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BDES(1)                BSD Reference Manual               BDES(1)


NAME
       bdes - encrypt/decrypt using the Data Encryption Standard

SYNOPSIS
       bdes [ -abdp ] [ -F N ] [ -f N ] [ -k key ]
            [ -m N ] [ -o N ] [ -v vector ]

DESCRIPTION
       Bdes  implements  all  DES modes of operation described in
       FIPS PUB 81, including alternative  cipher  feedback  mode
       and  both authentication modes.  Bdes reads from the stan-
       dard input and writes to the standard output.  By default,
       the  input  is encrypted using cipher block chaining mode.
       Using the same key for encryption and decryption preserves
       plain text.

       All  modes  but  the  electronic code book mode require an
       initialization vector; if none is supplied, the zero  vec-
       tor  is used.  If no key is specified on the command line,
       the user is prompted for  one  (see  getpass(3)  for  more
       details).

       The options are as follows:

       -a     The key and initialization vector strings are to be
              taken as ASCII, suppressing the special interpreta-
              tion  given  to leading ``0X'', ``0x'', ``0B'', and
              ``0b'' characters.  This flag applies to  both  the
              key and initialization vector.

       -b     Use electronic code book mode.

       -d     Decrypt the input.

       -F     Use  N-bit  alternative cipher feedback mode.  Cur-
              rently N must be a multiple of 7 between 7  and  56
              inclusive (this does not conform to the alternative
              CFB mode specification).

       -f     Use N-bit cipher feedback mode.  Currently  N  must
              be a multiple of 8 between 8 and 64 inclusive (this
              does not conform to the standard CFB mode  specifi-
              cation).

       -k     Use key as the cryptographic key.

       -m     Compute  a  message  authentication code (MAC) of N
              bits on the input.  The value of N must be  between
              1  and  64  inclusive; if N is not a multiple of 8,
              enough 0 bits will be added to pad the  MAC  length
              to  the  nearest  multiple  of  8.  Only the MAC is



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BDES(1)                BSD Reference Manual               BDES(1)


              output.  MACs are only available  in  cipher  block
              chaining mode or in cipher feedback mode.

       -o     Use  N-bit  output feedback mode.  Currently N must
              be a multiple of 8 between 8 and 64 inclusive (this
              does not conform to the OFB mode specification).

       -p     Disable the resetting of the parity bit.  This flag
              forces the parity bit of the  key  to  be  used  as
              typed,  rather than making each character be of odd
              parity.  It is used only if the  key  is  given  in
              ASCII.

       -v     Set the initialization vector to vector; the vector
              is interpreted in the same way  as  the  key.   The
              vector is ignored in electronic codebook mode.

       The  key  and initialization vector are taken as sequences
       of ASCII characters which are then mapped into  their  bit
       representations.   If either begins with ``0X'' or ``0x'',
       that one is taken as  a  sequence  of  hexadecimal  digits
       indicating  the  bit pattern; if either begins with ``0B''
       or ``0b'', that one is taken as a sequence of binary  dig-
       its  indicating the bit pattern.  In either case, only the
       leading 64 bits of the key or  initialization  vector  are
       used,  and  if  fewer  than 64 bits are provided, enough 0
       bits are appended to pad the key to 64 bits.

       According to the DES standard, the low-order bit  of  each
       character  in the key string is deleted.  Since most ASCII
       representations set the high-order bit to 0, simply delet-
       ing  the low-order bit effectively reduces the size of the
       key space from 256 to 248  keys.   To  prevent  this,  the
       high-order  bit  must be a function depending in part upon
       the low-order bit; so, the high-order bit is set to  what-
       ever value gives odd parity.  This preserves the key space
       size.  Note this resetting of the parity bit is  not  done
       if  the key is given in binary or hex, and can be disabled
       for ASCII keys as well.

       The DES is considered  a  very  strong  cryptosystem,  and
       other  than  table lookup attacks, key search attacks, and
       Hellman's time-memory tradeoff  (all  of  which  are  very
       expensive  and  time-consuming),  no cryptanalytic methods
       for breaking the DES are known in the open literature.  No
       doubt  the  choice  of  keys and key security are the most
       vulnerable aspect of bdes.

IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
       For implementors wishing to write software compatible with
       this  program,  the  following  notes  are provided.  This



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BDES(1)                BSD Reference Manual               BDES(1)


       software is believed to be compatible with the implementa-
       tion  of  the  data encryption standard distributed by Sun
       Microsystems, Inc.

