Xvnc(1) Virtual Network Computing Xvnc(1)
Xvnc - the X VNC server
Xvnc [options] :display#
Xvnc is the X VNC (Virtual Network Computing) server. It is based on a
standard X server, but it has a "virtual" screen rather than a physical
one. X applications display themselves on it as if it were a normal X
display, but they can only be accessed via a VNC viewer - see
So Xvnc is really two servers in one. To the applications it is an X
server, and to the remote VNC users it is a VNC server. By convention
we have arranged that the VNC server display number will be the same as
the X server display number, which means you can use eg. snoopy:2 to
refer to display 2 on machine "snoopy" in both the X world and the VNC
The best way of starting Xvnc is via the vncserver script. This sets
up the environment appropriately and runs some X applications to get
you going. See the manual page for vncserver(1) for more information.
Xvnc takes lots of options - running Xvnc -help gives a list. Many of
these are standard X server options, which are described in the
Xserver(1) manual page. In addition to options which can only be set
via the command-line, there are also "parameters" which can be set both
via the command-line and through the vncconfig(1) program.
Specify the size of the desktop to be created. Default is
Specify the pixel depth in bits of the desktop to be created.
Default is 16, other possible values are 8, 15, and 24 - any-
thing else is likely to cause strange behaviour by applications.
Specify pixel format for server to use (BGRnnn or RGBnnn). The
default for depth 8 is BGR233 (meaning the most significant two
bits represent blue, the next three green, and the least signif-
icant three represent red), the default for depth 16 is RGB565
and for depth 24 is RGB888.
-cc 3 As an alternative to the default TrueColor visual, this allows
you to run an Xvnc server with a PseudoColor visual (i.e. one
which uses a colour map or palette), which can be useful for
running some old X applications which only work on such a dis-
play. Values other than 3 (PseudoColor) and 4 (TrueColor) for
the -cc option may result in strange behaviour, and PseudoColor
desktops must be 8 bits deep (i.e. -depth 8).
-inetd This significantly changes Xvnc's behaviour so that it can be
launched from inetd. See the section below on usage with inetd.
-help List all the options and parameters
VNC parameters can be set both via the command-line and through the
vncconfig(1) program, and with a VNC-enabled XFree86 server via Options
entries in the XF86Config file.
Parameters can be turned on with -param or off with -param=0. Parame-
ters which take a value can be specified as -param value. Other valid
forms are param=value -param=value --param=value. Parameter names are
Each desktop has a name which may be displayed by the viewer. It
defaults to "x11".
Specifies the TCP port on which Xvnc listens for connections
from viewers (the protocol used in VNC is called RFB - "remote
framebuffer"). The default is 5900 plus the display number.
-rfbwait time, -ClientWaitTimeMillis time
Time in milliseconds to wait for a viewer which is blocking
Xvnc. This is necessary because Xvnc is single-threaded and
sometimes blocks until the viewer has finished sending or
receiving a message - note that this does not mean an update
will be aborted after this time. Default is 20000 (20 seconds).
Run a mini-HTTP server which serves files from the given direc-
tory. Normally the directory will contain the classes for the
Java viewer. In addition, files with a .vnc extension will have
certain substitutions made so that a single installation of the
Java VNC viewer can be served by separate instances of Xvnc.
Specifies the port on which the mini-HTTP server runs. Default
is 5800 plus the display number.
-rfbauth passwd-file, -PasswordFile passwd-file
Specifies the file containing the password used to authenticate
viewers. The file is accessed each time a connection comes in,
so it can be changed on the fly via vncpasswd(1).
Xvnc uses a "deferred update" mechanism which enhances perfor-
mance in many cases. After any change to the framebuffer, Xvnc
waits for this number of milliseconds (default 40) before send-
ing an update to any waiting clients. This means that more
changes tend to get coalesced together in a single update. Set-
ting it to 0 results in the same behaviour as earlier versions
of Xvnc, where the first change to the framebuffer causes an
immediate update to any waiting clients.
Send clipboard changes to clients (default is on). Note that
you must also run vncconfig(1) to get the clipboard to work.
Accept clipboard updates from clients (default is on). Note
that you must also run vncconfig(1) to get the clipboard to
Accept pointer press and release events from clients (default is
Accept key press and release events from clients (default is
Disconnect existing clients if an incoming connection is non-
shared (default is on). If DisconnectClients is false, then a
new non-shared connection will be refused while there is a
client active. When combined with NeverShared this means only
one client is allowed at a time.
