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Xorg(1)                     General Commands Manual                    Xorg(1)



NAME
       Xorg - X11R7 X server

SYNOPSIS
       Xorg [:display] [option ...]

DESCRIPTION
       Xorg  is a full featured X server that was originally designed for UNIX
       and UNIX-like operating systems running on Intel x86 hardware.  It  now
       runs on a wider range of hardware and OS platforms.

       This  work  was  derived  by  the  X.Org  Foundation  from  the XFree86
       Project's XFree86 4.4rc2 release.  The XFree86 release  was  originally
       derived from X386 1.2 by Thomas Roell which was contributed to X11R5 by
       Snitily Graphics Consulting Service.

PLATFORMS
       Xorg operates under a wide range  of  operating  systems  and  hardware
       platforms.   The  Intel x86 (IA32) architecture is the most widely sup-
       ported hardware platform.   Other  hardware  platforms  include  Compaq
       Alpha, Intel IA64, AMD64, SPARC and PowerPC.  The most widely supported
       operating systems are the free/OpenSource  UNIX-like  systems  such  as
       Linux,  FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Solaris.  Commercial UNIX operat-
       ing systems such as UnixWare are also supported.  Other supported oper-
       ating  systems  include  LynxOS, and GNU Hurd.  Darwin and Mac OS X are
       supported with the XDarwin(1) X server.  Win32/Cygwin is supported with
       the XWin(1) X server.

NETWORK CONNECTIONS
       Xorg  supports  connections  made  using  the  following reliable byte-
       streams:

       Local
           On most platforms, the "Local" connection  type  is  a  UNIX-domain
           socket.   On  some System V platforms, the "local" connection types
           also include STREAMS pipes, named pipes, and some other mechanisms.

       TCPIP
           Xorg listens on port 6000+n, where n is the display  number.   This
           connection  type can be disabled with the -nolisten option (see the
           Xserver(1) man page for details).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       For operating systems that support local connections  other  than  Unix
       Domain  sockets (SVR3 and SVR4), there is a compiled-in list specifying
       the order in which local connections should be  attempted.   This  list
       can  be  overridden by the XLOCAL environment variable described below.
       If the display name indicates a best-choice connection should  be  made
       (e.g.   :0.0),  each  connection  mechanism is tried until a connection
       succeeds or no more mechanisms are available.  Note: for these OSs, the
       Unix  Domain  socket  connection  is treated differently from the other
       local connection types.  To use it  the  connection  must  be  made  to
       unix:0.0.

       The  XLOCAL environment variable should contain a list of one more more
       of the following:

               NAMED
               PTS
               SCO
               ISC

       which represent SVR4 Named Streams pipe, Old-style  USL  Streams  pipe,
       SCO  XSight  Streams pipe, and ISC Streams pipe, respectively.  You can
       select a single mechanism (e.g.   XLOCAL=NAMED),  or  an  ordered  list
       (e.g.  XLOCAL="NAMED:PTS:SCO").  his variable overrides the compiled-in
       defaults.  For SVR4 it is recommended that NAMED be the  first  prefer-
       ence connection.  The default setting is PTS:NAMED:ISC:SCO.

       To  globally  override the compiled-in defaults, you should define (and
       export if using sh or ksh) XLOCAL globally.  If you  use  startx(1)  or
       xinit(1),  the  definition  should be at the top of your .xinitrc file.
       If  you  use  xdm(1),  the  definitions  should  be  early  on  in  the
       /usr/lib/X11/xdm/Xsession script.

OPTIONS
       Xorg  supports several mechanisms for supplying/obtaining configuration
       and run-time parameters: command line options,  environment  variables,
       the  xorg.conf(5)  configuration  file,  auto-detection,  and  fallback
       defaults.  When the same information is supplied in more than one  way,
       the  highest  precedence  mechanism is used.  The list of mechanisms is
       ordered from highest precedence to lowest.  Note that not  all  parame-
       ters  can  be  supplied  via  all  methods.  The available command line
       options and environment variables (and  some  defaults)  are  described
       here and in the Xserver(1) manual page.  Most configuration file param-
       eters, with their defaults, are described in  the  xorg.conf(5)  manual
       page.    Driver   and  module  specific  configuration  parameters  are
       described in the relevant driver or module manual page.

       In addition to the normal server options described  in  the  Xserver(1)
       manual page, Xorg accepts the following command line switches:

       vtXX    XX specifies the Virtual Terminal device number which Xorg will
               use.  Without this option, Xorg will pick the  first  available
               Virtual  Terminal that it can locate.  This option applies only
               to platforms such as Linux, BSD, SVR3 and SVR4, that have  vir-
               tual terminal support.

       -allowMouseOpenFail
               Allow  the server to start up even if the mouse device can't be
               opened or  initialised.   This  is  equivalent  to  the  Allow-
               MouseOpenFail xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -allowNonLocalModInDev
               Allow  changes  to  keyboard  and mouse settings from non-local
               clients.  By default, connections from  non-local  clients  are
               not  allowed to do this.  This is equivalent to the AllowNonLo-
               calModInDev xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -allowNonLocalXvidtune
               Make the VidMode extension available to remote  clients.   This
               allows  the xvidtune client to connect from another host.  This
               is equivalent to the  AllowNonLocalXvidtune  xorg.conf(5)  file
               option.  By default non-local connections are not allowed.

