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BAR(1)                      General Commands Manual                     BAR(1)

       bar - create tape archives, and add or extract files

       bar [ - ] crxtu [ 014578feovwbXlFmhpBisHSUZRTIN ]
            [ bar-file ] [ blocksize ] [ exclude-file ] [ string ]
            [ target_directory ] [ user_id ] [ include-file ]
            filename1 ...  [ -C dir filename ...  ]...

       bar  archives  and  extracts multiple files onto a single bar, file ar-
       chive, called a bar-file.  It is quite similar to tar(5),  but  it  has
       additional function modifiers, can read and write multiple volumes, and
       writes and reads a format that is incompatible with tar  (see  bar(5)).
       A  bar-file  is usually a magnetic tape, but it can be any file.  bar's
       actions are controlled by the first argument,  the  key,  a  string  of
       characters  containing  exactly one function letter from the set rxtuc,
       and one or more of the optional function modifiers listed below.  Other
       arguments  to  bar are file or directory names that specify which files
       to archive or extract.  In all cases, the  appearance  of  a  directory
       name  refers recursively to the files and subdirectories of that direc-

       c  Create a new bar-file and write the named files onto it.

       r  Write the named files on the end of the bar-file.  Note: this option
          does not work with quarter-inch archive tapes.

       x  Extract  the named files from the bar-file.  If a named file matches
          a directory with contents written onto the tape, this  directory  is
          (recursively) extracted.  The owner, modification time, and mode are
          restored (if possible).  If no filename  arguments  are  given,  all
          files in the archive are extracted.  Note: if multiple entries spec-
          ifying the same file are on the tape, the last  one  overwrites  all
          earlier versions.

       t  List the table of contents of the bar-file.

       u  Add the named files to the bar-file if they are not there or if they
          have been modified since they were last archived.  Note: this option
          does not work with quarter-inch archive tapes.

          Select an alternate drive on which the tape is mounted.  The numbers
          2, 3, 6, and  9  do  not  specify  valid  drives.   The  default  is

       f  Use the next argument as the name of the bar-file.  If f is omitted,
          use the device indicated by the TAPE environment variable,  if  set.
          Otherwise,  use  /dev/rmt8 by default.  If bar-file is given as `-',
          bar writes to the standard output or reads from the standard  input,
          whichever is appropriate.  Thus, bar can be used as the head or tail
          of a filter chain.  bar can also be used to  copy  hierarchies  with
          the command:

          example% cd fromdir; bar cf - . | (cd todir; bar xfBp -)

       e      If any unexpected errors occur bar exits immediately with a pos-
              itive exit status.

       o      Suppress information specifying owner and modes  of  directories
              which  bar  normally  places  in  the archive.  Such information
              makes former versions of bar generate an error message like:

                     filename: cannot create

              when they encounter it.

       v      Verbose.  Normally bar does its work silently; the v option dis-
              plays the name of each file bar treats, preceded by the function
              letter.  When used with the t function, v displays the  bar-file
              entries in a form similar to `ls -l '.

       w      Wait  for  user confirmation before taking the specified action.
              If you use w, bar displays the action to be  taken  followed  by
              the  file  name, and then waits for a y response to proceed.  No
              action is taken on the named file if  you  type  anything  other
              than a line beginning with y.

       b      Use  the  next argument as the blocking factor for tape records.
              The default blocking factor is 20 blocks.   The  block  size  is
              determined  automatically  when reading tapes (key letters x and
              t).  This determination of the blocking  factor  may  be  fooled
              when  reading  from  a  pipe  or  a socket (see the B key letter
              below).  The maximum blocking factor is determined only  by  the
              amount of memory available to bar when it is run.  Larger block-
              ing factors result in better throughput, longer blocks on  nine-
              track tapes, and better media utilization.

       X      Use the next argument as a file containing a list of named files
              (or directories) to be excluded from the bar-file when using the
              key letters `c', `x', or `t'.  Multiple X arguments may be used,
              with one exclude-file per argument.

       l      Display error messages if all links to archived files cannot  be
              resolved.  If l is not used, no error messages are printed.