Never treat incoming connections as shared, regardless of the
client-specified setting (default is off).
Always treat incoming connections as shared, regardless of the
client-specified setting (default is off).
Always use protocol version 3.3 for backwards compatibility with
badly-behaved clients (default is off).
Perform pixel comparison on framebuffer to reduce unnecessary
updates (default is on).
Specify which security schemes to use separated by commas. At
present only "None" and "VncAuth" are supported. The default is
"VncAuth" - note that if you want a server which does not
require a password, you must set this parameter to "None".
The number of seconds after which an idle VNC connection will be
dropped (default is 3600 i.e. an hour).
Prompts the user of the desktop to explicitly accept or reject
incoming connections. This is most useful when using the vnc.so
module or x0vncserver(1) program to access an existing X desktop
The vncconfig(1) program must be running on the desktop in order
for QueryConnect to be supported by the vnc.so(1) module or
Xvnc(1) program. The x0vncserver(1) program does not require
vncconfig(1) to be running.
Only allow connections from the same machine. Useful if you use
SSH and want to stop non-SSH connections from any other hosts.
See the guide to using VNC with SSH on the web site.
Configures the debug log settings. dest can currently be stderr
or stdout, and level is between 0 and 100, 100 meaning most ver-
bose output. logname is usually * meaning all, but you can tar-
get a specific source file if you know the name of its "Log-
Writer". Default is *:stderr:30.
Sets up a keyboard mapping. mapping is a comma-separated string
of character mappings, each of the form char->char, or
char<>char, where char is a hexadecimal keysym. For example, to
exchange the " and @ symbols you would specify the following:
USAGE WITH INETD
By configuring the inetd(1) service appropriately, Xvnc can be launched
on demand when a connection comes in, rather than having to be started
manually. When given the -inetd option, instead of listening for TCP
connections on a given port it uses its standard input and standard
output. There are two modes controlled by the wait/nowait entry in the
In the nowait mode, Xvnc uses its standard input and output directly as
the connection to a viewer. It never has a listening socket, so cannot
accept further connections from viewers (it can however connect out to
listening viewers by use of the vncconfig program). Further viewer
connections to the same TCP port result in inetd spawning off a new
Xvnc to deal with each connection. When the connection to the viewer
dies, the Xvnc and any associated X clients die. This behaviour is
most useful when combined with the XDMCP options -query and -once. An
typical example in inetd.conf might be (all on one line):
5950 stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/local/bin/Xvnc Xvnc -inetd
-query localhost -once securitytypes=none
In this example a viewer connection to :50 will result in a new Xvnc
for that connection which should display the standard XDM login screen
on that machine. Because the user needs to login via XDM, it is usu-
ally OK to accept connections without a VNC password in this case.
In the wait mode, when the first connection comes in, inetd gives the
listening socket to Xvnc. This means that for a given TCP port, there
is only ever one Xvnc at a time. Further viewer connections to the
same port are accepted by the same Xvnc in the normal way. Even when
the original connection is broken, the Xvnc will continue to run. If
this is used with the XDMCP options -query and -once, the Xvnc and
associated X clients will die when the user logs out of the X session
in the normal way. It is important to use a VNC password in this case.
A typical entry in inetd.conf might be:
5951 stream tcp wait james /usr/local/bin/Xvnc Xvnc -inetd
-query localhost -once passwordFile=/home/james/.vnc/passwd
In fact typically, you would have one entry for each user who uses VNC
regularly, each of whom has their own dedicated TCP port which they
use. In this example, when user "james" connects to :51, he enters his
VNC password, then gets the XDM login screen where he logs in in the
normal way. However, unlike the previous example, if he disconnects,
the session remains persistent, and when he reconnects he will get the
same session back again. When he logs out of the X session, the Xvnc
will die, but of course a new one will be created automatically the
next time he connects.
vncconfig(1), vncpasswd(1), vncserver(1), vncviewer(1), Xserver(1),
Tristan Richardson, RealVNC Ltd.
VNC was originally developed by the RealVNC team while at Olivetti
Research Ltd / AT&T Laboratories Cambridge. It is now being maintained
by RealVNC Ltd. See http://www.realvnc.com for details.
RealVNC Ltd 03 Mar 2005 Xvnc(1)