       -bgamma value
               Set  the  blue gamma correction.  value must be between 0.1 and
               10.  The default is 1.0.  Not all drivers  support  this.   See
               also the -gamma, -rgamma, and -ggamma options.

       -bpp n  No  longer  supported.   Use -depth to set the color depth, and
               use -fbbpp if you really need to  force  a  non-default  frame-
               buffer (hardware) pixel format.

       -configure
               When  this option is specified, the Xorg server loads all video
               driver modules, probes for available hardware, and  writes  out
               an  initial xorg.conf(5) file based on what was detected.  This
               option currently has some problems on some  platforms,  but  in
               most  cases  it  is  a  good way to bootstrap the configuration
               process.  This option is only available when the server is  run
               as root (i.e, with real-uid 0).

       -crt /dev/ttyXX
               SCO  only.   This is the same as the vt option, and is provided
               for compatibility with the native SCO X server.

       -depth n
               Sets the default color depth.  Legal values are 1,  4,  8,  15,
               16, and 24.  Not all drivers support all values.

       -disableModInDev
               Disable dynamic modification of input device settings.  This is
               equivalent to the DisableModInDev xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -disableVidMode
               Disable the the parts of the VidMode  extension  (used  by  the
               xvidtune  client)  that  can be used to change the video modes.
               This is equivalent to the DisableVidModeExtension  xorg.conf(5)
               file option.

       -fbbpp n
               Sets the number of framebuffer bits per pixel.  You should only
               set this if you're sure it's necessary; normally the server can
               deduce the correct value from -depth above.  Useful if you want
               to run a depth 24  configuration  with  a  24  bpp  framebuffer
               rather  than the (possibly default) 32 bpp framebuffer (or vice
               versa).  Legal values are 1, 8, 16, 24, 32.   Not  all  drivers
               support all values.

       -flipPixels
               Swap the default values for the black and white pixels.

       -gamma value
               Set  the  gamma  correction.  value must be between 0.1 and 10.
               The default is 1.0.  This value is applied equally to the R,  G
               and  B  values.  Those values can be set independently with the
               -rgamma, -bgamma, and -ggamma options.  Not all drivers support
               this.

       -ggamma value
               Set  the green gamma correction.  value must be between 0.1 and
               10.  The default is 1.0.  Not all drivers  support  this.   See
               also the -gamma, -rgamma, and -bgamma options.

       -ignoreABI
               The  Xorg  server checks the ABI revision levels of each module
               that it loads.  It will normally refuse to  load  modules  with
               ABI  revisions  that  are  newer  than  the  server's.  This is
               because such modules might use interfaces that the server  does
               not  have.  When this option is specified, mismatches like this
               are downgraded from fatal  errors  to  warnings.   This  option
               should be used with care.

       -isolateDevice bus-id
               Restrict  device  resets  to  the device at bus-id.  The bus-id
               string  has   the   form   bustype:bus:device:function   (e.g.,
               'PCI:1:0:0').   At  present,  only  isolation of PCI devices is
               supported; i.e., this option is ignored if bustype is  anything
               other than 'PCI'.

       -keeptty
               Prevent  the server from detaching its initial controlling ter-
               minal.  This option is only useful when debugging  the  server.
               Not all platforms support (or can use) this option.

       -keyboard keyboard-name
               Use  the xorg.conf(5) file InputDevice section called keyboard-
               name as the core keyboard.  This option  is  ignored  when  the
               Layout  section  specifies  a core keyboard.  In the absence of
               both a Layout section  and  this  option,  the  first  relevant
               InputDevice section is used for the core keyboard.

       -layout layout-name
               Use  the  xorg.conf(5)  file Layout section called layout-name.
               By default the first Layout section is used.

       -logfile filename
               Use the file called filename as the Xorg server log file.   The
               default  log  file  is  /var/log/Xorg.n.log  on most platforms,
               where n is the display number of the Xorg server.  The  default
               may be in a different directory on some platforms.  This option
               is only available when the server is run  as  root  (i.e,  with
               real-uid 0).

       -logverbose [n]
               Sets  the  verbosity  level for information printed to the Xorg
               server log file.  If the n value isn't  supplied,  each  occur-
               rence  of  this option increments the log file verbosity level.
               When the n value is supplied, the log file verbosity  level  is
               set to that value.  The default log file verbosity level is 3.

       -modulepath searchpath
               Set  the  module  search  path  to searchpath.  searchpath is a
               comma separated list of directories to search for  Xorg  server
               modules.   This option is only available when the server is run
               as root (i.e, with real-uid 0).

       -nosilk Disable Silken Mouse support.