       In the ECB and CBC modes, plaintext is encrypted in  units
       of 64 bits (8 bytes, also called a block).  To ensure that
       the plaintext  file  is  encrypted  correctly,  bdes  will
       (internally)  append from 1 to 8 bytes, the last byte con-
       taining an integer stating how many bytes  of  that  final
       block are from the plaintext file, and encrypt the result-
       ing block.  Hence, when decrypting,  the  last  block  may
       contain  from  0  to 7 characters present in the plaintext
       file, and the last byte tells how many.  Note that if dur-
       ing  decryption the last byte of the file does not contain
       an integer between 0 and 7, either the file has been  cor-
       rupted  or  an  incorrect  key  has been given.  A similar
       mechanism is used for the OFB and CFB modes,  except  that
       those  simply require the length of the input to be a mul-
       tiple of the mode size, and the  final  byte  contains  an
       integer  between  0  and one less than the number of bytes
       being used as the mode.  (This was another reason that the
       mode size must be a multiple of 8 for those modes.)

       Unlike  Sun's  implementation,  unused  bytes of that last
       block are not filled with random data, but instead contain
       what  was  in those byte positions in the preceding block.
       This is quicker and more portable, and does not weaken the
       encryption significantly.

       If the key is entered in ASCII, the parity bits of the key
       characters are set so that each key character  is  of  odd
       parity.   Unlike  Sun's  implementation, it is possible to
       enter binary or hexadecimal keys on the command line,  and
       if  this  is  done,  the  parity bits are not reset.  This
       allows testing using arbitrary bit patterns as keys.

       The Sun implementation always uses an initialization  vec-
       tor  of  0  (that  is, all zeroes).  By default, bdes does
       too, but this may be changed from the command line.

SEE ALSO
       crypt(1), crypt(3), getpass(3)

       Data Encryption Standard, Federal  Information  Processing
       Standard  #46,  National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Depart-
       ment of Commerce, Washington DC (Jan. 1977)

       DES Modes of  Operation,  Federal  Information  Processing
       Standard  #81,  National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Depart-
       ment of Commerce Washington DC (Dec. 1980)




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BDES(1)                BSD Reference Manual               BDES(1)


       Dorothy Denning, Cryptography and Data Security,  Addison-
       Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA (C)1982.

       Matt  Bishop,  Implementation  Notes on bdes(1), Technical
       Report PCS-TR-91-158, Department of Mathematics  and  Com-
       puter Science, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH  03755 (Apr.
       1991).

DISCLAIMER
       THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
       ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
       IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
       ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
       FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
       DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
       OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
       HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
       LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
       OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
       SUCH DAMAGE.

BUGS
       There is a controversy raging over whether  the  DES  will
       still  be  secure  in a few years.  The advent of special-
       purpose hardware could reduce the cost of any of the meth-
       ods  of attack named above so that they are no longer com-
       putationally infeasible.

       As the key or  key  schedule  is  stored  in  memory,  the
       encryption  can  be  compromised  if  memory  is readable.
       Additionally, programs which display  programs'  arguments
       may  compromise the key and initialization vector, if they
       are specified on the command line.   To  avoid  this  bdes
       overwrites its arguments, however, the obvious race cannot
       currently be avoided.

       Certain specific  keys  should  be  avoided  because  they
       introduce  potential  weaknesses;  these  keys, called the
       weak and semiweak keys, are (in hex notation, where  p  is
       either 0 or 1, and P is either e or f):

                 0x0p0p0p0p0p0p0p0p        0x0p1P0p1P0p0P0p0P
                 0x0pep0pep0pfp0pfp        0x0pfP0pfP0pfP0pfP
                 0x1P0p1P0p0P0p0P0p        0x1P1P1P1P0P0P0P0P
                 0x1Pep1Pep0Pfp0Pfp        0x1PfP1PfP0PfP0PfP
                 0xep0pep0pfp0pfp0p        0xep1Pep1pfp0Pfp0P
                 0xepepepepepepepep        0xepfPepfPfpfPfpfP
                 0xfP0pfP0pfP0pfP0p        0xfP1PfP1PfP0PfP0P
                 0xfPepfPepfPepfPep        0xfPfPfPfPfPfPfPfP

       This  is  inherent  in  the  DES  algorithm (see Moore and



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BDES(1)                BSD Reference Manual               BDES(1)


       Simmons, Cycle structure of the DES with  weak  and  semi-
       weak keys, Advances in Cryptology - Crypto '86 Proceedings
       , Springer-Verlag New York, (C)1987, pp. 9-32.)



















































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