect-mgmt
                   -f      Flush buffer cache for device on exit
                   -g      Display drive geometry
                   -h      Display terse usage information
                   -i      Display drive identification
                   -I      Detailed/current information directly from drive
                   -k      Get/set keep_settings_over_reset flag (0/1)
                   -K      Set drive keep_features_over_reset flag (0/1)
                   -L      Set drive doorlock (0/1) (removable harddisks only)
                   -m      Get/set multiple sector count
                   -n      Get/set ignore-write-errors flag (0/1)
                   -p      Set PIO mode on IDE interface chipset (0,1,2,3,4,...)
                   -P      Set drive prefetch count/*   "
                   -q      Change next setting quietly" - not supported ib bbox */
                   -Q      Get/set DMA tagged-queuing depth (if supported)
                   -r      Get/set readonly flag (DANGEROUS to set)
                   -R      Register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
                   -S      Set standby (spindown) timeout
                   -t      Perform device read timings
                   -T      Perform cache read timings
                   -u      Get/set unmaskirq flag (0/1)
                   -U      Un-register an IDE interface (DANGEROUS)
                   -v      Defaults; same as -mcudkrag for IDE drives
                   -V      Display program version and exit immediately
                   -w      Perform device reset (DANGEROUS)
                   -W      Set drive write-caching flag (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
                   -x      Tristate device for hotswap (0/1) (DANGEROUS)
                   -X      Set IDE xfer mode (DANGEROUS)
                   -y      Put IDE drive in standby mode
                   -Y      Put IDE drive to sleep
                   -Z      Disable Seagate auto-powersaving mode
                   -z      Re-read partition table

       head
           head       [OPTION]... [FILE]...

           Print first 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
           than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.
           With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

           Options:

                   -n NUM  Print first NUM lines instead of first 10
                   -c NUM  Output the first NUM bytes
                   -q      Never output headers giving file names
                   -v      Always output headers giving file names

           Example:

                   $ head -n 2 /etc/passwd
                   root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
                   daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/bin/sh

       hexdump
           hexdump    [-bcCdefnosvxR] FILE...

           Display file(s) or standard input in a user specified format

           Options:

                   -b              One-byte octal display
                   -c              One-byte character display
                   -C              Canonical hex+ASCII, 16 bytes per line
                   -d              Two-byte decimal display
                   -e FORMAT STRING
                   -f FORMAT FILE
                   -n LENGTH       Interpret only LENGTH bytes of input
                   -o              Two-byte octal display
                   -s OFFSET       Skip OFFSET bytes
                   -v              Display all input data
                   -x              Two-byte hexadecimal display
                   -R              Reverse of 'hexdump -Cv'

       hostid
           hostid

           Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine

       hostname
           hostname   [OPTION] [hostname | -F FILE]

           Get or set hostname or DNS domain name

           Options:

                   -s      Short
                   -i      Addresses for the hostname
                   -d      DNS domain name
                   -f      Fully qualified domain name
                   -F FILE Use the contents of FILE to specify the hostname

           Example:

                   $ hostname
                   sage

       httpd
           httpd      [-c conffile] [-p [ip:]port] [-i] [-f] [-v[v]] [-u
           user[:grp]] [-r realm] [-m pass] [-h home] [-d/-e string]

           Listen for incoming HTTP requests

           Options:

                   -c FILE         Configuration file (default httpd.conf)
                   -p [IP:]PORT    Bind to ip:port (default *:80)
                   -i              Inetd mode
                   -f              Do not daemonize
                   -v[v]           Verbose
                   -u USER[:GRP]   Set uid/gid after binding to port
                   -r REALM        Authentication Realm for Basic Authentication
                   -m PASS         Crypt PASS with md5 algorithm
                   -h HOME         Home directory (default .)
                   -e STRING       HTML encode STRING
                   -d STRING       URL decode STRING

       hwclock
           hwclock         [-r|--show] [-s|--hctosys] [-w|--systohc]
           [-l|--localtime] [-u|--utc] [-f FILE]

           Query and set hardware clock (RTC)

           Options:

                   -r      Show time from hardware clock
                   -s      Set system time from hardware clock
                   -w      Set hardware clock to system time
                   -u      Hardware clock is in UTC
                   -l      Hardware clock is in local time
                   -f FILE Use specified device (e.g. /dev/rtc2)

       id  id         [OPTIONS]... [USER]

           Print information about USER or the current user

           Options:

                   -Z      Print the security context
                   -g      Print group ID
                   -u      Print user ID
                   -n      Print name instead of a number
                   -r      Print real user ID instead of effective ID

           Example:

                   $ id
                   uid=1000(andersen) gid=1000(andersen)

       ifconfig
           ifconfig   [-a] interface [address]

           Configure a network interface

           Options:

                   [add ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
                   [del ADDRESS[/PREFIXLEN]]
                   [[-]broadcast [ADDRESS]] [[-]pointopoint [ADDRESS]]
                   [netmask ADDRESS] [dstaddr ADDRESS]
                   [outfill NN] [keepalive NN]
                   [hw ether ADDRESS] [metric NN] [mtu NN]
                   [[-]trailers] [[-]arp] [[-]allmulti]
                   [multicast] [[-]promisc] [txqueuelen NN] [[-]dynamic]
                   [mem_start NN] [io_addr NN] [irq NN]
                   [up|down] ...

       ifdown
           ifdown     [-ainmvf] ifaces...

           Options:

                   -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically
                   -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
                   -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                           (note: doesn't disable mappings)
                   -m      Don't run any mappings
                   -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
                   -f      Force de/configuration

       ifenslave
           ifenslave  [-cdf] master-iface <slave-iface...>

           Configure network interfaces for parallel routing

           Options:

                   -c, --change-active     Change active slave
                   -d, --detach            Remove slave interface from bonding device
                   -f, --force             Force, even if interface is not Ethernet/*   "
                   -r, --receive-slave     Create a receive-only slave" */

           Example:

                   To create a bond device, simply follow these three steps :
                   - ensure that the required drivers are properly loaded :
                     # modprobe bonding ; modprobe <3c59x|eepro100|pcnet32|tulip|...>
                   - assign an IP address to the bond device :
                     # ifconfig bond0 <addr> netmask <mask> broadcast <bcast>
                   - attach all the interfaces you need to the bond device :
                     # ifenslave bond0 eth0 eth1 eth2
                     If bond0 didn't have a MAC address, it will take eth0's. Then, all
                     interfaces attached AFTER this assignment will get the same MAC addr.

                     To detach a dead interface without setting the bond device down :
                      # ifenslave -d bond0 eth1

                     To set the bond device down and automatically release all the slaves :
                      # ifconfig bond0 down

                     To change active slave :
                      # ifenslave -c bond0 eth0

       ifup
           ifup       [-ainmvf] ifaces...

           Options:

                   -a      De/configure all interfaces automatically
                   -i FILE Use FILE for interface definitions
                   -n      Print out what would happen, but don't do it
                           (note: doesn't disable mappings)
                   -m      Don't run any mappings
                   -v      Print out what would happen before doing it
                   -f      Force de/configuration

       inetd
           inetd      [-fe] [-q N] [-R N] [CONFFILE]

           Listen for network connections and launch programs

           Options:

                   -f      Run in foreground
                   -e      Log to stderr
                   -q N    Socket listen queue (default: 128)
                   -R N    Pause services after N connects/min
                           (default: 0 - disabled)

       init
           init

           Init is the parent of all processes

           This version of init is designed to be run only by the kernel.

           BusyBox init doesn't support multiple runlevels. The runlevels
           field of the /etc/inittab file is completely ignored by BusyBox
           init. If you want runlevels, use sysvinit.

           BusyBox init works just fine without an inittab. If no inittab is
           found, it has the following default behavior:

                   ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS
                   ::askfirst:/bin/sh
                   ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot
                   ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a
                   ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r
                   ::restart:/sbin/init

           if it detects that /dev/console is _not_ a serial console, it will
           also run:

                   tty2::askfirst:/bin/sh
                   tty3::askfirst:/bin/sh
                   tty4::askfirst:/bin/sh

           If you choose to use an /etc/inittab file, the inittab entry format
           is as follows:

                   <id>:<runlevels>:<action>:<process>

                   <id>:

                           WARNING: This field has a non-traditional meaning for BusyBox init!
                           The id field is used by BusyBox init to specify the controlling tty for
                           the specified process to run on. The contents of this field are
                           appended to "/dev/" and used as-is. There is no need for this field to
                           be unique, although if it isn't you may have strange results. If this
                           field is left blank, the controlling tty is set to the console. Also
                           note that if BusyBox detects that a serial console is in use, then only
                           entries whose controlling tty is either the serial console or /dev/null
                           will be run. BusyBox init does nothing with utmp. We don't need no
                           stinkin' utmp.

                   <runlevels>:

                           The runlevels field is completely ignored.

                   <action>:

                           Valid actions include: sysinit, respawn, askfirst, wait,
                           once, restart, ctrlaltdel, and shutdown.

                           The available actions can be classified into two groups: actions
                           that are run only once, and actions that are re-run when the specified
                           process exits.

                           Run only-once actions:

                                   'sysinit' is the first item run on boot. init waits until all
                                   sysinit actions are completed before continuing. Following the
                                   completion of all sysinit actions, all 'wait' actions are run.
                                   'wait' actions, like 'sysinit' actions, cause init to wait until
                                   the specified task completes. 'once' actions are asynchronous,
                                   therefore, init does not wait for them to complete. 'restart' is
                                   the action taken to restart the init process. By default this should
                                   simply run /sbin/init, but can be a script which runs pivot_root or it
                                   can do all sorts of other interesting things. The 'ctrlaltdel' init
                                   actions are run when the system detects that someone on the system
                                   console has pressed the CTRL-ALT-DEL key combination. Typically one
                                   wants to run 'reboot' at this point to cause the system to reboot.
                                   Finally the 'shutdown' action specifies the actions to taken when
                                   init is told to reboot. Unmounting filesystems and disabling swap
                                   is a very good here.

                           Run repeatedly actions:

                                   'respawn' actions are run after the 'once' actions. When a process
                                   started with a 'respawn' action exits, init automatically restarts
                                   it. Unlike sysvinit, BusyBox init does not stop processes from
                                   respawning out of control. The 'askfirst' actions acts just like
                                   respawn, except that before running the specified process it
                                   displays the line "Please press Enter to activate this console."
                                   and then waits for the user to press enter before starting the
                                   specified process.

                           Unrecognized actions (like initdefault) will cause init to emit an
                           error message, and then go along with its business. All actions are
                           run in the order they appear in /etc/inittab.