       F      With  one  F  argument  specified, exclude all directories named
              SCCS from bar-file.  With two arguments FF, exclude all directo-
              ries  named  SCCS,  all  files  with .o as their suffix, and all
              files named errs, core, and a.out.

       m      Do not extract modification times of extracted files.  The modi-
              fication time will be the time of extraction.

       h      Follow  symbolic  links as if they were normal files or directo-
              ries.  Normally, bar does not follow symbolic links.

       p      Restore the named files to their original  modes,  ignoring  the
              present  umask(2V).   Setuid  and  sticky  information  are also
              extracted if you are the super-user.  This option is only useful
              with the x key letter.

       B      Force bar to perform multiple reads (if necessary) so as to read
              exactly enough bytes to fill a block.   This  option  exists  so
              that  bar  can work across the Ethernet, since pipes and sockets
              return partial blocks even when more data is coming.

       i      Ignore directory checksum errors.

       s      Force  the  ownership  of  extracted  files  to  match  the  bar
              process's effective user ID and group ID.

       H      The  string  of  up  to 128 characters is to be used as a volume
              header ID.  A volume header is written to each volume of the ar-
              chive  when  the c function letter is specified.  See bar(5) for
              the volume header's format.

              Use of the H function modifier when creating an  archive  allows
              bar  to  read  volumes  out of sequence.  When extracting a file
              that spans volumes, bar will identify the tape(s)  it  needs  to
              extract  the  entire file.  If the wrong volume is inserted, bar
              issues a warning and prompts again for the correct volume.

       S      Place files specified for extraction in  this  target  directory
              when used with the x function letter.

       U      Specify  the user ID in the volume header when creating archive,
              when the H function modifier is used.  If the c function  letter
              is  specified  and  a volume header exists, bar will verify that
              the user ids match before overwriting bar-file if the N modifier
              is specified.

       Z      Specify compression.  bar will compress files when used with the
              c function letter and will decompress files when used with the x
              function  letter.   bar will neither compress a compressed file,
              nor decompress a decompressed file.

       R      Read the volume header and print the information to stdout.

       N      See if the user owns the media (uid  matches  that  in  the  bar
              header) before overwriting bar-file with the C key word.

       T      When  using the x or t function letters, terminate the search of
              the media after all the files specified are extracted (for x) or
              listed (for t).

       I      Use  the  next  argument  as  a  file containing a list of named
              files, one per line, to be included in  the  bar  archive.   The
              include file expects filenames to be followed by a semicolon and
              newline character.

              In the case where  excluded  files  (see  X  flag)  also  exist,
              excluded  files take precedence over all included files.  So, if
              a file is specified in both the include and exclude files (or on
              the command line), it will be excluded.

       -C dir filename
          In  a c (create) or r (replace) operation, bar performs a chdir (see
          csh(1)) to that directory before interpreting filename.  This allows
          multiple  directories  not  related  by  a close common parent to be
          archived using short relative path names.  For example,  to  archive
          files from /usr/include and from /etc, one might use:

          example% bar c -C /usr include -C /etc  .

          If you get a table of contents from the resulting bar-file, you will
          see something like:
          and all the other files in /usr/include .../chown
          and all the other files in /etc

       Note: the -C option only applies to one following  directory  name  and
       one following file name.

       Here  is  a  simple example using bar to create an archive of your home
       directory on a tape mounted on drive /dev/rmt0:

              example% cd
              example% bar cvf /dev/rmt0 .

       The c option means create the archive; the v option makes bar tell  you
       what  it's doing as it works;  the f option means that you are specifi-
       cally  naming  the  file  onto  which  the  archive  should  be  placed
       (/dev/rmt0 in this example).

       Here is another example: /dev/rmt0:

              example% cd
              example% bar cvfH /dev/rmt0 "THIS IS MY HEADER"  .

