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AS(1)                        GNU Development Tools                       AS(1)



NAME
       AS - the portable GNU assembler.

SYNOPSIS
       as [-a[cdhlns][=file]] [--alternate] [-D]
        [--debug-prefix-map old=new]
        [--defsym sym=val] [-f] [-g] [--gstabs]
        [--gstabs+] [--gdwarf-2] [--help] [-I dir] [-J]
        [-K] [-L] [--listing-lhs-width=NUM]
        [--listing-lhs-width2=NUM] [--listing-rhs-width=NUM]
        [--listing-cont-lines=NUM] [--keep-locals] [-o
        objfile] [-R] [--reduce-memory-overheads] [--statistics]
        [-v] [-version] [--version] [-W] [--warn]
        [--fatal-warnings] [-w] [-x] [-Z] [@FILE]
        [--target-help] [target-options]
        [--|files ...]

       Target Alpha options:
          [-mcpu]
          [-mdebug | -no-mdebug]
          [-relax] [-g] [-Gsize]
          [-F] [-32addr]

       Target ARC options:
          [-marc[5|6|7|8]]
          [-EB|-EL]

       Target ARM options:
          [-mcpu=processor[+extension...]]
          [-march=architecture[+extension...]]
          [-mfpu=floating-point-format]
          [-mfloat-abi=abi]
          [-meabi=ver]
          [-mthumb]
          [-EB|-EL]
          [-mapcs-32|-mapcs-26|-mapcs-float|
           -mapcs-reentrant]
          [-mthumb-interwork] [-k]

       Target CRIS options:
          [--underscore | --no-underscore]
          [--pic] [-N]
          [--emulation=criself | --emulation=crisaout]
          [--march=v0_v10   |   --march=v10   |   --march=v32  |  --march=com-
       mon_v10_v32]

       Target D10V options:
          [-O]

       Target D30V options:
          [-O|-n|-N]

       Target i386 options:
          [--32|--64] [-n]
          [-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU]

       Target i960 options:
          [-ACA|-ACA_A|-ACB|-ACC|-AKA|-AKB|
           -AKC|-AMC]
          [-b] [-no-relax]

       Target IA-64 options:
          [-mconstant-gp|-mauto-pic]
          [-milp32|-milp64|-mlp64|-mp64]
          [-mle|mbe]
          [-mtune=itanium1|-mtune=itanium2]
          [-munwind-check=warning|-munwind-check=error]
          [-mhint.b=ok|-mhint.b=warning|-mhint.b=error]
          [-x|-xexplicit] [-xauto] [-xdebug]

       Target IP2K options:
          [-mip2022|-mip2022ext]

       Target M32C options:
          [-m32c|-m16c]

       Target M32R options:
          [--m32rx|--[no-]warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts|
          --W[n]p]

       Target M680X0 options:
          [-l] [-m68000|-m68010|-m68020|...]

       Target M68HC11 options:
          [-m68hc11|-m68hc12|-m68hcs12]
          [-mshort|-mlong]
          [-mshort-double|-mlong-double]
          [--force-long-branches] [--short-branches]
          [--strict-direct-mode] [--print-insn-syntax]
          [--print-opcodes] [--generate-example]

       Target MCORE options:
          [-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax]
          [-mcpu=[210|340]]

       Target MIPS options:
          [-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-O[optimization level]]
          [-g[debug level]] [-G num] [-KPIC] [-call_shared]
          [-non_shared] [-xgot [-mvxworks-pic]
          [-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32]
          [-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2]
          [-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips32r2]
          [-mips64] [-mips64r2]
          [-construct-floats] [-no-construct-floats]
          [-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap]
          [-mfix7000] [-mno-fix7000]
          [-mips16] [-no-mips16]
          [-msmartmips] [-mno-smartmips]
          [-mips3d] [-no-mips3d]
          [-mdmx] [-no-mdmx]
          [-mdsp] [-mno-dsp]
          [-mdspr2] [-mno-dspr2]
          [-mmt] [-mno-mt]
          [-mdebug] [-no-mdebug]
          [-mpdr] [-mno-pdr]