                   <process>:

                           Specifies the process to be executed and its command line.

           Example /etc/inittab file:

                   # This is run first except when booting in single-user mode
                   #
                   ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS

                   # /bin/sh invocations on selected ttys
                   #
                   # Start an "askfirst" shell on the console (whatever that may be)
                   ::askfirst:-/bin/sh
                   # Start an "askfirst" shell on /dev/tty2-4
                   tty2::askfirst:-/bin/sh
                   tty3::askfirst:-/bin/sh
                   tty4::askfirst:-/bin/sh

                   # /sbin/getty invocations for selected ttys
                   #
                   tty4::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty4
                   tty5::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty5


                   # Example of how to put a getty on a serial line (for a terminal)
                   #
                   #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 9600 vt100
                   #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS1 9600 vt100
                   #
                   # Example how to put a getty on a modem line
                   #::respawn:/sbin/getty 57600 ttyS2

                   # Stuff to do when restarting the init process
                   ::restart:/sbin/init

                   # Stuff to do before rebooting
                   ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot
                   ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r
                   ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a

       insmod
           insmod     [OPTION]... MODULE [symbol=value]...

           Load the specified kernel modules into the kernel

           Options:

                   -f      Force module to load into the wrong kernel version
                   -k      Make module autoclean-able
                   -v      Verbose
                   -q      Quiet
                   -L      Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module
                   -m      Output load map to stdout
                   -o NAME Set internal module name to NAME
                   -x      Do not export externs

       install
           install    [-cgmops] [sources] dest|directory

           Copy files and set attributes

           Options:

                   -c      Copy the file, default
                   -d      Create directories
                   -g      Set group ownership
                   -m      Set permissions
                   -o      Set ownership
                   -p      Preserve date
                   -s      Strip symbol tables
                   -Z      Set security context of copy

       ip  ip         [OPTIONS] {address | route | link | tunnel | rule}
           {COMMAND}

           ip [OPTIONS] OBJECT {COMMAND} where OBJECT := {address | route |
           link | tunnel | rule} OPTIONS := { -f[amily] { inet | inet6 | link
           } | -o[neline] }

       ipaddr
           ipaddr     { {add|del} IFADDR dev STRING | {show|flush}
                     [dev STRING] [to PREFIX] }

           ipaddr {add|delete} IFADDR dev STRING ipaddr {show|flush} [dev
           STRING] [scope SCOPE-ID]

                   [to PREFIX] [label PATTERN]
                   IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX
                   [broadcast ADDR] [anycast ADDR]
                   [label STRING] [scope SCOPE-ID]
                   SCOPE-ID := [host | link | global | NUMBER]

       ipcalc
           ipcalc     [OPTION]... ADDRESS[[/]NETMASK] [NETMASK]

           Calculate IP network settings from a IP address

           Options:

                   -b,--broadcast  Display calculated broadcast address
                   -n,--network    Display calculated network address
                   -m,--netmask    Display default netmask for IP
                   -p,--prefix     Display the prefix for IP/NETMASK
                   -h,--hostname   Display first resolved host name
                   -s,--silent     Don't ever display error messages               )

       ipcrm
           ipcrm      [-MQS key] [-mqs id]

           Upper-case options MQS remove an object by shmkey value.  Lower-
           case options remove an object by shmid value.

           Options:

                   -mM     Remove memory segment after last detach
                   -qQ     Remove message queue
                   -sS     Remove semaphore

       ipcs
           ipcs       [[-smq] -i shmid] | [[-asmq] [-tcplu]]

                   -i      Show specific resource
           Resource specification:

                   -m      Shared memory segments
                   -q      Message queues
                   -s      Semaphore arrays
                   -a      All (default)
           Output format:

                   -t      Time
                   -c      Creator
                   -p      Pid
                   -l      Limits
                   -u      Summary

       iplink
           iplink

           iplink set DEVICE { up | down | arp | multicast { on | off } |

                                   dynamic { on | off } |
                                   mtu MTU }
           iplink show [DEVICE]

       iproute
           iproute    { list | flush | { add | del | change | append |
                     replace | monitor } ROUTE }

           iproute { list | flush } SELECTOR iproute get ADDRESS [from ADDRESS
           iif STRING]

                                   [oif STRING]  [tos TOS]
           iproute { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE

                                   SELECTOR := [root PREFIX] [match PREFIX] [proto RTPROTO]
                                   ROUTE := [TYPE] PREFIX [tos TOS] [proto RTPROTO]

       iprule
           iprule     {[list | add | del] RULE}

           iprule [list | add | del] SELECTOR ACTION

                   SELECTOR := [from PREFIX] [to PREFIX] [tos TOS] [fwmark FWMARK]
                                   [dev STRING] [pref NUMBER]
                   ACTION := [table TABLE_ID] [nat ADDRESS]
                                   [prohibit | reject | unreachable]
                                   [realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM]
                   TABLE_ID := [local | main | default | NUMBER]

       iptunnel
           iptunnel   { add | change | del | show } [NAME]      [mode { ipip |
           gre | sit }]      [remote ADDR] [local ADDR] [ttl TTL]

           iptunnel { add | change | del | show } [NAME]

                   [mode { ipip | gre | sit }] [remote ADDR] [local ADDR]
                   [[i|o]seq] [[i|o]key KEY] [[i|o]csum]
                   [ttl TTL] [tos TOS] [[no]pmtudisc] [dev PHYS_DEV]

       kbd_mode
           kbd_mode   [-a|k|s|u]

           Report or set the keyboard mode

           Options set mode:

                   -a      Default (ASCII)
                   -k      Medium-raw (keyboard)
                   -s      Raw (scancode)
                   -u      Unicode (utf-8)

       kill
           kill       [-l] [-signal] process-id...

           Send a signal (default is TERM) to the specified process(es)

           Options:

                   -l      List all signal names and numbers

           Example:

                   $ ps | grep apache
                   252 root     root     S [apache]
                   263 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   264 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   265 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   266 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   267 www-data www-data S [apache]
                   $ kill 252

       killall
           killall    [-l] [-q] [-signal] process-name...

           Send a signal (default is TERM) to the specified process(es)

           Options:

                   -l      List all signal names and numbers
                   -q      Do not complain if no processes were killed

           Example:

                   $ killall apache

       killall5
           killall5   [-l] [-signal]

           Send a signal (default is TERM) to all processes outside current
           session

           Options:

                   -l      List all signal names and numbers

       klogd
           klogd      [-c n] [-n]

           Kernel logger

           Options:

                   -c n    Set the default log level of console messages to n
                   -n      Run in foreground

       lash
           lash       [FILE]...  or: sh -c command [args]...

           lash is deprecated, please use hush

       last
           last

           Show listing of the last users that logged into the system

       length
           length     STRING

           Print STRING's length

           Example:

                   $ length Hello
                   5

       less
           less       [-EMNmh~?] [FILE...]

           View a file or list of files. The position within files can be
           changed, and files can be manipulated in various ways.

           Options:

                   -E      Quit once the end of a file is reached
                   -M,-m   Display a status line containing the line numbers
                           and percentage through the file
                   -N      Prefix line numbers to each line
                   -~      Suppress ~s displayed past the end of the file

       ln  ln         [OPTION] TARGET... LINK_NAME|DIRECTORY

           Create a link named LINK_NAME or DIRECTORY to the specified TARGET.
           Use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.

           Options:

                   -s      Make symlinks instead of hardlinks
                   -f      Remove existing destination files
                   -n      Don't dereference symlinks - treat like normal file
                   -b      Make a backup of the target (if exists) before link operation
                   -S suf  Use suffix instead of ~ when making backup files

           Example:

                   $ ln -s BusyBox /tmp/ls
                   $ ls -l /tmp/ls
                   lrwxrwxrwx    1 root     root            7 Apr 12 18:39 ls -> BusyBox*

       load_policy
           load_policy

       loadfont
           loadfont   < font

           Load a console font from standard input

           Example:

                   $ loadfont < /etc/i18n/fontname

       loadkmap
           loadkmap   < keymap

           Load a binary keyboard translation table from standard input

           Example:

                   $ loadkmap < /etc/i18n/lang-keymap

       logger
           logger     [OPTION]... [MESSAGE]

           Write MESSAGE to the system log. If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.

           Options:

                   -s      Log to stderr as well as the system log
                   -t TAG  Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name)
                   -p PRIO Priority (numeric or facility.level pair)

           Example:

                   $ logger "hello"

       login
           login      [-p] [-h HOST] [[-f] USER]

           Begin a new session on the system

           Options:

                   -f      Do not authenticate (user already authenticated)
                   -h      Name of the remote host
                   -p      Preserve environment

       logname
           logname

           Print the name of the current user

           Example:

                   $ logname
                   root

       logread
           logread    [OPTION]...

           Show messages in syslogd's circular buffer

           Options:

                   -f      Output data as log grows

       losetup
           losetup    [-o OFS] LOOPDEV FILE - associate loop devices
                losetup -d LOOPDEV - disassociate      losetup [-f] - show

           Options:

                   -o OFS  Start OFS bytes into FILE
                   -f      Show first free loop device

           No arguments will display all current associations.  One argument
           (losetup /dev/loop1) will display the current association (if any),
           or disassociate it (with -d). The display shows the offset and
           filename of the file the loop device is currently bound to.

           Two arguments (losetup /dev/loop1 file.img) create a new
           association, with an optional offset (-o 12345). Encryption is not
           yet supported.  losetup -f will show the first loop free loop
           device

       lpd lpd        SPOOLDIR

           Example:

                   tcpsvd -E 0 515 softlimit -m 99999 lpd /var/spool

       lpq lpq

           Options:

                   -P      lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
                   -d      Delete jobs
                   -f      Force any waiting job to be printed
                   -s      Short display

       lpr lpr

           Options:

                   -P      lp service to connect to (else uses $PRINTER)
                   -m      Send mail on completion
                   -h      Print banner page too
                   -V      Verbose

       ls  ls         [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhkK] [filenames...]

           List directory contents

           Options:

                   -1      List files in a single column
                   -A      Do not list implied . and ..
                   -a      Do not hide entries starting with .
                   -C      List entries by columns
                   -c      With -l: show ctime
                   --color[={always,never,auto}]   Control coloring
                   -d      List directory entries instead of contents
                   -e      List both full date and full time
                   -F      Append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
                   -i      List the i-node for each file
                   -l      Use a long listing format
                   -n      List numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names
                   -p      Append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries
                   -L      List entries pointed to by symlinks
                   -R      List subdirectories recursively
                   -r      Sort the listing in reverse order
                   -S      Sort the listing by file size
                   -s      List the size of each file, in blocks
                   -T NUM  Assume Tabstop every NUM columns
                   -t      With -l: show modification time
                   -u      With -l: show access time
                   -v      Sort the listing by version
                   -w NUM  Assume the terminal is NUM columns wide
                   -x      List entries by lines instead of by columns
                   -X      Sort the listing by extension
                   -h      Print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G)
                   -k      Print security context
                   -K      Print security context in long format
                   -Z      Print security context and permission

       lsattr
           lsattr     [-Radlv] [files...]

