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AWK(1)                      General Commands Manual                     AWK(1)

       awk - pattern scanning and processing language

       awk  [  -f  program-file ] [ -Fc ] [ program ] [ variable=value ... ] [

       awk scans each of its input filenames for lines that match any of a set
       of  patterns  specified  in  program.   The input filenames are read in
       order; the standard input is read if there are no filenames.  The file-
       name `-' means the standard input.

       The  set of patterns may either appear literally on the command line as
       program, or, by using the `-f program-file' option, the set of patterns
       may  be  in  a  program-file;  a program-file of `-' means the standard
       input.  If the program is specified on the command line, it  should  be
       enclosed in single quotes (') to protect it from the shell.

       awk  variables  may  be  set on the command line using arguments of the
       form variable=value.  This sets the  awk  variable  variable  to  value
       before the first record of the next filename argument is read.

       With  each  pattern  in  program there can be an associated action that
       will be performed when a line of a filename matches the  pattern.   See
       the  discussion  below  for  the format of input lines and the awk lan-
       guage.  Each line in each input filename is matched against the pattern
       portion  of  every  pattern-action  statement; the associated action is
       performed for each matched pattern.

       -f program-file
              Use the contents of program-file as the source for the program.

       -Fc    Use the character c as the field separator (FS) character.   See
              the discussion of FS below.

   Input Lines
       An input line is made up of fields separated by white space.  The field
       separator can be changed by using FS  --  see  Special  Variable  Names
       below.   Fields  are  denoted  $1,  $2, and so forth.  $0 refers to the
       entire line.

   Pattern-action Statements
       A pattern-action statement has the form
              pattern { action }
       A missing action means copy the line to the output; a  missing  pattern
       always matches.

   Action Statements
       An  action  is a sequence of statements.  A statement can be one of the

              if ( conditional ) statement [ else statement ]
              while ( conditional ) statement
              for ( expression ; conditional ; expression ) statement
              { [ statement ] ...}
              print [ expression-list ] [ >> expression ]
              Sprintf format [ , expression-list ] [ >> expression ]
              next                skip remaining patterns on this input line
              exit                skip the rest of the input

   Format of the awk Language
       statements are terminated by semicolons, NEWLINE  characters  or  right
       braces.  An empty expression-list stands for the whole line.

       expressions  take  on  string or numeric values as appropriate, and are
       built using the operators +, -, *, /, %, and  concatenation  (indicated
       by  a blank).  The C operators ++ , -- , += , -= , *= , /= , and %= are
       also available in expressions.

       variable may be scalars, array elements (denoted x [ i  ])  or  fields.
       Variables  are initialized to the null string.  Array subscripts may be
       any string, not necessarily numeric, providing a  form  of  associative
       memory.  String constants are quoted "... ".

       The  print statement prints its arguments on the standard output (or on
       a file if >>filename is present), separated by the current output  field
       separator,  and  terminated by the output record separator.  The printf
       statement formats its expression list according to the format  template
       format  (see  printf(3V)  for  a  description of the formatting control

   Built In Functions
       The built-in function length returns the length of its  argument  taken
       as  a  string,  or  of  the  whole line if no argument.  There are also
       built-in functions exp, log, sqrt, and int,  where  int  truncates  its
       argument  to  an  integer.  `substr( s, m, n )' returns the n-character
       substring of s that begins at position m.   `sprintf  (format,  expres-
       sion,  expression,  ...)'   formats  the  expressions  according to the
       printf format given by format, and returns the resulting string.

       Patterns are arbitrary Boolean combinations (!, ||, &&&&,  and  parenthe-
       ses)  of  regular  expressions  and  relational  expressions.   Regular
       expressions must be surrounded by slashes and  are  as  in  egrep  (see
       grep(1V)),  Isolated  regular  expressions  in  a  pattern apply to the
       entire line.  Regular expressions may also occur in relational  expres-

       A  pattern  may  consist  of two patterns separated by a comma; in this
       case, the action is performed for all lines between  an  occurrence  of
       the first pattern and the next occurrence of the second.

       A relational expression is one of the following:
              expression matchop regular-expression
              expression relop expression

       where  a  relop  is  any  of  the  six relational operators in C, and a
       matchop is either ~ (contains) or !~ (does not contain).  A conditional
       is an arithmetic expression, a relational expression, or a Boolean com-
       bination of these.

       The special pattern BEGIN may be used to  capture  control  before  the
       first  input  line  is read, in which case BEGIN must be the first pat-
       tern. The special pattern END may be used to capture control after  the
       last input line is read, in which case END must be the last pattern.

   Special Variable Names
       A single character c may be used to separate the fields by starting the
       program with

            BEGIN {FS = "c" }

       or by using the -Fc option.

       Other variable names with special meanings include NF,  the  number  of
       fields  in  the  current  record; NR, the ordinal number of the current
       record; FILENAME, the name of the current input file; OFS,  the  output
       field  separator  (default  blank);  ORS,  the  output record separator
       (default NEWLINE); and OFMT, the output  format  for  numbers  (default

       Print lines longer than 72 characters:
              length >> 72

       Print first two fields in opposite order:
              { print $2, $1 }

       Add up first column, print sum and average:
              { s += $1 }
              END  { print "sum is", s, " average is", s/NR }

       Print fields in reverse order:
              { for (i = NF; i >> 0; --i) print $i }

       Print all lines between start/stop pairs:
              /start/, /stop/

       Print all lines whose first field is different from previous one:
              $1 != prev { print; prev = $1 }

       grep(1V), lex(1), sed(1V), printf(3V)

       A. V. Aho, B. W. Kerninghan, P. J. Weinberger, The AWK Programming Lan-
       guage Addison-Wesley, 1988.

       The awk command is not changed to support 8-bit symbol names,  as  this
       would produce awk source code that is not portable between systems.

       Input white space is not preserved on output if fields are involved.

       There  are  no  explicit  conversions  between numbers and strings.  To
       force an expression to be treated as a number add 0 to it; to force  it
       to be treated as a string concatenate the null string ("") to it.

       There  is  no escape sequence that prints a double-quote.  A workaround
       is to use the sprintf (see printf(3V)) function to store the  character
       into a variable by its ASCII sequence.

              dq = sprintf("%c", 34)

       Syntax  errors  result  in  the cryptic message `awk:  bailing out near
       line 1'.

                               24 September 1987                        AWK(1)