       Target MMIX options:
          [--fixed-special-register-names] [--globalize-symbols]
          [--gnu-syntax] [--relax] [--no-predefined-symbols]
          [--no-expand] [--no-merge-gregs] [-x]
          [--linker-allocated-gregs]

       Target PDP11 options:
          [-mpic|-mno-pic] [-mall] [-mno-extensions]
          [-mextension|-mno-extension]
          [-mcpu] [-mmachine]

       Target picoJava options:
          [-mb|-me]

       Target PowerPC options:
          [-mpwrx|-mpwr2|-mpwr|-m601|-mppc|-mppc32|-m603|-m604|
           -m403|-m405|-mppc64|-m620|-mppc64bridge|-mbooke|
           -mbooke32|-mbooke64]
          [-mcom|-many|-maltivec] [-memb]
          [-mregnames|-mno-regnames]
          [-mrelocatable|-mrelocatable-lib]
          [-mlittle|-mlittle-endian|-mbig|-mbig-endian]
          [-msolaris|-mno-solaris]

       Target SPARC options:
          [-Av6|-Av7|-Av8|-Asparclet|-Asparclite
           -Av8plus|-Av8plusa|-Av9|-Av9a]
          [-xarch=v8plus|-xarch=v8plusa] [-bump]
          [-32|-64]

       Target TIC54X options:
        [-mcpu=54[123589]|-mcpu=54[56]lp] [-mfar-mode|-mf]
        [-merrors-to-file <filename>|-me <filename>]

       Target Z80 options:
         [-z80] [-r800]
         [ -ignore-undocumented-instructions] [-Wnud]
         [ -ignore-unportable-instructions] [-Wnup]
         [ -warn-undocumented-instructions] [-Wud]
         [ -warn-unportable-instructions] [-Wup]
         [ -forbid-undocumented-instructions] [-Fud]
         [ -forbid-unportable-instructions] [-Fup]

       Target Xtensa options:
        [--[no-]text-section-literals] [--[no-]absolute-literals]
        [--[no-]target-align] [--[no-]longcalls]
        [--[no-]transform]
        [--rename-section oldname=newname]

DESCRIPTION
       GNU as is really a family of assemblers.  If you use (or have used) the
       GNU  assembler  on  one  architecture, you should find a fairly similar
       environment when you use it on another architecture.  Each version  has
       much  in  common  with  the others, including object file formats, most
       assembler directives (often called pseudo-ops) and assembler syntax.

       as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU  C  compiler
       "gcc" for use by the linker "ld".  Nevertheless, we've tried to make as
       assemble correctly  everything  that  other  assemblers  for  the  same
       machine  would  assemble.   Any  exceptions  are documented explicitly.
       This doesn't mean as always uses the same syntax as  another  assembler
       for the same architecture; for example, we know of several incompatible
       versions of 680x0 assembly language syntax.

       Each time you run as it assembles  exactly  one  source  program.   The
       source program is made up of one or more files.  (The standard input is
       also a file.)

       You give as a command line that has zero or more input file names.  The
       input  files  are  read (from left file name to right).  A command line
       argument (in any position) that has no special meaning is taken  to  be
       an input file name.

       If  you  give  as no file names it attempts to read one input file from
       the as standard input, which is normally your terminal.  You  may  have
       to type ctl-D to tell as there is no more program to assemble.

       Use  --  if you need to explicitly name the standard input file in your
       command line.

       If the source is empty, as produces a small, empty object file.

       as may write warnings and error messages to  the  standard  error  file
       (usually  your terminal).  This should not happen when  a compiler runs
       as automatically.  Warnings report an assumption made so that as  could
       keep  assembling  a  flawed program; errors report a grave problem that
       stops the assembly.