           List file attributes on an ext2 fs

           Options:

                   -R      Recursively list subdirectories
                   -a      Do not hide entries starting with .
                   -d      List directory entries instead of contents
                   -l      Print long flag names
                   -v      List the file's version/generation number

       lsmod
           lsmod

           List the currently loaded kernel modules

       lzmacat
           lzmacat    FILE

           Uncompress to stdout

       makedevs
           makedevs   [-d device_table] rootdir

           Create a range of special files as specified in a device table.
           Device table entries take the form of: <type> <mode> <uid> <gid>
           <major> <minor> <start> <inc> <count> Where name is the file name,
           type can be one of:

                   f       A regular file
                   d       Directory
                   c       Character special device file
                   b       Block special device file
                   p       Fifo (named pipe)
           uid is the user id for the target file, gid is the group id for the
           target file. The rest of the entries (major, minor, etc) apply to
           to device special files. A '-' may be used for blank entries.

           Example:

                   For example:
                   <name>    <type> <mode><uid><gid><major><minor><start><inc><count>
                   /dev         d   755    0    0    -      -      -      -    -
                   /dev/console c   666    0    0    5      1      -      -    -
                   /dev/null    c   666    0    0    1      3      0      0    -
                   /dev/zero    c   666    0    0    1      5      0      0    -
                   /dev/hda     b   640    0    0    3      0      0      0    -
                   /dev/hda     b   640    0    0    3      1      1      1    15

                   Will Produce:
                   /dev
                   /dev/console
                   /dev/null
                   /dev/zero
                   /dev/hda
                   /dev/hda[0-15]

       matchpathcon
           matchpathcon [-n] [-N] [-f file_contexts_file] [-p prefix] [-V]

                   -n      Do not display path
                   -N      Do not use translations
                   -f      Use alternate file_context file
                   -p      Use prefix to speed translations
                   -V      Verify file context on disk matches defaults

       md5sum
           md5sum     [OPTION] [FILEs...]
              or: md5sum [OPTION] -c [FILE]

           Print or check MD5 checksums

           Options:

                   -c      Check MD5 sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted MD5 checksum lines

           Example:

                   $ md5sum < busybox
                   6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003
                   $ md5sum busybox
                   6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox
                   $ md5sum -c -
                   6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox
                   busybox: OK
                   ^D

       mdev
           mdev       [-s]

                   -s      Scan /sys and populate /dev during system boot

           Called with no options (via hotplug) it uses environment variables
           to determine which device to add/remove.

                    The mdev config file contains lines that look like:
             hd[a-z][0-9]* 0:3 660

           That's device name (with regex match), uid:gid, and permissions.

           Optionally, that can be followed (on the same line) by a special
           character and a command line to run after creating/before deleting
           the corresponding device(s). The environment variable $MDEV
           indicates the active device node (which is useful if it's a regex
           match). For example:

             hdc root:cdrom 660  *ln -s $MDEV cdrom

           The special characters are @ (run after creating), $ (run before
           deleting), and * (run both after creating and before deleting). The
           commands run in the /dev directory, and use system() which calls
           /bin/sh.

           Config file parsing stops on the first matching line. If no config
           entry is matched, devices are created with default 0:0 660. (Make
           the last line match .* to override this.)

       mesg
           mesg       [y|n]

           Control write access to your terminal

                   y       Allow write access to your terminal
                   n       Disallow write access to your terminal

       microcom
           microcom   [-d DELAY] [-t TIMEOUT] [-s SPEED] [-X] TTY

           Copy bytes for stdin to TTY and from TTY to stdout

           Options:

                   -d      Wait up to DELAY ms for TTY output before sending every
                           next byte to it
                   -t      Exit if both stdin and TTY are silent for TIMEOUT ms
                   -s      Set serial line to SPEED
                   -X      Disable special meaning of NUL and Ctrl-X from stdin

       mkdir
           mkdir      [OPTION] DIRECTORY...

           Create DIRECTORY

           Options:

                   -m      Set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask
                   -p      No error if existing, make parent directories as needed
                   -Z      Set security context

           Example:

                   $ mkdir /tmp/foo
                   $ mkdir /tmp/foo
                   /tmp/foo: File exists
                   $ mkdir /tmp/foo/bar/baz
                   /tmp/foo/bar/baz: No such file or directory
                   $ mkdir -p /tmp/foo/bar/baz

       mke2fs
           mke2fs     [-c|-l filename] [-b block-size] [-f fragment-size] [-g
           blocks-per-group] [-i bytes-per-inode] [-j] [-J journal-options]
           [-N number-of-inodes] [-n] [-m reserved-blocks-percentage] [-o
           creator-os] [-O feature[,...]] [-q] [r fs-revision-level] [-E
           extended-options] [-v] [-F] [-L volume-label] [-M
           last-mounted-directory] [-S] [-T filesystem-type] device
           [blocks-count]

                   -b size         Block size in bytes
                   -c              Check for bad blocks before creating
                   -E opts         Set extended options
                   -f size         Fragment size in bytes
                   -F              Force (ignore sanity checks)
                   -g num          Number of blocks in a block group
                   -i ratio        The bytes/inode ratio
                   -j              Create a journal (ext3)
                   -J opts         Set journal options (size/device)
                   -l file         Read bad blocks list from file
                   -L lbl          Set the volume label
                   -m percent      Percent of fs blocks to reserve for admin
                   -M dir          Set last mounted directory
                   -n              Do not actually create anything
                   -N num          Number of inodes to create
                   -o os           Set the 'creator os' field
                   -O features     Dir_index/filetype/has_journal/journal_dev/sparse_super
                   -q              Quiet
                   -r rev          Set filesystem revision
                   -S              Write superblock and group descriptors only
                   -T fs-type      Set usage type (news/largefile/largefile4)
                   -v              Verbose

       mkfifo
           mkfifo     [OPTIONS] name

           Create named pipe (identical to 'mknod name p')

           Options:

                   -m MODE Mode (default a=rw)
                   -Z      Set security context

       mkfs.minix
           mkfs.minix [-c | -l filename] [-nXX] [-iXX] /dev/name [blocks]

           Make a MINIX filesystem

           Options:

                   -c              Check device for bad blocks
                   -n [14|30]      Maximum length of filenames
                   -i INODES       Number of inodes for the filesystem
                   -l FILENAME     Read bad blocks list from FILENAME
                   -v              Make version 2 filesystem

       mknod
           mknod      [OPTIONS] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR

           Create a special file (block, character, or pipe)

           Options:

                   -m      Create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw)
           TYPEs include:

                   b:      Make a block device
                   c or u: Make a character device
                   p:      Make a named pipe (MAJOR and MINOR are ignored)
                   -Z      Set security context

           Example:

                   $ mknod /dev/fd0 b 2 0
                   $ mknod -m 644 /tmp/pipe p

       mkswap
           mkswap     DEVICE

           Prepare block device to be used as swap partition

       mktemp
           mktemp     [-dt] [-p DIR] TEMPLATE

           Create a temporary file with its name based on TEMPLATE.  TEMPLATE
           is any name with six 'Xs' (i.e., /tmp/temp.XXXXXX).

           Options:

                   -d      Make a directory instead of a file/*   "
                   -q      Fail silently if an error occurs" - we ignore it */
                   -t      Generate a path rooted in temporary directory
                   -p DIR  Use DIR as a temporary directory (implies -t)

           For -t or -p, directory is chosen as follows: $TMPDIR if set, else
           -p DIR, else /tmp

           Example:

                   $ mktemp /tmp/temp.XXXXXX
                   /tmp/temp.mWiLjM
                   $ ls -la /tmp/temp.mWiLjM
                   -rw-------    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 25 17:10 /tmp/temp.mWiLjM

       modprobe
           modprobe   [-knqrsv] MODULE [symbol=value...]

           Options:

                   -k      Make module autoclean-able
                   -n      Dry run
                   -q      Quiet
                   -r      Remove module (stacks) or do autoclean
                   -s      Report via syslog instead of stderr
                   -v      Verbose

           modprobe can (un)load a stack of modules, passing each module
           options (when loading). modprobe uses a configuration file to
           determine what option(s) to pass each module it loads.

           The configuration file is searched (in order) amongst:

               /etc/modprobe.conf (2.6 only)
               /etc/modules.conf
               /etc/conf.modules (deprecated)

           They all have the same syntax (see below). If none is present, it
           is _not_ an error; each loaded module is then expected to load
           without options. Once a file is found, the others are tested for.

           /etc/modules.conf entry format:

             alias <alias_name> <mod_name>
               Makes it possible to modprobe alias_name, when there is no such module.
               It makes sense if your mod_name is long, or you want a more representative
               name for that module (eg. 'scsi' in place of 'aha7xxx').
               This makes it also possible to use a different set of options (below) for
               the module and the alias.
               A module can be aliased more than once.

             options <mod_name|alias_name> <symbol=value...>
               When loading module mod_name (or the module aliased by alias_name), pass
               the "symbol=value" pairs as option to that module.

           Sample /etc/modules.conf file:

             options tulip irq=3
             alias tulip tulip2
             options tulip2 irq=4 io=0x308

           Other functionality offered by 'classic' modprobe is not available
           in this implementation.

           If module options are present both in the config file, and on the
           command line, then the options from the command line will be passed
           to the module _after_ the options from the config file. That way,
           you can have defaults in the config file, and override them for a
           specific usage from the command line.

           Example:

                   (with the above /etc/modules.conf):

                   $ modprobe tulip
                      will load the module 'tulip' with default option 'irq=3'

                   $ modprobe tulip irq=5
                      will load the module 'tulip' with option 'irq=5', thus overriding the default

                   $ modprobe tulip2
                      will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308',
                      which are the default for alias 'tulip2'

                   $ modprobe tulip2 irq=8
                      will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308 irq=8',
                      which are the default for alias 'tulip2' overridden by the option 'irq=8'

                      from the command line

                   $ modprobe tulip2 irq=2 io=0x210
                      will load the module 'tulip' with default options 'irq=4 io=0x308 irq=4 io=0x210',
                      which are the default for alias 'tulip2' overridden by the options 'irq=2 io=0x210'

                      from the command line

       more
           more       [FILE...]

