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AR(1)                        GNU Development Tools                       AR(1)



NAME
       ar - create, modify, and extract from archives

SYNOPSIS
       ar [-X32_64] [-]p[mod [relpos] [count]] archive [member...]

DESCRIPTION
       The  GNU  ar program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives.  An
       archive is a single file holding a  collection  of  other  files  in  a
       structure  that  makes  it possible to retrieve the original individual
       files (called members of the archive).

       The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp, owner, and
       group are preserved in the archive, and can be restored on extraction.

       GNU  ar  can  maintain archives whose members have names of any length;
       however, depending on how ar is configured on your system, a  limit  on
       member-name  length  may be imposed for compatibility with archive for-
       mats maintained with other tools.  If it exists, the limit is often  15
       characters (typical of formats related to a.out) or 16 characters (typ-
       ical of formats related to coff).

       ar is considered a binary utility because archives  of  this  sort  are
       most often used as libraries holding commonly needed subroutines.

       ar  creates  an index to the symbols defined in relocatable object mod-
       ules in the archive when you specify the  modifier  s.   Once  created,
       this  index is updated in the archive whenever ar makes a change to its
       contents (save for the q update operation).  An archive  with  such  an
       index  speeds  up  linking  to  the library, and allows routines in the
       library to call each other without regard to their placement in the ar-
       chive.

       You  may use nm -s or nm --print-armap to list this index table.  If an
       archive lacks the table, another form of ar called ranlib can  be  used
       to add just the table.

       GNU ar is designed to be compatible with two different facilities.  You
       can control its activity using command-line options, like the different
       varieties of ar on Unix systems; or, if you specify the single command-
       line option -M, you can control it with a script supplied via  standard
       input, like the MRI "librarian" program.

OPTIONS
       GNU ar allows you to mix the operation code p and modifier flags mod in
       any order, within the first command-line argument.

       If you wish, you may begin the first command-line argument with a dash.

       The p keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it may be  any  of
       the following, but you must specify only one of them:

       d   Delete  modules  from the archive.  Specify the names of modules to
           be deleted as member...; the archive is untouched if you specify no
           files to delete.

           If  you  specify  the  v  modifier,  ar  lists each module as it is
           deleted.

       m   Use this operation to move members in an archive.

           The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in  how
           programs  are  linked  using the library, if a symbol is defined in
           more than one member.

           If no modifiers are used with "m", any members you name in the mem-
           ber  arguments are moved to the end of the archive; you can use the
           a, b, or i modifiers to move them to a specified place instead.

       p   Print the specified members of the archive, to the standard  output
           file.   If the v modifier is specified, show the member name before
           copying its contents to standard output.

           If you specify no member arguments, all the files  in  the  archive
           are printed.

       q   Quick  append;  Historically, add the files member... to the end of
           archive, without checking for replacement.

           The modifiers a, b, and i do not affect this operation; new members
           are always placed at the end of the archive.

           The modifier v makes ar list each file as it is appended.

           Since  the  point  of this operation is speed, the archive's symbol
           table index is not updated, even if it already existed; you can use
           ar s or ranlib explicitly to update the symbol table index.

           However,  too  many  different systems assume quick append rebuilds
           the index, so GNU ar implements q as a synonym for r.

       r   Insert the files member... into archive  (with  replacement).  This
           operation  differs  from  q in that any previously existing members
           are deleted if their names match those being added.

           If one of the files named in member... does not exist, ar  displays
           an  error  message,  and leaves undisturbed any existing members of
           the archive matching that name.

           By default, new members are added at the end of the file;  but  you
           may  use one of the modifiers a, b, or i to request placement rela-
           tive to some existing member.

           The modifier v used with this operation elicits a  line  of  output
           for  each  file  inserted,  along with one of the letters a or r to
           indicate whether the file was appended (no old member  deleted)  or
           replaced.

       t   Display  a  table  listing the contents of archive, or those of the
           files listed in member... that are present in  the  archive.   Nor-
           mally  only  the  member name is shown; if you also want to see the
           modes (permissions), timestamp, owner, group,  and  size,  you  can
           request that by also specifying the v modifier.

           If  you  do  not  specify  a  member,  all files in the archive are
           listed.