       If you are invoking as via the GNU C compiler,  you  can  use  the  -Wa
       option to pass arguments through to the assembler.  The assembler argu-
       ments must be separated from each other (and the -Wa) by  commas.   For
       example:

               gcc -c -g -O -Wa,-alh,-L file.c

       This passes two options to the assembler: -alh (emit a listing to stan-
       dard output with high-level and assembly source) and -L  (retain  local
       symbols in the symbol table).

       Usually  you do not need to use this -Wa mechanism, since many compiler
       command-line options are automatically passed to the assembler  by  the
       compiler.   (You can call the GNU compiler driver with the -v option to
       see precisely what options it passes to each compilation pass,  includ-
       ing the assembler.)

OPTIONS
       @file
           Read command-line options from file.  The options read are inserted
           in place of the original @file option.  If file does not exist,  or
           cannot  be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not
           removed.

           Options in file are separated by whitespace.  A whitespace  charac-
           ter  may  be included in an option by surrounding the entire option
           in either single or double  quotes.   Any  character  (including  a
           backslash)  may  be  included  by  prefixing  the  character  to be
           included with a backslash.  The file may itself contain  additional
           @file options; any such options will be processed recursively.

       -a[cdhlmns]
           Turn on listings, in any of a variety of ways:

           -ac omit false conditionals

           -ad omit debugging directives

           -ah include high-level source

           -al include assembly

           -am include macro expansions

           -an omit forms processing

           -as include symbols

           =file
               set the name of the listing file

           You  may  combine these options; for example, use -aln for assembly
           listing without forms processing.  The =file option, if used,  must
           be the last one.  By itself, -a defaults to -ahls.

       --alternate
           Begin in alternate macro mode.

       -D  Ignored.   This  option  is  accepted for script compatibility with
           calls to other assemblers.

       --debug-prefix-map old=new
           When assembling files in directory old, record  debugging  informa-
           tion describing them as in new instead.

       --defsym sym=value
           Define the symbol sym to be value before assembling the input file.
           value must be an integer constant.  As in C, a leading 0x indicates
           a hexadecimal value, and a leading 0 indicates an octal value.  The
           value of the symbol can be overridden inside a source file via  the
           use of a ".set" pseudo-op.

       -f  "fast"---skip  whitespace  and comment preprocessing (assume source
           is compiler output).

       -g
       --gen-debug
           Generate debugging information for each assembler source line using
           whichever  debug format is preferred by the target.  This currently
           means either STABS, ECOFF or DWARF2.

       --gstabs
           Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line.  This
           may help debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.

       --gstabs+
           Generate  stabs debugging information for each assembler line, with
           GNU extensions that probably only gdb can handle,  and  that  could
           make  other  debuggers  crash or refuse to read your program.  This
           may help debugging assembler code.  Currently the only  GNU  exten-
           sion is the location of the current working directory at assembling
           time.

       --gdwarf-2
           Generate DWARF2 debugging  information  for  each  assembler  line.
           This  may help debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle
           it.  Note---this option is only supported by some targets, not  all
           of them.

       --help
           Print a summary of the command line options and exit.

       --target-help
           Print a summary of all target specific options and exit.

       -I dir
           Add directory dir to the search list for ".include" directives.

       -J  Don't warn about signed overflow.

       -K  Issue  warnings  when  difference tables altered for long displace-
           ments.

       -L
       --keep-locals
           Keep (in the symbol table) local symbols.  These symbols start with
           system-specific  local label prefixes, typically .L for ELF systems
           or L for traditional a.out systems.

       --listing-lhs-width=number
           Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column  for  an
           assembler listing to number.

       --listing-lhs-width2=number
           Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for con-
           tinuation lines in an assembler listing to number.

       --listing-rhs-width=number
           Set the maximum width of an input source line, as  displayed  in  a
           listing, to number bytes.

       --listing-cont-lines=number
           Set  the  maximum number of lines printed in a listing for a single
           line of input to number + 1.

       -o objfile
           Name the object-file output from as objfile.