           View FILE or standard input one screenful at a time

           Example:

                   $ dmesg | more

       mount
           mount      [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o options,more-options]

           Mount a filesystem. Filesystem autodetection requires /proc be
           mounted.

           Options:

                   -a              Mount all filesystems in fstab
                   -f              Update /etc/mtab, but don't mount
                   -n              Don't update /etc/mtab
                   -r              Read-only mount
                   -t fs-type      Filesystem type
                   -w              Read-write mount (default)
           B<-o> option:

                   loop            Ignored (loop devices are autodetected)
                   [a]sync         Writes are asynchronous / synchronous
                   [no]atime       Disable / enable updates to inode access times
                   [no]diratime    Disable / enable atime updates to directories
                   [no]dev         Allow use of special device files / disallow them
                   [no]exec        Allow use of executable files / disallow them
                   [no]suid        Allow set-user-id-root programs / disallow them
                   [r]shared       Convert [recursively] to a shared subtree
                   [r]slave        Convert [recursively] to a slave subtree
                   [r]private      Convert [recursively] to a private subtree
                   [un]bindable    Make mount point [un]able to be bind mounted
                   bind            Bind a directory to an additional location
                   move            Relocate an existing mount point
                   remount         Remount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags
                   ro/rw           Mount for read-only / read-write

           There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem
           You'll have to see the written documentation for those filesystems

           Returns 0 for success, number of failed mounts for -a, or errno for
           one mount.

           Example:

                   $ mount
                   /dev/hda3 on / type minix (rw)
                   proc on /proc type proc (rw)
                   devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw)
                   $ mount /dev/fd0 /mnt -t msdos -o ro
                   $ mount /tmp/diskimage /opt -t ext2 -o loop
                   $ mount cd_image.iso mydir

       mountpoint
           mountpoint [-q] <[-d] DIR | -x DEVICE>

           mountpoint checks if the directory is a mountpoint

           Options:

                   -q      Quiet
                   -d      Print major/minor device number of the filesystem
                   -x      Print major/minor device number of the blockdevice

           Example:

                   $ mountpoint /proc
                   /proc is not a mountpoint
                   $ mountpoint /sys
                   /sys is a mountpoint

       mt  mt         [-f device] opcode value

           Control magnetic tape drive operation

           Available Opcodes:

           bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm
           fsr fss load lock mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension
           rewind rewoffline seek setblk setdensity setpart tell unload unlock
           weof wset

       mv  mv         [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST or: mv [OPTION]... SOURCE...
           DIRECTORY

           Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY

           Options:

                   -f      Don't prompt before overwriting
                   -i      Interactive, prompt before overwrite

           Example:

                   $ mv /tmp/foo /bin/bar

       nameif
           nameif     [-s] [-c FILE] [{IFNAME MACADDR}]

           Rename network interface while it in the down state

           Options:

                   -c FILE         Use configuration file (default is /etc/mactab)
                   -s              Use syslog (LOCAL0 facility)
                   IFNAME MACADDR  new_interface_name interface_mac_address

           Example:

                   $ nameif -s dmz0 00:A0:C9:8C:F6:3F
                    or
                   $ nameif -c /etc/my_mactab_file

       nc  nc         [-options] hostname port  - connect nc [-options] -l -p
           port [hostname] [port]  - listen

           Options:

                   -e prog [args]  Program to exec after connect (must be last)
                   -l              Listen mode, for inbound connects
                   -n              Don't do DNS resolution
                   -s addr         Local address
                   -p port         Local port
                   -u              UDP mode
                   -v              Verbose (cumulative: -vv)
                   -w secs         Timeout for connects and final net reads
                   -i sec          Delay interval for lines sent" /* ", ports scanned" */
                   -o file         Hex dump of traffic
                   -z              Zero-I/O mode (scanning)/*   "
                   -r              Randomize local and remote ports" */

                    To use netcat as a terminal emulator on a serial port:

           $ stty 115200 -F /dev/ttyS0 $ stty raw -echo -ctlecho && nc -f
           /dev/ttyS0

           Example:

                   $ nc foobar.somedomain.com 25
                   220 foobar ESMTP Exim 3.12 #1 Sat, 15 Apr 2000 00:03:02 -0600
                   help
                   214-Commands supported:
                   214-    HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA AUTH
                   214     NOOP QUIT RSET HELP
                   quit
                   221 foobar closing connection

       netstat
           netstat    [-laentuwxrW]

           Display networking information

           Options:

                   -l      Display listening server sockets
                   -a      Display all sockets (default: connected)
                   -e      Display other/more information
                   -n      Don't resolve names
                   -t      Tcp sockets
                   -u      Udp sockets
                   -w      Raw sockets
                   -x      Unix sockets
                   -r      Display routing table
                   -W      Display with no column truncation

       nice
           nice       [-n ADJUST] [COMMAND [ARG]...]

           Run a program with modified scheduling priority

           Options:

                   -n ADJUST       Adjust the scheduling priority by ADJUST

       nmeter
           nmeter     format_string

           Monitor system in real time

           Format specifiers: %Nc or %[cN]   Monitor CPU. N - bar size,
           default 10

                           (displays: S:system U:user N:niced D:iowait I:irq i:softirq)
           %[niface]       Monitor network interface 'iface'
           %m              Monitor allocated memory
           %[mf]           Monitor free memory
           %[mt]           Monitor total memory
           %s              Monitor allocated swap
           %f              Monitor number of used file descriptors
           %Ni             Monitor total/specific IRQ rate
           %x              Monitor context switch rate
           %p              Monitor forks
           %[pn]           Monitor # of processes
           %b              Monitor block io
           %Nt             Show time (with N decimal points)
           %Nd             Milliseconds between updates (default=1000)
           %r              Print <cr> instead of <lf> at EOL

           Example:

                   nmeter '%250d%t %20c int %i bio %b mem %m forks%p'

       nohup
           nohup      COMMAND [ARGS]

           Run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty

           Example:

                   $ nohup make &

       nslookup
           nslookup   [HOST] [SERVER]

           Query the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST
           optionally using a specified DNS server

           Example:

                   $ nslookup localhost
                   Server:     default
                   Address:    default

                   Name:       debian
                   Address:    127.0.0.1

       od  od         [-aBbcDdeFfHhIiLlOovXx] [-t TYPE] [FILE]

           Write an unambiguous representation, octal bytes by default, of
           FILE to standard output. With no FILE or when FILE is -, read
           standard input.

       openvt
           openvt     VTNUM COMMAND [ARGS...]

           Start a command on a new virtual terminal

           Example:

                   openvt 2 /bin/ash

       passwd
           passwd     [OPTION] [name]

           Change user's password. If no name is specified, changes the
           password for the current user.

           Options:

                   -a      Algorithm to use for password (choices: des, md5)" /* ", sha1)" */
                   -d      Delete password for the account
                   -l      Lock (disable) account
                   -u      Unlock (re-enable) account

       patch
           patch      [-p NUM] [-i DIFF]

                   -p NUM  Strip NUM leading components from file names
                   -i DIFF Read DIFF instead of stdin

           Example:

                   $ patch -p1 < example.diff
                   $ patch -p0 -i example.diff

       pgrep
           pgrep      [-flnovx] pattern

           Display process(es) selected by regex pattern

           Options:

                   -l      Show command name too
                   -f      Match against entire command line
                   -n      Show the newest process only
                   -o      Show the oldest process only
                   -v      Negate the matching
                   -x      Match whole name (not substring)

       pidof
           pidof      [NAME...]

           List PIDs of all processes with names that match NAMEs USAGE_PIDOF

                   -s      Show only one PID
                   -o PID  Omit given pid
                           Use %PPID to omit pid of pidof's parent

           Example:

                   $ pidof init
                   1
                   $ pidof /bin/sh
                   20351 5973 5950
                   $ pidof /bin/sh -o %PPID
                   20351 5950

       ping
           ping       [OPTION]... host

           Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

           Options:

                   -4, -6          Force IPv4 or IPv6 hostname resolution
                   -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
                   -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56)
                   -I iface/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
                   -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                                   and when finished

           Example:

                   $ ping localhost
                   PING slag (127.0.0.1): 56 data bytes
                   64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=20.1 ms

                   --- debian ping statistics ---
                   1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
                   round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

       ping6
           ping6      [OPTION]... host

           Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts

           Options:

                   -c CNT          Send only CNT pings
                   -s SIZE         Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56)
                   -I iface/IP     Use interface or IP address as source
                   -q              Quiet, only displays output at start
                                   and when finished

           Example:

                   $ ping6 ip6-localhost
                   PING ip6-localhost (::1): 56 data bytes
                   64 bytes from ::1: icmp6_seq=0 ttl=64 time=20.1 ms

                   --- ip6-localhost ping statistics ---
                   1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
                   round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

       pivot_root
           pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

           Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the
           new root file system

       pkill
           pkill      [-l] | [-fnovx] [-signal] pattern

           Send a signal to process(es) selected by regex pattern

           Options:

                   -l      List all signals
                   -f      Match against entire command line
                   -n      Signal the newest process only
                   -o      Signal the oldest process only
                   -v      Negate the matching
                   -x      Match whole name (not substring)

       poweroff
           poweroff   [-d delay] [-n] [-f]

           Halt and shut off power

           Options:

                   -d      Delay interval for halting
                   -n      No call to sync()
                   -f      Force power off (don't go through init)

       printenv
           printenv   [VARIABLES...]

           Print all or part of environment.  If no environment VARIABLE
           specified, print them all.

       printf
           printf     FORMAT [ARGUMENT...]

           Format and print ARGUMENT(s) according to FORMAT, where FORMAT
           controls the output exactly as in C printf

           Example:

                   $ printf "Val=%d\n" 5
                   Val=5

       ps  ps

           Report process status

                   USAGE_PS
                   -Z      Show SE Linux context
                   w       Wide output

           Example:

                   $ ps
                     PID  Uid      Gid State Command
                       1 root     root     S init
                       2 root     root     S [kflushd]
                       3 root     root     S [kupdate]
                       4 root     root     S [kpiod]
                       5 root     root     S [kswapd]
                     742 andersen andersen S [bash]
                     743 andersen andersen S -bash
                     745 root     root     S [getty]
                    2990 andersen andersen R ps

       pscan
           pscan      [-p MIN_PORT] [-P MAX_PORT] [-t TIMEOUT] [-T MIN_RTT]
           HOST

           Scan a host, print all open ports

           Options:

                   -p      Scan from this port (default 1)
                   -P      Scan up to this port (default 1024)
                   -t      Timeout (default 5000 ms)
                   -T      Minimum rtt (default 5 ms, increase for congested hosts)

       pwd pwd

           Print the full filename of the current working directory

           Example:

                   $ pwd
                   /root

       raidautorun
           raidautorun DEVICE

           Tell the kernel to automatically search and start RAID arrays

           Example:

                   $ raidautorun /dev/md0

       rdate
           rdate      [-sp] HOST

           Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST

           Options:

                   -s      Set the system date and time (default)
                   -p      Print the date and time

       readahead
           readahead  [FILE]...