       As  in  the first example, the c option means create the archive; the v
       option makes bar tell you what it's doing as it works;   the  f  option
       means  that you are specifically naming the file onto which the archive
       should be placed (/dev/rmt0 in this example).  The H option says to use
       the string "THIS IS MY HEADER" as the ID field in the volume header.

       Now you can read the table of contents from the archive like this:

              example% bar tvf /dev/rmt0
              (access  user-id/group-id     size        mod. datefilename)
              rw-r--r-- 1677/40        2123 Nov 7 18:15:1985./archive/test.c

       You can extract files from the archive like this:
              example% bar xvf /dev/rmt0

       If  there  are multiple archive files on a tape, each is separated from
       the following one by an EOF marker.  bar does not read the EOF mark  on
       the  tape  after  it finishes reading an archive file because bar looks
       for a special header to decide when it has reached the end of  the  ar-
       chive.   Now  if  you try to use bar to read the next archive file from
       the tape, bar does not know enough to skip over the EOF mark and  tries
       to  read  the EOF mark as an archive instead.  The result of this is an
       error message from bar to the effect:

              bar: blocksize=0

       This means that to read another archive from the tape,  you  must  skip
       over  the  EOF  marker  before  starting  another bar command.  You can
       accomplish this using the mt command, as shown in  the  example  below.
       Assume that you are reading from /dev/nrmt0.

              example% bar xvfp /dev/nrmt0 read first archive from tape
              example% mt fsf 1 skip over the end-of-file marker
              example% bar xvfp /dev/nrmt0 read second archive from tape

       Finally, here is an example using bar to transfer files across the Eth-
       ernet.  First, here is how to archive  files  from  the  local  machine
       (example) to a tape on a remote system (host):

              example% bar cvfb -  20 filenames | rsh host dd of=/dev/rmt0 obs=20b

       In the example above, we are creating a bar-file with the c key letter,
       asking for verbose output from bar with the v  option,  specifying  the
       name  of the output bar-file using the f option (the standard output is
       where the bar-file appears, as indicated by the - sign), and specifying
       the blocksize (20) with the b option.  If you want to change the block-
       size, you must change the blocksize arguments both on the  bar  command
       and on the dd command.

       Now, here is how to use bar to get files from a tape on the remote sys-
       tem back to the local system:

              example% rsh -n host dd if=/dev/rmt0 bs=20b | bar xvBfb - 20 filenames

       In the example above, we are extracting from the bar-file  with  the  x
       key  letter,  asking  for  verbose  output  from bar with the v option,
       telling bar it is reading from a pipe with the B option, specifying the
       name  of  the  input bar-file using the f option (the standard input is
       where the bar-file appears, as indicated by the `-' sign), and specify-
       ing the blocksize (20) with the b option.

       /dev/rmt?           half-inch magnetic tape interface
       /dev/rar?           quarter-inch magnetic tape interface
       /dev/rst?           SCSI tape interface

       TAPE      If specified, in the environment, the value of TAPE indicates
                 the default tape device.

       bar will handle multiple  volumes  gracefully.   If  a  tape  error  is
       encountered,  bar  issues  a message on the standard error requesting a
       new volume.  The presence of a new volume is confirmed when bar reads a
       line beginning with Y or y on the standard input; a line beginning with
       N or n aborts the archive; with any other character  bar  reissues  the

       cpio(1), mt(1), umask(2V), bar(5), tar(5), dump(8), restore(8)

       Neither the r option nor the u option can be used with quarter-inch ar-
       chive tapes, since these tape drives cannot backspace.

       There is no way to ask for the nth occurrence of a file.

       The u option can be slow.

       There is no way selectively to follow symbolic links.

       When extracting tapes created with the r or u options, directory  modi-
       fication times may not be set correctly.

       Files with names longer than 100 characters cannot be processed.

       Filename  substitution  wildcards do not work for extracting files from
       the archive.  To get around this, use a command of the form:

              bar xvf... /dev/rst0 `bar tf... /dev/rst0 | grep 'pattern'`

       If you specify `-' as the target file and the  archive  spans  volumes,
       the request for a new volume may get lost.

                               19 February 1988                         BAR(1)