       -R  Fold the data section into the text section.

           Set the default size of GAS's hash tables to a prime  number  close
           to  number.  Increasing this value can reduce the length of time it
           takes the assembler  to  perform  its  tasks,  at  the  expense  of
           increasing the assembler's memory requirements.  Similarly reducing
           this value can reduce the memory requirements  at  the  expense  of
           speed.

       --reduce-memory-overheads
           This  option  reduces  GAS's memory requirements, at the expense of
           making the assembly processes slower.  Currently this switch  is  a
           synonym  for  --hash-size=4051, but in the future it may have other
           effects as well.

       --statistics
           Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in seconds) used
           by assembly.

       --strip-local-absolute
           Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol table.

       -v
       -version
           Print the as version.

       --version
           Print the as version and exit.

       -W
       --no-warn
           Suppress warning messages.

       --fatal-warnings
           Treat warnings as errors.

       --warn
           Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors.

       -w  Ignored.

       -x  Ignored.

       -Z  Generate an object file even after errors.

       -- | files ...
           Standard input, or source files to assemble.

       The  following  options  are available when as is configured for an ARC
       processor.

       -marc[5|6|7|8]
           This option selects the core processor variant.

       -EB | -EL
           Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.

       The following options are available when as is configured for  the  ARM
       processor family.

       -mcpu=processor[+extension...]
           Specify which ARM processor variant is the target.

       -march=architecture[+extension...]
           Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the target.

       -mfpu=floating-point-format
           Select which Floating Point architecture is the target.

       -mfloat-abi=abi
           Select which floating point ABI is in use.

       -mthumb
           Enable Thumb only instruction decoding.

       -mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant
           Select which procedure calling convention is in use.

       -EB | -EL
           Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.

       -mthumb-interwork
           Specify  that the code has been generated with interworking between
           Thumb and ARM code in mind.

       -k  Specify that PIC code has been generated.

       See the info pages for documentation of the CRIS-specific options.

       The following options are available when as is configured  for  a  D10V
       processor.

       -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

       The  following  options  are available when as is configured for a D30V
       processor.

       -O  Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.

       -n  Warn when nops are generated.

       -N  Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is generated.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Intel
       80960 processor.

       -ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC
           Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the target.

       -b  Add code to collect statistics about branches taken.

       -no-relax
           Do  not  alter  compare-and-branch  instructions for long displace-
           ments; error if necessary.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the  Ubi-
       com IP2K series.

       -mip2022ext
           Specifies that the extended IP2022 instructions are allowed.

       -mip2022
           Restores  the  default  behaviour,  which  restricts  the permitted
           instructions to just the basic IP2022 ones.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Rene-
       sas M32C and M16C processors.

       -m32c
           Assemble M32C instructions.

       -m16c
           Assemble M16C instructions (the default).

       The following options are available when as is configured for the Rene-
       sas M32R (formerly Mitsubishi M32R) series.

       --m32rx
           Specify which processor in the M32R  family  is  the  target.   The
           default  is  normally  the  M32R, but this option changes it to the
           M32RX.

       --warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp
           Produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs  are
           encountered.

       --no-warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wnp
           Do  not  produce  warning  messages when questionable parallel con-
           structs are encountered.

       The following options are available  when  as  is  configured  for  the
       Motorola 68000 series.

       -l  Shorten  references  to  undefined  symbols, to one word instead of
           two.

       -m68000 | -m68008 | -m68010 | -m68020 | -m68030
       | -m68040 | -m68060 | -m68302 | -m68331 | -m68332
       | -m68333 | -m68340 | -mcpu32 | -m5200
           Specify what processor in the 68000  family  is  the  target.   The
           default  is normally the 68020, but this can be changed at configu-
           ration time.

       -m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882
           The target machine does (or does not) have a floating-point  copro-
           cessor.   The  default is to assume a coprocessor for 68020, 68030,
           and cpu32.  Although the basic 68000 is  not  compatible  with  the
           68881, a combination of the two can be specified, since it's possi-
           ble to do emulation of the coprocessor instructions with  the  main
           processor.