           Preload FILE(s) in RAM cache so that subsequent reads for
           thosefiles do not block on disk I/O

       readlink
           readlink   [-f] FILE

           Display the value of a symlink

           Options:

                   -f      Canonicalize by following all symlinks

       readprofile
           readprofile [OPTIONS]...

           Options:

                   -m mapfile      (Default: /boot/System.map)
                   -p profile      (Default: /proc/profile)
                   -M mult         Set the profiling multiplier to mult
                   -i              Print only info about the sampling step
                   -v              Verbose
                   -a              Print all symbols, even if count is 0
                   -b              Print individual histogram-bin counts
                   -s              Print individual counters within functions
                   -r              Reset all the counters (root only)
                   -n              Disable byte order auto-detection

       realpath
           realpath   pathname...

           Return the absolute pathnames of given argument

       reboot
           reboot     [-d delay] [-n] [-f]

           Reboot the system

           Options:

                   -d      Delay interval for rebooting
                   -n      No call to sync()
                   -f      Force reboot (don't go through init)

       renice
           renice     {{-n INCREMENT} | PRIORITY} [[-p | -g | -u] ID...]

           Change priority of running processes

           Options:

                   -n      Adjust current nice value (smaller is faster)
                   -p      Process id(s) (default)
                   -g      Process group id(s)
                   -u      Process user name(s) and/or id(s)

       reset
           reset

           Reset the screen

       resize
           resize

           Resize the screen

       restorecon
           restorecon [-iFnrRv] [-e excludedir]... [-o filename] [-f filename
           | pathname]

           Reset security contexts of files in pathname

                   -i              Ignore files that do not exist
                   -f file         File with list of files to process. Use - for stdin
                   -e directory    Directory to exclude
                   -R,-r           Recurse directories
                   -n              Don't change any file labels
                   -o file         Save list of files with incorrect context
                   -v              Verbose
                   -vv             Show changed labels
                   -F              Force reset of context to match file_context
                                   for customizable files, or the user section,
                                   if it has changed

       rm  rm         [OPTION]... FILE...

           Remove (unlink) the FILE(s). Use '--' to indicate that all
           following arguments are non-options.

           Options:

                   -i      Always prompt before removing
                   -f      Never prompt
                   -r,-R   Remove directories recursively

           Example:

                   $ rm -rf /tmp/foo

       rmdir
           rmdir      [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...

           Remove the DIRECTORY, if it is empty

           Example:

                   # rmdir /tmp/foo

       rmmod
           rmmod      [OPTION]... [MODULE]...

           Unload the specified kernel modules from the kernel

           Options:

                   -a      Remove all unused modules (recursively)

           Example:

                   $ rmmod tulip

       route
           route      [{add|del|delete}]

           Edit the kernel's routing tables

           Options:

                   -n      Dont resolve names
                   -e      Display other/more information
                   -A inet{6}      Select address family

       rpm rpm        -i -q[ildc]p package.rpm

           Manipulate RPM packages

           Options:

                   -i      Install package
                   -q      Query package
                   -p      Query uninstalled package
                   -i      Show information
                   -l      List contents
                   -d      List documents
                   -c      List config files

       rpm2cpio
           rpm2cpio   package.rpm

           Output a cpio archive of the rpm file

       rtcwake
           rtcwake    [-a | -l | -u] [-d DEV] [-m MODE] [-s SECS | -t TIME]

           Enter a system sleep state until specified wakeup time

                   -a,--auto        Read clock mode from adjtime
                   -l,--local       Clock is set to local time
                   -u,--utc         Clock is set to UTC time
                   -d,--device=DEV  Specify the RTC device
                   -m,--mode=MODE   Set the sleep state (default: standby)
                   -s,--seconds=SEC Set the timeout in SEC seconds from now
                   -t,--time=TIME   Set the timeout to TIME seconds from epoch

       run-parts
           run-parts  [-t] [-l] [-a ARG] [-u MASK] DIRECTORY

           Run a bunch of scripts in a directory

           Options:

                   -t      Print what would be run, but don't actually run anything
                   -a ARG  Pass ARG as argument for every program
                   -u MASK Set the umask to MASK before running every program
                   -l      Print names of all matching files even if they are not executable

           Example:

                   $ run-parts -a start /etc/init.d
                   $ run-parts -a stop=now /etc/init.d

                   Let's assume you have a script foo/dosomething:
                   #!/bin/sh
                   for i in $*; do eval $i; done; unset i
                   case "$1" in
                   start*) echo starting something;;
                   stop*) set -x; shutdown -h $stop;;
                   esac

                   Running this yields:
                   $run-parts -a stop=+4m foo/
                   + shutdown -h +4m

       runcon
           runcon     [-c] [-u USER] [-r ROLE] [-t TYPE] [-l RANGE] COMMAND
           [args]      runcon CONTEXT COMMAND [args]

           Run a program in a different security context

                   CONTEXT         Complete security context

                   -c,--compute    Compute process transition context before modifying
                   -t,--type=TYPE  Type (for same role as parent)
                   -u,--user=USER  User identity
                   -r,--role=ROLE  Role
                   -l,--range=RNG  Levelrange

       runlevel
           runlevel   [utmp]

           Example:

                   $ runlevel /var/run/utmp
                   N 2

       runsv
           runsv      dir

           Start and monitor a service and optionally an appendant log service

       runsvdir
           runsvdir   [-P] dir

           Start a runsv process for each subdirectory

       rx  rx         FILE

           Receive a file using the xmodem protocol

           Example:

                   $ rx /tmp/foo

       script
           script     [-afq] [-c COMMAND] [OUTFILE]

           Options:

                   -a      Append output
                   -c      Run COMMAND, not shell
                   -f      Flush output after each write
                   -q      Quiet

       sed sed        [-efinr] pattern [files...]

           Options:

                   -e script       Add the script to the commands to be executed
                   -f scriptfile   Add scriptfile contents to the
                                   commands to be executed
                   -i              Edit files in-place
                   -n              Suppress automatic printing of pattern space
                   -r              Use extended regular expression syntax

           If no -e or -f is given, the first non-option argument is taken as
           the sed script to interpret. All remaining arguments are names of
           input files; if no input files are specified, then the standard
           input is read. Source files will not be modified unless -i option
           is given.

           Example:

                   $ echo "foo" | sed -e 's/f[a-zA-Z]o/bar/g'
                   bar

       selinuxenabled
           selinuxenabled #define selinuxenabled_full_usage

       sendmail
           sendmail   [-w timeout] [-U user] [-P password] [-X] -t to [-t
           to]... [-n] [-s subject] [-c charset] server[:port] from [body]
           [attachment ...]

           Send an email.

           Options:

                   -w timeout      Set timeout on network operations
                   -U username     Authenticate with specified username/password
                   -P password
                   -t address      Recipient(s). May be repeated
                   -X              Use openssl connection helper for secured servers
                   -n              Request delivery notification to sender
                   -s subject      Subject
                   -c charset      Assumed charset for body and subject [utf-8]

       seq seq        [first [increment]] last

           Print numbers from FIRST to LAST, in steps of INCREMENT.  FIRST,
           INCREMENT default to 1

           Arguments:

                   LAST
                   FIRST LAST
                   FIRST INCREMENT LAST

       sestatus
           sestatus   [-vb]

                   -v      Verbose
                   -b      Display current state of booleans

       setarch
           setarch    personality program [args...]

           Personality may be:

                   linux32         Set 32bit uname emulation
                   linux64         Set 64bit uname emulation

       setconsole
           setconsole [-r|--reset] [DEVICE]

           Redirect system console output to DEVICE (default: /dev/tty)

           Options:

                   -r      Reset output to /dev/console

       setenforce
           setenforce [Enforcing | Permissive | 1 | 0]

       setfiles
           setfiles   [-dnpqsvW] [-e dir]... [-o file] [-r alt_root_path] [-c
           policyfile] spec_file pathname

           Reset file contexts under pathname according to spec_file

                   -c file Check the validity of the contexts against the specified binary policy
                   -d      Show which specification matched each file
                   -l      Log changes in file labels to syslog
                   -n      Don't change any file labels
                   -q      Suppress warnings
                   -r dir  Use an altenate root path
                   -e dir  Exclude directory
                   -F      Force reset of context to match file_context for customizable files
                   -o file Save list of files with incorrect context
                   -s      Take a list of files from standard input (instead of command line)
                   -v      Show changes in file labels, if type or role are changing
                   -vv     Show changes in file labels, if type, role, or user are changing
                   -W      Display warnings about entries that had no matching files

       setkeycodes
           setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE...

           Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map, allowing
           unusual keyboards to generate usable keycodes.

           SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is
           given in decimal

           Example:

                   $ setkeycodes e030 127

       setlogcons
           setlogcons N

           Redirect the kernel output to console N (0 for current)

       setsebool
           setsebool  boolean value

           Change boolean setting

       setsid
           setsid     PROG [ARG...]

           Run PROG in a new session. PROG will have no controlling terminal
           and will not be affected by keyboard signals (Ctrl-C etc).  See
           setsid(2) for details.

       setuidgid
           setuidgid  account prog args

           Set uid and gid to account's uid and gid, removing all
           supplementary groups, then run prog

       sha1sum
           sha1sum    [OPTION] [FILEs...]
              or: sha1sum [OPTION] -c [FILE]

           Print or check SHA1 checksums.

           Options:

                   -c      Check SHA1 sums against given list
                   -s      Don't output anything, status code shows success
                   -w      Warn about improperly formatted SHA1 checksum lines

       slattach
           slattach   [-cehmLF] [-s speed] [-p protocol] DEVICEs

           Attach network interface(s) to serial line(s)

           Options:

                   -p      Set protocol (slip, cslip, slip6, clisp6 or adaptive)
                   -s      Set line speed
                   -e      Exit after initializing device
                   -h      Exit when the carrier is lost
                   -c      Execute a command when the line is hung up
                   -m      Do NOT initialize the line in raw 8 bits mode
                   -L      Enable 3-wire operation
                   -F      Disable RTS/CTS flow control

       sleep
           sleep      [N]...