           If there is more than one file with the same name (say, fie) in  an
           archive  (say  b.a), ar t b.a fie lists only the first instance; to
           see them all, you must ask for a complete listing---in our example,
           ar t b.a.

       x   Extract members (named member) from the archive.  You can use the v
           modifier with this operation, to request that ar list each name  as
           it extracts it.

           If  you  do  not  specify  a  member,  all files in the archive are
           extracted.

       A number of modifiers (mod) may immediately follow the p keyletter,  to
       specify variations on an operation's behavior:

       a   Add  new files after an existing member of the archive.  If you use
           the modifier a, the name of an  existing  archive  member  must  be
           present as the relpos argument, before the archive specification.

       b   Add new files before an existing member of the archive.  If you use
           the modifier b, the name of an  existing  archive  member  must  be
           present  as  the relpos argument, before the archive specification.
           (same as i).

       c   Create the archive.  The specified archive is always created if  it
           did not exist, when you request an update.  But a warning is issued
           unless you specify in advance that you  expect  to  create  it,  by
           using this modifier.

       f   Truncate  names  in  the archive.  GNU ar will normally permit file
           names of any length.  This will cause it to create  archives  which
           are  not compatible with the native ar program on some systems.  If
           this is a concern, the f modifier may  be  used  to  truncate  file
           names when putting them in the archive.

       i   Insert  new files before an existing member of the archive.  If you
           use the modifier i, the name of an existing archive member must  be
           present  as  the relpos argument, before the archive specification.
           (same as b).

       l   This modifier is accepted but not used.

       N   Uses the count parameter.  This  is  used  if  there  are  multiple
           entries  in  the  archive  with  the  same name.  Extract or delete
           instance count of the given name from the archive.

       o   Preserve the original dates of members when  extracting  them.   If
           you  do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive
           are stamped with the time of extraction.

       P   Use the full path name when matching names in the archive.  GNU  ar
           can  not create an archive with a full path name (such archives are
           not POSIX complaint), but other archive creators can.  This  option
           will  cause  GNU ar to match file names using a complete path name,
           which can be convenient when extracting a single file from  an  ar-
           chive created by another tool.

       s   Write  an object-file index into the archive, or update an existing
           one, even if no other change is made to the archive.  You  may  use
           this modifier flag either with any operation, or alone.  Running ar
           s on an archive is equivalent to running ranlib on it.

       S   Do not generate an archive symbol table.  This can speed up  build-
           ing  a  large  library in several steps.  The resulting archive can
           not be used with the linker.  In order to build a symbol table, you
           must  omit  the S modifier on the last execution of ar, or you must
           run ranlib on the archive.

       u   Normally, ar r... inserts all files listed into  the  archive.   If
           you  would like to insert only those of the files you list that are
           newer than existing members of the same names, use  this  modifier.
           The  u  modifier is allowed only for the operation r (replace).  In
           particular, the combination qu is not allowed, since  checking  the
           timestamps would lose any speed advantage from the operation q.

       v   This  modifier  requests the verbose version of an operation.  Many
           operations display additional information, such as  filenames  pro-
           cessed, when the modifier v is appended.

       V   This modifier shows the version number of ar.

       ar ignores an initial option spelt -X32_64, for compatibility with AIX.
       The behaviour produced by this option is the default for  GNU  ar.   ar
       does  not  support  any of the other -X options; in particular, it does
       not support -X32 which is the default for AIX ar.

       @file
           Read command-line options from file.  The options read are inserted
           in  place of the original @file option.  If file does not exist, or
           cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and  not
           removed.

           Options  in file are separated by whitespace.  A whitespace charac-
           ter may be included in an option by surrounding the  entire  option
           in  either  single  or  double  quotes.  Any character (including a
           backslash) may  be  included  by  prefixing  the  character  to  be
           included  with a backslash.  The file may itself contain additional
           @file options; any such options will be processed recursively.

SEE ALSO
       nm(1), ranlib(1), and the Info entries for binutils.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995,  1996,  1997,  1998,  1999,
       2000,  2001,  2002,  2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Free Software Founda-
       tion, Inc.

       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify  this  document
       under  the  terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
       any later version published by the Free Software  Foundation;  with  no
       Invariant  Sections,  with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled  "GNU
       Free Documentation License".



binutils-2.17.90                  2007-08-06                             AR(1)