       -m68851 | -mno-68851
           The target machine does (or does not) have a memory-management unit
           coprocessor.  The default is to assume an MMU for 68020 and up.

       For details about the PDP-11 machine dependent  features  options,  see
       PDP-11-Options.

       -mpic | -mno-pic
           Generate  position-independent  (or  position-dependent) code.  The
           default is -mpic.

       -mall
       -mall-extensions
           Enable all instruction set extensions.  This is the default.

       -mno-extensions
           Disable all instruction set extensions.

       -mextension | -mno-extension
           Enable (or disable) a particular instruction set extension.

       -mcpu
           Enable the instruction set extensions  supported  by  a  particular
           CPU, and disable all other extensions.

       -mmachine
           Enable  the  instruction  set  extensions supported by a particular
           machine model, and disable all other extensions.

       The following options are available when as is configured for  a  pico-
       Java processor.

       -mb Generate "big endian" format output.

       -ml Generate "little endian" format output.

       The  following  options  are  available  when  as is configured for the
       Motorola 68HC11 or 68HC12 series.

       -m68hc11 | -m68hc12 | -m68hcs12
           Specify what processor is the target.  The default  is  defined  by
           the configuration option when building the assembler.

       -mshort
           Specify to use the 16-bit integer ABI.

       -mlong
           Specify to use the 32-bit integer ABI.

       -mshort-double
           Specify to use the 32-bit double ABI.

       -mlong-double
           Specify to use the 64-bit double ABI.

       --force-long-branches
           Relative branches are turned into absolute ones. This concerns con-
           ditional branches, unconditional branches and  branches  to  a  sub
           routine.

       -S | --short-branches
           Do not turn relative branches into absolute ones when the offset is
           out of range.

       --strict-direct-mode
           Do not turn the direct addressing  mode  into  extended  addressing
           mode when the instruction does not support direct addressing mode.

       --print-insn-syntax
           Print the syntax of instruction in case of error.

       --print-opcodes
           print the list of instructions with syntax and then exit.

       --generate-example
           print  an  example of instruction for each possible instruction and
           then exit.  This option is only useful for testing as.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the SPARC
       architecture:

       -Av6 | -Av7 | -Av8 | -Asparclet | -Asparclite
       -Av8plus | -Av8plusa | -Av9 | -Av9a
           Explicitly select a variant of the SPARC architecture.

           -Av8plus and -Av8plusa select a 32 bit environment.  -Av9 and -Av9a
           select a 64 bit environment.

           -Av8plusa and -Av9a enable the SPARC V9 instruction set with Ultra-
           SPARC extensions.

       -xarch=v8plus | -xarch=v8plusa
           For compatibility with the Solaris v9 assembler.  These options are
           equivalent to -Av8plus and -Av8plusa, respectively.

       -bump
           Warn when the assembler switches to another architecture.

       The following options are available when as is configured for the 'c54x
       architecture.

       -mfar-mode
           Enable  extended  addressing  mode.   All addresses and relocations
           will assume extended addressing (usually 23 bits).

       -mcpu=CPU_VERSION
           Sets the CPU version being compiled for.

       -merrors-to-file FILENAME
           Redirect error output to a file, for  broken  systems  which  don't
           support such behaviour in the shell.

       The  following  options  are available when as is configured for a MIPS
       processor.

       -G num
           This option sets the largest size of an object that can  be  refer-
           enced  implicitly  with the "gp" register.  It is only accepted for
           targets that use ECOFF format, such as a DECstation running Ultrix.
           The default value is 8.

       -EB Generate "big endian" format output.

       -EL Generate "little endian" format output.