                            Pause for a time equal to the total of the args given, where each arg can
           have an optional suffix of (s)econds, (m)inutes, (h)ours, or (d)ays

           Example:

                   $ sleep 2
                   [2 second delay results]
                   $ sleep 1d 3h 22m 8s
                   [98528 second delay results]

       softlimit
           softlimit  [-a allbytes] [-c corebytes] [-d databytes] [-f
           filebytes] [-l lockbytes] [-m membytes] [-o openfiles] [-p
           processes] [-r residentbytes] [-s stackbytes] [-t cpusecs] prog
           args

           Set soft resource limits, then run prog

           Options:

                   -m n    Same as -d n -s n -l n -a n
                   -d n    Limit the data segment per process to n bytes
                   -s n    Limit the stack segment per process to n bytes
                   -l n    Limit the locked physical pages per process to n bytes
                   -a n    Limit the total of all segments per process to n bytes
                   -o n    Limit the number of open file descriptors per process to n
                   -p n    Limit the number of processes per uid to n
           Options controlling file sizes:

                   -f n    Limit output file sizes to n bytes
                   -c n    Limit core file sizes to n bytes
           Efficiency opts:

                   -r n    Limit the resident set size to n bytes. This limit is not
                           enforced unless physical memory is full
                   -t n    Limit the CPU time to n seconds. This limit is not enforced
                           except that the process receives a SIGXCPU signal after n seconds

           Some options may have no effect on some operating systems n may be
           =, indicating that soft limit should be set equal to hard limit

       sort
           sort       [-nrugMcszbdfimSTokt] [-o FILE] [-k
           start[.offset][opts][,end[.offset][opts]] [-t CHAR] [FILE]...

           Sort lines of text

           Options:

                   -b      Ignore leading blanks
                   -c      Check whether input is sorted
                   -d      Dictionary order (blank or alphanumeric only)
                   -f      Ignore case
                   -g      General numerical sort
                   -i      Ignore unprintable characters
                   -k      Sort key
                   -M      Sort month
                   -n      Sort numbers
                   -o      Output to file
                   -k      Sort by key
                   -t CHAR Key separator
                   -r      Reverse sort order
                   -s      Stable (don't sort ties alphabetically)
                   -u      Suppress duplicate lines
                   -z      Lines are terminated by NUL, not newline
                   -mST    Ignored for GNU compatibility

           Example:

                   $ echo -e "e\nf\nb\nd\nc\na" | sort
                   a
                   b
                   c
                   d
                   e
                   f
                   $ echo -e "c 3\nb 2\nd 2" | $SORT -k 2,2n -k 1,1r
                   d 2
                   b 2
                   c 3

       split
           split      [OPTION] [INPUT [PREFIX]]

           Options:

                   -b n[k|m]       Split by bytes
                   -l n            Split by lines
                   -a n            Use n letters as suffix

           Example:

                   $ split TODO foo
                   $ cat TODO | split -a 2 -l 2 TODO_

       start-stop-daemon
           start-stop-daemon [OPTIONS] [--start|--stop] ... [-- arguments...]

           Start and stop services

           Options:

                   -S,--start              Start
                   -K,--stop               Stop
                   -a,--startas pathname   Start process specified by pathname
                   -b,--background         Put process into background
                   -u,--user username|uid  Stop this user's processes
                   -x,--exec executable    Program to either start or check
                   -n,--name process-name  Stop processes with this name
                   -p,--pidfile pid-file   Save or load pid using a pid-file
                   -m,--make-pidfile       Create the -p file and enter pid in it
                   -q,--quiet              Quiet
                   -o,--oknodo             Exit status 0 if nothing done
                   -v,--verbose            Verbose
                   -N,--nicelevel N        Add N to process's nice level
                   -s,--signal signal      Signal to send (default TERM)
                   -c,--chuid user[:[grp]] Change to specified user/group
                   -s signal       Signal to send (default TERM)
                   -c user[:[grp]] Change to specified user/group  )

       stat
           stat       [OPTION] FILE...

           Display file (default) or filesystem status

           Options:

                   -c fmt  Use the specified format
                   -f      Display filesystem status
                   -L      Dereference links
                   -t      Display info in terse form
                   -Z      Print security context

           Valid format sequences for files:

            %a     Access rights in octal
            %A     Access rights in human readable form
            %b     Number of blocks allocated (see %B)
            %B     The size in bytes of each block reported by %b
            %d     Device number in decimal
            %D     Device number in hex
            %f     Raw mode in hex
            %F     File type
            %g     Group ID of owner
            %G     Group name of owner
            %h     Number of hard links
            %i     Inode number
            %n     File name
            %N     Quoted file name with dereference if symlink
            %o     I/O block size
            %s     Total size, in bytes
            %t     Major device type in hex
            %T     Minor device type in hex
            %u     User ID of owner
            %U     User name of owner
            %x     Time of last access
            %X     Time of last access as seconds since Epoch
            %y     Time of last modification
            %Y     Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch
            %z     Time of last change
            %Z     Time of last change as seconds since Epoch

           Valid format sequences for file systems:

            %a     Free blocks available to non-superuser
            %b     Total data blocks in file system
            %c     Total file nodes in file system
            %d     Free file nodes in file system
            %f     Free blocks in file system
            %C     Security context in SELinux
            %i     File System ID in hex
            %l     Maximum length of filenames
            %n     File name
            %s     Block size (for faster transfer)
            %S     Fundamental block size (for block counts)
            %t     Type in hex
            %T     Type in human readable form

       strings
           strings    [-afo] [-n length] [file...]

           Display printable strings in a binary file

           Options:

                   -a      Scan whole file (default)
                   -f      Precede strings with filenames
                   -n N    At least N characters form a string (default 4)
                   -o      Precede strings with decimal offsets

       stty
           stty       [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...

           Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and
           deviations from stty sane

           Options:

                   -F DEVICE       Open device instead of stdin
                   -a              Print all current settings in human-readable form
                   -g              Print in stty-readable form
                   [SETTING]       See manpage

       su  su         [OPTION]... [-] [username]

           Change user id or become root

           Options:

                   -p, -m  Preserve environment
                   -c      Command to pass to 'sh -c'
                   -s      Shell to use instead of default shell

       sulogin
           sulogin    [OPTION]... [tty-device]

           Single user login

           Options:

                   -t      Timeout

       sum sum        [rs] [files...]

           Checksum and count the blocks in a file

           Options:

                   -r      Use BSD sum algorithm (1K blocks)
                   -s      Use System V sum algorithm (512byte blocks)

       sv  sv         [-v] [-w sec] command service...

           Control services monitored by runsv supervisor.  Commands (only
           first character is enough):

           status: query service status up: if service isn't running, start
           it. If service stops, restart it once: like 'up', but if service
           stops, don't restart it down: send TERM and CONT signals. If ./run
           exits, start ./finish

               if it exists. After it stops, do not restart service
           exit: send TERM and CONT signals to service and log service. If they exit,

               runsv exits too
           pause, cont, hup, alarm, interrupt, quit, 1, 2, term, kill: send
           STOP, CONT, HUP, ALRM, INT, QUIT, USR1, USR2, TERM, KILL signal to service

       svlogd
           svlogd     [-ttv] [-r c] [-R abc] [-l len] [-b buflen] dir...

           Continuously read log data from standard input, optionally filter
           log messages, and write the data to one or more automatically
           rotated logs

       swapoff
           swapoff    [-a] [DEVICE]

           Stop swapping on DEVICE

           Options:

                   -a      Stop swapping on all swap devices

       swapon
           swapon     [-a] [DEVICE]

           Start swapping on DEVICE

           Options:

                   -a      Start swapping on all swap devices

       switch_root
           switch_root [-c /dev/console] NEW_ROOT NEW_INIT [ARGUMENTS_TO_INIT]

           Use from PID 1 under initramfs to free initramfs, chroot to
           NEW_ROOT, and exec NEW_INIT

           Options:

                   -c      Redirect console to device on new root

       sync
           sync

           Write all buffered filesystem blocks to disk

       sysctl
           sysctl     [OPTIONS]... [VALUE]...

           Configure kernel parameters at runtime

           Options:

                   -n      Disable printing of key names
                   -e      Don't warn about unknown keys
                   -w      Change sysctl setting
                   -p FILE Load sysctl settings from FILE (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
                   -a      Display all values
                   -A      Display all values in table form

           Example:

                   sysctl [-n] [-e] variable...
                   sysctl [-n] [-e] -w variable=value...
                   sysctl [-n] [-e] -a
                   sysctl [-n] [-e] -p file        (default /etc/sysctl.conf)
                   sysctl [-n] [-e] -A

       syslogd
           syslogd    [OPTION]...

           System logging utility.  Note that this version of syslogd ignores
           /etc/syslog.conf.

           Options:

                   -n              Run in foreground
                   -O FILE         Log to given file (default=/var/log/messages)
                   -l n            Set local log level
                   -S              Smaller logging output
                   -s SIZE         Max size (KB) before rotate (default=200KB, 0=off)
                   -b NUM          Number of rotated logs to keep (default=1, max=99, 0=purge)
                   -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)
                   -L              Log locally and via network (default is network only if -R)
                   -D              Drop duplicates
                   -C[size(KiB)]   Log to shared mem buffer (read it using logread)        /* NB: -Csize shouldn't have space (because size is optional) */

           Example:

                   $ syslogd -R masterlog:514
                   $ syslogd -R 192.168.1.1:601

       tac tac        [FILE]...

           Concatenate FILE(s) and print them in reverse

       tail
           tail       [OPTION]... [FILE]...

           Print last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
           than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.
           With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

           Options:

                   -c N[kbm]       Output the last N bytes
                   -n N[kbm]       Print last N lines instead of last 10
                   -f              Output data as the file grows
                   -q              Never output headers giving file names
                   -s SEC          Wait SEC seconds between reads with -f
                   -v              Always output headers giving file names

           If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a '+', output
           begins with the Nth item from the start of each file, otherwise,
           print the last N items in the file. N bytes may be suffixed by k
           (x1024), b (x512), or m (1024^2).

           Example:

                   $ tail -n 1 /etc/resolv.conf
                   nameserver 10.0.0.1

       tar tar        -[czjaZxtvO] [-X FILE] [-f TARFILE] [-C DIR]
           [FILE(s)]...