       -mips1
       -mips2
       -mips3
       -mips4
       -mips5
       -mips32
       -mips32r2
       -mips64
       -mips64r2
           Generate  code  for  a particular MIPS Instruction Set Architecture
           level.  -mips1 is an alias for -march=r3000, -mips2 is an alias for
           -march=r6000,  -mips3 is an alias for -march=r4000 and -mips4 is an
           alias for -march=r8000.  -mips5, -mips32, -mips32r2,  -mips64,  and
           -mips64r2  correspond  to generic MIPS V, MIPS32, MIPS32 Release 2,
           MIPS64, and MIPS64 Release 2 ISA processors, respectively.

       -march=CPU
           Generate code for a particular MIPS cpu.

       -mtune=cpu
           Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS cpu.

       -mfix7000
       -mno-fix7000
           Cause nops to be inserted if the read of the  destination  register
           of an mfhi or mflo instruction occurs in the following two instruc-
           tions.

       -mdebug
       -no-mdebug
           Cause stabs-style debugging output to go into an ECOFF-style  .mde-
           bug section instead of the standard ELF .stabs sections.

       -mpdr
       -mno-pdr
           Control generation of ".pdr" sections.

       -mgp32
       -mfp32
           The  register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA and ABI, but
           these flags force a certain group of registers to be treated as  32
           bits  wide  at all times.  -mgp32 controls the size of general-pur-
           pose registers and -mfp32 controls the size of floating-point  reg-
           isters.

       -mips16
       -no-mips16
           Generate  code  for  the  MIPS 16 processor.  This is equivalent to
           putting  ".set  mips16"  at  the  start  of  the   assembly   file.
           -no-mips16 turns off this option.

       -msmartmips
       -mno-smartmips
           Enables the SmartMIPS extension to the MIPS32 instruction set. This
           is equivalent to putting ".set  smartmips"  at  the  start  of  the
           assembly file.  -mno-smartmips turns off this option.

       -mips3d
       -no-mips3d
           Generate code for the MIPS-3D Application Specific Extension.  This
           tells the assembler to  accept  MIPS-3D  instructions.   -no-mips3d
           turns off this option.

       -mdmx
       -no-mdmx
           Generate  code  for  the MDMX Application Specific Extension.  This
           tells the assembler to accept MDMX  instructions.   -no-mdmx  turns
           off this option.

       -mdsp
       -mno-dsp
           Generate code for the DSP Release 1 Application Specific Extension.
           This tells the assembler to  accept  DSP  Release  1  instructions.
           -mno-dsp turns off this option.

       -mdspr2
       -mno-dspr2
           Generate code for the DSP Release 2 Application Specific Extension.
           This option implies -mdsp.  This tells the assembler to accept  DSP
           Release 2 instructions.  -mno-dspr2 turns off this option.

       -mmt
       -mno-mt
           Generate  code  for  the  MT  Application Specific Extension.  This
           tells the assembler to accept MT instructions.  -mno-mt  turns  off
           this option.

       --construct-floats
       --no-construct-floats
           The  --no-construct-floats option disables the construction of dou-
           ble width floating point constants by loading the two halves of the
           value  into the two single width floating point registers that make
           up the double width register.   By  default  --construct-floats  is
           selected, allowing construction of these floating point constants.

       --emulation=name
           This  option causes as to emulate as configured for some other tar-
           get, in all respects, including output format (choosing between ELF
           and  ECOFF  only),  handling  of  pseudo-opcodes which may generate
           debugging  information  or  store  symbol  table  information,  and
           default endianness.  The available configuration names are: mipsec-
           off, mipself,  mipslecoff,  mipsbecoff,  mipslelf,  mipsbelf.   The
           first two do not alter the default endianness from that of the pri-
           mary target for which the  assembler  was  configured;  the  others
           change  the  default to little- or big-endian as indicated by the b
           or l in the name.  Using -EB or -EL will  override  the  endianness
           selection in any case.

           This  option is currently supported only when the primary target as
           is configured for is a MIPS ELF or ECOFF target.  Furthermore,  the
           primary  target  or  others  specified with --enable-targets=... at
           configuration time must include support for the  other  format,  if
           both  are  to  be available.  For example, the Irix 5 configuration
           includes support for both.