           Create, extract, or list files from a tar file

           Options:

                   c       Create
                   x       Extract
                   t       List
           Archive format selection:

                   z       Filter the archive through gzip
                   j       Filter the archive through bzip2
                   a       Filter the archive through lzma
                   Z       Filter the archive through compress
           File selection:

                   f       Name of TARFILE or "-" for stdin
                   O       Extract to stdout
                   exclude File to exclude
                   X       File with names to exclude
                   C       Change to directory DIR before operation
                   v       Verbose

           Example:

                   $ zcat /tmp/tarball.tar.gz | tar -xf -
                   $ tar -cf /tmp/tarball.tar /usr/local

       taskset
           taskset    [-p] [mask] [pid | command [arg]...]

           Set or get CPU affinity

           Options:

                   -p      Operate on an existing PID

           Example:

                   $ taskset 0x7 ./dgemm_test&
                   $ taskset -p 0x1 $!
                   pid 4790's current affinity mask: 7
                   pid 4790's new affinity mask: 1
                   $ taskset 0x7 /bin/sh -c './taskset -p 0x1 $$'
                   pid 6671's current affinity mask: 1
                   pid 6671's new affinity mask: 1
                   $ taskset -p 1
                   pid 1's current affinity mask: 3

       tcpsvd
           tcpsvd     [-hEv] [-c n] [-C n:msg] [-b n] [-u user] [-l name] ip
           port prog...

           Create TCP socket, bind it to ip:port and listen for incoming
           connection. Run PROG for each connection.

           ip        IP to listen on. '0' = all port      Port to listen on
           prog [arg] Program to run -l name        Local hostname (else looks
           up local hostname in DNS) -u user[:group]     Change to user/group
           after bind -c n      Handle up to n connections simultaneously -b
           n      Allow a backlog of approximately n TCP SYNs -C
           n[:msg]     Allow only up to n connections from the same IP

                           New connections from this IP address are closed
                           immediately. 'msg' is written to the peer before close
           B<-h>           Look up peer's hostname
           B<-E>           Do not set up environment variables
           B<-v>           Verbose

       tee tee        [OPTION]... [FILE]...

           Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output

           Options:

                   -a      Append to the given FILEs, do not overwrite
                   -i      Ignore interrupt signals (SIGINT)

           Example:

                   $ echo "Hello" | tee /tmp/foo
                   $ cat /tmp/foo
                   Hello

       telnet
           telnet     HOST [PORT]

           Connect to telnet server

       telnetd
           telnetd    [OPTION]

           Handle incoming telnet connections

           Options:

                   -l LOGIN        Exec LOGIN on connect
                   -f issue_file   Display issue_file instead of /etc/issue
                   -K              Close connection as soon as login exits
                                   (normally wait until all programs close slave pty)
                   -p PORT         Port to listen on
                   -b ADDR         Address to bind to
                   -F              Run in foreground
                   -i              Run as inetd subservice

       test
           test       EXPRESSION
             or   [ EXPRESSION ]

           Check file types and compares values returning an exit code
           determined by the value of EXPRESSION

           Example:

                   $ test 1 -eq 2
                   $ echo $?
                   1
                   $ test 1 -eq 1
                   $ echo $?
                   0
                   $ [ -d /etc ]
                   $ echo $?
                   0
                   $ [ -d /junk ]
                   $ echo $?
                   1

       tftp
           tftp       [OPTION]... HOST [PORT]

           Transfer a file from/to tftp server

           Options:

                   -l FILE Local FILE
                   -r FILE Remote FILE
                   -g      Get file
                   -p      Put file
                   -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets

       tftpd
           tftpd      [-cr] [-u USER] [DIR]

           Transfer a file on tftp client's request.

           Options:

                   -r      Prohibit upload
                   -c      Allow file creation via upload
                   -u      Access files as USER

       time
           time       [OPTION]... COMMAND [ARGS...]

           Run the program COMMAND with arguments ARGS. When COMMAND finishes,
           COMMAND's resource usage information is displayed.

           Options:

                   -v      Verbose

       top top        [-b] [-n COUNT] [-d SECONDS]

           Provide a view of process activity in real time.  Read the status
           of all processes from /proc each SECONDS and show the status for
           however many processes will fit on the screen.

       touch
           touch      [-c] FILE [FILE...]

           Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s]

           Options:

                   -c      Do not create any files

           Example:

                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   /bin/ls: /tmp/foo: No such file or directory
                   $ touch /tmp/foo
                   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
                   -rw-rw-r--    1 andersen andersen        0 Apr 15 01:11 /tmp/foo

       tr  tr         [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]

           Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input,
           writing to standard output

           Options:

                   -c      Take complement of STRING1
                   -d      Delete input characters coded STRING1
                   -s      Squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character

           Example:

                   $ echo "gdkkn vnqkc" | tr [a-y] [b-z]
                   hello world

       traceroute
           traceroute [-FIldnrv] [-f 1st_ttl] [-m max_ttl] [-p port#] [-q
           nqueries]      [-s src_addr] [-t tos] [-w wait] [-g gateway] [-i
           iface]      [-z pausemsecs] HOST [data size]

           Trace the route to HOST

           Options:

                   -F      Set the don't fragment bit
                   -I      Use ICMP ECHO instead of UDP datagrams
                   -l      Display the ttl value of the returned packet
                   -d      Set SO_DEBUG options to socket
                   -n      Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically
                   -r      Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host
                   -v      Verbose
                   -m max_ttl      Max time-to-live (max number of hops)
                   -p port#        Base UDP port number used in probes
                                   (default is 33434)
                   -q nqueries     Number of probes per 'ttl' (default 3)
                   -s src_addr     IP address to use as the source address
                   -t tos          Type-of-service in probe packets (default 0)
                   -w wait         Time in seconds to wait for a response
                                   (default 3 sec)
                   -g              Loose source route gateway (8 max)

       true
           true

           Return an exit code of TRUE (0)

           Example:

                   $ true
                   $ echo $?
                   0

       tty tty

           Print file name of standard input's terminal

           Options:

                   -s      Print nothing, only return exit status

           Example:

                   $ tty
                   /dev/tty2

       ttysize
           ttysize    [w] [h]

           Print dimension(s) of standard input's terminal, on error return
           80x25

       tune2fs
           tune2fs    [-c max-mounts-count] [-e errors-behavior] [-g group]
           [-i interval[d|m|w]] [-j] [-J journal-options] [-l] [-s
           sparse-flag] [-m reserved-blocks-percent] [-o
           [^]mount-options[,...]] [-r reserved-blocks-count] [-u user] [-C
           mount-count] [-L volume-label] [-M last-mounted-dir] [-O
           [^]feature[,...]] [-T last-check-time] [-U UUID] device

           Adjust filesystem options on ext[23] filesystems

       udhcpc
           udhcpc     [-Cfbnqtv] [-c CID] [-V VCLS] [-H HOSTNAME] [-i
           INTERFACE]      [-p pidfile] [-r IP] [-s script] [-O
           dhcp-option]... [-P N]

                           -V,--vendorclass=CLASSID        Vendor class identifier
                   -i,--interface=INTERFACE        Interface to use (default eth0)
                   -H,-h,--hostname=HOSTNAME       Client hostname
                   -c,--clientid=CLIENTID  Client identifier
                   -C,--clientid-none      Suppress default client identifier
                   -p,--pidfile=file       Create pidfile
                   -r,--request=IP         IP address to request
                   -s,--script=file        Run file at dhcp events (default /usr/share/udhcpc/default.script)
                   -t,--retries=N          Send up to N request packets
                   -T,--timeout=N          Try to get a lease for N seconds (default 3)
                   -A,--tryagain=N         Wait N seconds (default 20) after failure
                   -f,--foreground Run in foreground
                   -b,--background Background if lease is not immediately obtained
                   -S,--syslog     Log to syslog too
                   -n,--now        Exit with failure if lease is not immediately obtained
                   -q,--quit       Quit after obtaining lease
                   -R,--release    Release IP on quit
                   -O,--request-option=OPT Request DHCP option OPT from server
                   -P,--client-port N  Use port N instead of default 68
                   -a,--arping     Use arping to validate offered address
                   -a              Use arping to validate offered address  )

       udhcpd
           udhcpd     [-fS] [-P N] [configfile]

           DHCP server

                   -f      Run in foreground
                   -S      Log to syslog too
                   -P N    Use port N instead of default 67

       udpsvd
           udpsvd     [-hEv] [-c n] [-u user] [-l name] ip port prog

           Create UDP socket, bind it to ip:port and wait for incoming
           packets. Run PROG for each packet, redirecting all further packets
           with same peer ip:port to it

           ip        IP to listen on. '0' = all port      Port to listen on
           prog [arg] Program to run -l name        Local hostname (else looks
           up local hostname in DNS) -u user[:group]     Change to user/group
           after bind -c n      Handle up to n connections simultaneously
           -h        Look up peer's hostname -E        Do not set up
           environment variables -v        Verbose

       umount
           umount     [flags] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY

           Unmount file systems

           Options:

                   -a      Unmount all file systems in /etc/mtab
                   -n      Don't erase /etc/mtab entries
                   -r      Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
                   -l      Lazy umount (detach filesystem)
                   -f      Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
                   -d      Free loop device if it has been used

           Example:

                   $ umount /dev/hdc1

       uname
           uname      [-amnrspv]

           Print system information.

           Options:

                   -a      Print all
                   -m      The machine (hardware) type
                   -n      Hostname
                   -r      OS release
                   -s      OS name (default)
                   -p      Processor type
                   -v      OS version

           Example:

                   $ uname -a
                   Linux debian 2.4.23 #2 Tue Dec 23 17:09:10 MST 2003 i686 GNU/Linux

       uncompress
           uncompress [-c] [-f] [name...]

           Uncompress .Z file[s]

           Options:

                   -c      Extract to stdout
                   -f      Overwrite an existing file

       unexpand
           unexpand   [-f][-a][-t NUM] [FILE|-]

           Convert spaces to tabs, writing to standard output.

           Options:

                   -a,--all        Convert all blanks
                   -f,--first-only Convert only leading blanks
                   -t,--tabs=N     Tabstops every N chars

       uniq
           uniq       [-fscdu]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

           Discard all but one of successive identical lines from INPUT (or
           standard input), writing to OUTPUT (or standard output)

           Options:

                   -c      Prefix lines by the number of occurrences
                   -d      Only print duplicate lines
                   -u      Only print unique lines
                   -f N    Skip the first N fields
                   -s N    Skip the first N chars (after any skipped fields)

           Example:

                   $ echo -e "a\na\nb\nc\nc\na" | sort | uniq
                   a
                   b
                   c

       unix2dos
           unix2dos   [option] [FILE]

           Convert FILE from unix to dos format.  When no file is given, use
           stdin/stdout.

           Options:

                   -u      dos2unix
                   -d      unix2dos

       unlzma
           unlzma     [OPTION]... [FILE]

           Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-' or omitted)

           Options:

                   -c      Write to standard output
                   -f      Force

       unzip
           unzip      [-opts[modifiers]] file[.zip] [list] [-x xlist] [-d
           exdir]

           Extract files from ZIP archives

           Options:

                   -l      List archive contents (with -q for short form)
                   -n      Never overwrite existing files (default)
                   -o      Overwrite files without prompting
                   -p      Send output to stdout
                   -q      Quiet
                   -x      Exclude these files
                   -d      Extract files into this directory

       uptime
           uptime

           Display the time since the last boot

           Example:

                   $ uptime
                     1:55pm  up  2:30, load average: 0.09, 0.04, 0.00

       usleep
           usleep     N

           Pause for N microseconds

           Example:

                   $ usleep 1000000
                   [pauses for 1 second]

       uudecode
           uudecode   [-o outfile] [infile]

           Uudecode a file Finds outfile name in uuencoded source unless -o is
           given

           Example:

                   $ uudecode -o busybox busybox.uu
                   $ ls -l busybox
                   -rwxr-xr-x   1 ams      ams        245264 Jun  7 21:35 busybox

       uuencode
           uuencode   [-m] [infile] stored_filename

           Uuencode a file to stdout

           Options:

                   -m      Use base64 encoding per RFC1521

           Example:

                   $ uuencode busybox busybox
                   begin 755 busybox
                   <encoded file snipped>
                   $ uudecode busybox busybox > busybox.uu
                   $

       vconfig
           vconfig    COMMAND [OPTIONS]...

           Create and remove virtual ethernet devices

           Options:

                   add             [interface-name] [vlan_id]
                   rem             [vlan-name]
                   set_flag        [interface-name] [flag-num] [0 | 1]
                   set_egress_map  [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
                   set_ingress_map [vlan-name] [skb_priority] [vlan_qos]
                   set_name_type   [name-type]

       vi  vi         [OPTION] [FILE]...

           Edit FILE

           Options:

                   -c      Initial command to run ($EXINIT also available)
                   -R      Read-only - do not write to the file
                   -H      Short help regarding available features

       vlock
           vlock      [OPTIONS]

           Lock a virtual terminal. A password is required to unlock.

           Options:

                   -a      Lock all VTs

       watch
           watch      [-n seconds] [-t] COMMAND...

           Execute a program periodically

           Options:

                   -n      Loop period in seconds (default 2)
                   -t      Don't print header

           Example:

                   $ watch date
                   Mon Dec 17 10:31:40 GMT 2000
                   Mon Dec 17 10:31:42 GMT 2000
                   Mon Dec 17 10:31:44 GMT 2000

       watchdog
           watchdog   [-t N[ms]] [-F] DEV

           Periodically write to watchdog device DEV

           Options:

                   -t N    Timer period (default 30)
                   -F      Run in foreground

           Use -t 500ms to specify period in milliseconds

       wc  wc         [OPTION]... [FILE]...

           Print line, word, and byte counts for each FILE, and a total line
           if more than one FILE is specified. With no FILE, read standard
           input.

           Options:

                   -c      Print the byte counts
                   -l      Print the newline counts
                   -L      Print the length of the longest line
                   -w      Print the word counts

           Example:

                   $ wc /etc/passwd
                        31      46    1365 /etc/passwd

       wget
           wget            [-c|--continue] [-s|--spider] [-q|--quiet]
           [-O|--output-document file]      [--header 'header: value']
           [-Y|--proxy on/off] [-P DIR]      [-U|--user-agent agent] url

           Retrieve files via HTTP or FTP

           Options:

                   -s      Spider mode - only check file existence
                   -c      Continue retrieval of aborted transfer
                   -q      Quiet
                   -P      Set directory prefix to DIR
                   -O      Save to filename ('-' for stdout)
                   -U      Adjust 'User-Agent' field
                   -Y      Use proxy ('on' or 'off')

       which
           which      [COMMAND...]

           Locate a COMMAND

           Example:

                   $ which login
                   /bin/login

       who who        [-a]

           Show who is logged on

           Options:

                   -a      show all

       whoami
           whoami

           Print the user name associated with the current effective user id

       xargs
           xargs      [OPTIONS] [COMMAND] [ARGS...]

           Execute COMMAND on every item given by standard input

           Options:

                   -p      Prompt the user about whether to run each command
                   -r      Do not run command for empty read lines
                   -x      Exit if the size is exceeded
                   -0      Input filenames are terminated by a null character
                   -t      Print the command line on stderr before executing it

           Example:

                   $ ls | xargs gzip
                   $ find . -name '*.c' -print | xargs rm

       yes yes        [OPTION]... [STRING]...

           Repeatedly output a line with all specified STRING(s), or 'y'

       zcat
           zcat       FILE

           Uncompress to stdout

       zcip
           zcip       [OPTIONS] ifname script

           Manage a ZeroConf IPv4 link-local address

           Options:

                   -f              Run in foreground
                   -q              Quit after address (no daemon)
                   -r 169.254.x.x  Request this address first
                   -v              Verbose

LIBC NSS
       GNU Libc (glibc) uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the
       behavior of the C library for the local environment, and to configure
       how it reads system data, such as passwords and group information.
       This is implemented using an /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file, and
       using one or more of the /lib/libnss_* libraries.  BusyBox tries to
       avoid using any libc calls that make use of NSS.  Some applets however,
       such as login and su, will use libc functions that require NSS.

       If you enable CONFIG_USE_BB_PWD_GRP, BusyBox will use internal
       functions to directly access the /etc/passwd, /etc/group, and
       /etc/shadow files without using NSS.  This may allow you to run your
       system without the need for installing any of the NSS configuration
       files and libraries.

       When used with glibc, the BusyBox 'networking' applets will similarly
       require that you install at least some of the glibc NSS stuff (in
       particular, /etc/nsswitch.conf, /lib/libnss_dns*, /lib/libnss_files*,
       and /lib/libresolv*).

       Shameless Plug: As an alternative, one could use a C library such as
       uClibc.  In addition to making your system significantly smaller,
       uClibc does not require the use of any NSS support files or libraries.

MAINTAINER
       Denis Vlasenko <vda.linuxATgooglemail.com>

AUTHORS
       The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know
       it or not.  If you have written code included in BusyBox, you should
       probably be listed here so you can obtain your bit of eternal glory.
       If you should be listed here, or the description of what you have done
       needs more detail, or is incorect, please send in an update.

       Emanuele Aina <emanuele.ainaATtiscali.it>      run-parts

       Erik Andersen <andersenATcodepoet.org>

           Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the
           core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files.
           Lots of tedious effort writing these boring docs that
           nobody is going to actually read.

       Laurence Anderson <l.d.andersonATwarwick.uk>

           rpm2cpio, unzip, get_header_cpio, read_gz interface, rpm

       Jeff Angielski <jeffATtheptrgroup.com>

           ftpput, ftpget

       Edward Betts <edwardATdebian.org>

           expr, hostid, logname, whoami

       John Beppu <beppuATcodepoet.org>

           du, nslookup, sort

       Brian Candler <B.CandlerATpobox.com>

           tiny-ls(ls)

       Randolph Chung <tausqATdebian.org>

           fbset, ping, hostname

       Dave Cinege <dcinegeATpsychosis.com>

           more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
           various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance

       Jordan Crouse <jordanATcosmicpenguin.net>

               ipcalc

       Magnus Damm <dammATopensource.se>

           tftp client insmod powerpc support

       Larry Doolittle <ldoolittATrecycle.gov>

           pristine source directory compilation, lots of patches and fixes.

       Glenn Engel <glenneATengel.org>

           httpd

       Gennady Feldman <gfeldmanATgena01.com>

           Sysklogd (single threaded syslogd, IPC Circular buffer support,
           logread), various fixes.

       Karl M. Hegbloom <karlhegATdebian.org>

           cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.

       Daniel Jacobowitz <danATdebian.org>

           mktemp.c

       Matt Kraai <kraaiATalumni.edu>

           documentation, bugfixes, test suite

       Stephan Linz <linzATli-pro.net>

               ipcalc, Red Hat equivalence

       John Lombardo <johnATdeltanet.com>

           tr

       Glenn McGrath <bug1ATiinet.au>

           Common unarchving code and unarchiving applets, ifupdown, ftpgetput,
           nameif, sed, patch, fold, install, uudecode.
           Various bugfixes, review and apply numerous patches.

       Manuel Novoa III <mjn3ATcodepoet.org>

           cat, head, mkfifo, mknod, rmdir, sleep, tee, tty, uniq, usleep, wc, yes,
           mesg, vconfig, make_directory, parse_mode, dirname, mode_string,
           get_last_path_component, simplify_path, and a number trivial libbb routines

           also bug fixes, partial rewrites, and size optimizations in
           ash, basename, cal, cmp, cp, df, du, echo, env, ln, logname, md5sum, mkdir,
           mv, realpath, rm, sort, tail, touch, uname, watch, arith, human_readable,
           interface, dutmp, ifconfig, route

       Vladimir Oleynik <dzoATsimtreas.ru>

           cmdedit; xargs(current), httpd(current);
           ports: ash, crond, fdisk, inetd, stty, traceroute, top;
           locale, various fixes
           and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.

       Bruce Perens <bruceATpixar.com>

           Original author of BusyBox in 1995, 1996. Some of his code can
           still be found hiding here and there...

       Tim Riker <TimATRikers.org>

           bug fixes, member of fan club

       Kent Robotti <robottiATmetconnect.com>

           reset, tons and tons of bug reports and patches.

       Chip Rosenthal <chipATunicom.com>, <crosenthATcovad.com>

           wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications

       Pavel Roskin <proskiATgnu.org>

           Lots of bugs fixes and patches.

       Gyepi Sam <gyepiATpraxis-sw.com>

           Remote logging feature for syslogd

       Linus Torvalds <torvaldsATtransmeta.com>

           mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix

       Mark Whitley <markwATcodepoet.org>

           grep, sed, cut, xargs(previous),
           style-guide, new-applet-HOWTO, bug fixes, etc.

       Charles P. Wright <cpwrightATvillagenet.com>

           gzip, mini-netcat(nc)

       Enrique Zanardi <ezanardiATull.es>

           tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance

       Tito Ragusa <farmatitoATtiscali.it>

               devfsd and size optimizations in strings, openvt and deallocvt.

POD ERRORS
       Hey! The above document had some coding errors, which are explained
       below:

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version 1                         2008-09-07                        BUSYBOX(1)