           Eventually, this option will support more configurations, with more
           fine-grained  control  over  the  assembler's behavior, and will be
           supported for more processors.

       -nocpp
           as ignores this option.  It is accepted for compatibility with  the
           native tools.

       --trap
       --no-trap
       --break
       --no-break
           Control  how  to  deal with multiplication overflow and division by
           zero.  --trap or --no-break (which are synonyms) take a trap excep-
           tion  (and  only  work for Instruction Set Architecture level 2 and
           higher); --break or --no-trap (also synonyms, and the default) take
           a break exception.

       -n  When  this  option  is  used, as will issue a warning every time it
           generates a nop instruction from a macro.

       The following options are available when as is configured for an  MCore
       processor.

       -jsri2bsr
       -nojsri2bsr
           Enable  or disable the JSRI to BSR transformation.  By default this
           is enabled.  The command line option -nojsri2bsr  can  be  used  to
           disable it.

       -sifilter
       -nosifilter
           Enable or disable the silicon filter behaviour.  By default this is
           disabled.  The default can be overridden by the  -sifilter  command
           line option.

       -relax
           Alter jump instructions for long displacements.

       -mcpu=[210|340]
           Select  the  cpu  type on the target hardware.  This controls which
           instructions can be assembled.

       -EB Assemble for a big endian target.

       -EL Assemble for a little endian target.

       See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific options.

       The following options are available when as is configured for an Xtensa
       processor.

       --text-section-literals | --no-text-section-literals
           With --text-section-literals, literal pools are interspersed in the
           text section.  The  default  is  --no-text-section-literals,  which
           places  literals  in  a separate section in the output file.  These
           options only affect  literals  referenced  via  PC-relative  "L32R"
           instructions;  literals  for  absolute mode "L32R" instructions are
           handled separately.

       --absolute-literals | --no-absolute-literals
           Indicate to the assembler whether "L32R" instructions use  absolute
           or  PC-relative  addressing.   The  default  is  to assume absolute
           addressing if the Xtensa processor  includes  the  absolute  "L32R"
           addressing option.  Otherwise, only the PC-relative "L32R" mode can
           be used.

       --target-align | --no-target-align
           Enable or disable automatic alignment to reduce branch penalties at
           the expense of some code density.  The default is --target-align.

       --longcalls | --no-longcalls
           Enable  or  disable  transformation  of  call instructions to allow
           calls  across  a  greater  range  of  addresses.   The  default  is
           --no-longcalls.

       --transform | --no-transform
           Enable  or disable all assembler transformations of Xtensa instruc-
           tions.  The default is --transform; --no-transform should  be  used
           only  in  the  rare  cases when the instructions must be exactly as
           specified in the assembly source.

       The following options are available when as is  configured  for  a  Z80
       family processor.

       -z80
           Assemble for Z80 processor.

       -r800
           Assemble for R800 processor.

       -ignore-undocumented-instructions
       -Wnud
           Assemble undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800 with-
           out warning.

       -ignore-unportable-instructions
       -Wnup
           Assemble all undocumented Z80 instructions without warning.

       -warn-undocumented-instructions
       -Wud
           Issue a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on
           R800.

       -warn-unportable-instructions
       -Wup
           Issue  a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work
           on R800.

       -forbid-undocumented-instructions
       -Fud
           Treat all undocumented instructions as errors.

       -forbid-unportable-instructions
       -Fup
           Treat undocumented Z80 instructions that do not  work  on  R800  as
           errors.

SEE ALSO
       gcc(1), ld(1), and the Info entries for binutils and ld.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright  (c)  1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000, 2001, 2002,
       2006, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify  this  document
       under  the  terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
       any later version published by the Free Software  Foundation;  with  no
       Invariant  Sections,  with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled  "GNU
       Free Documentation License".



binutils-2.18                     2007-08-28                             AS(1)