       -pixmap24
               Set the internal pixmap format for depth 24 pixmaps to 24  bits
               per pixel.  The default is usually 32 bits per pixel.  There is
               normally little reason to use this option.  Some client  appli-
               cations don't like this pixmap format, even though it is a per-
               fectly  legal  format.   This  is  equivalent  to  the   Pixmap
               xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -pixmap32
               Set  the internal pixmap format for depth 24 pixmaps to 32 bits
               per pixel.  This is usually the default.  This is equivalent to
               the Pixmap xorg.conf(5) file option.

       -pointer pointer-name
               Use  the  xorg.conf(5) file InputDevice section called pointer-
               name as the core pointer.  This option is ignored when the Lay-
               out section specifies a core pointer.  In the absence of both a
               Layout section and this option, the first relevant  InputDevice
               section is used for the core pointer.

       -probeonly
               Causes  the server to exit after the device probing stage.  The
               xorg.conf(5) file is still used when this option is  given,  so
               information that can be auto-detected should be commented out.

       -quiet  Suppress most informational messages at startup.  The verbosity
               level is set to zero.

       -rgamma value
               Set the red gamma correction.  value must be  between  0.1  and
               10.   The  default  is 1.0.  Not all drivers support this.  See
               also the -gamma, -bgamma, and -ggamma options.

       -scanpci
               When this option is specified, the Xorg server  scans  the  PCI
               bus, and prints out some information about each device that was
               detected.  See also scanpci(1) and pcitweak(1).

       -screen screen-name
               Use the xorg.conf(5) file Screen  section  called  screen-name.
               By default the screens referenced by the default Layout section
               are used, or the first Screen section when there are no  Layout
               sections.

       -showconfig
               This  is  the  same as the -version option, and is included for
               compatibility reasons.  It may be removed in a future  release,
               so the -version option should be used instead.

       -weight nnn
               Set RGB weighting at 16 bpp.  The default is 565.  This applies
               only to those drivers which support 16 bpp.

       -verbose [n]
               Sets the verbosity level for information printed on stderr.  If
               the  n  value  isn't  supplied,  each occurrence of this option
               increments the verbosity level.  When the n value is  supplied,
               the  verbosity  level  is  set to that value.  The default ver-
               bosity level is 0.

       -version
               Print out the server version,  patchlevel,  release  date,  the
               operating  system/platform  it  was  built  on,  and whether it
               includes module loader support.

       -showDefaultModulePath
               Print out the default module path the server was compiled with.

       -showDefaultLibPath
               Print out the path libraries should be installed to.

       -config file
               Read the server configuration from file.  This option will work
               for any file when the server is run as root (i.e, with real-uid
               0), or for files relative to a directory in the  config  search
               path for all other users.

KEYBOARD
       The  Xorg  server  is  normally configured to recognize various special
       combinations of key presses that instruct the server  to  perform  some
       action, rather than just sending the key press event to a client appli-
       cation.  The default XKEYBOARD  keymap  defines  the  key  combinations
       listed  below.   The  server also has these key combinations builtin to
       its event handler for cases where the XKEYBOARD extension is not  being
       used.   When using the XKEYBOARD extension, which key combinations per-
       form which actions is completely configurable.

       For more information about when the builtin event handler  is  used  to
       recognize  the  special  key combinations, see the documentation on the
       HandleSpecialKeys option in the xorg.conf(5) man page.

       The special combinations of key presses  recognized  directly  by  Xorg
       are:

       Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
               Immediately  kills  the server -- no questions asked.  This can
               be disabled with the DontZap xorg.conf(5) file option.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Plus
               Change video mode to next one specified  in  the  configuration
               file.  This can be disabled with the DontZoom xorg.conf(5) file
               option.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Minus
               Change video mode to previous one specified in  the  configura-
               tion file.  This can be disabled with the DontZoom xorg.conf(5)
               file option.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Multiply
               Not treated specially by default.  If  the  AllowClosedownGrabs
               xorg.conf(5)  file option is specified, this key sequence kills
               clients with an active  keyboard  or  mouse  grab  as  well  as
               killing  any  application that may have locked the server, nor-
               mally using the XGrabServer(3) Xlib function.

       Ctrl+Alt+Keypad-Divide
               Not treated specially by default.  If the  AllowDeactivateGrabs
               xorg.conf(5)  file option is specified, this key sequence deac-
               tivates any active keyboard and mouse grabs.

       Ctrl+Alt+F1...F12
               For BSD and Linux systems with virtual terminal support,  these
               keystroke  combinations are used to switch to virtual terminals
               1 through 12, respectively.  This  can  be  disabled  with  the
               DontVTSwitch xorg.conf(5) file option.

CONFIGURATION
       Xorg  typically uses a configuration file called xorg.conf for its ini-
       tial setup.  Refer to the  xorg.conf(5)  manual  page  for  information
       about the format of this file.

       Xorg has a mechanism for automatically generating a built-in configura-
       tion at run-time when no xorg.conf file is present.  The  current  ver-
       sion of this automatic configuration mechanism works in two ways.

       The  first  is  via  enhancements that have made many components of the
       xorg.conf file optional.  This  means  that  information  that  can  be
       probed  or  reasonably deduced doesn't need to be specified explicitly,
       greatly reducing the amount of built-in configuration information  that
       needs to be generated at run-time.

       The  second is to have "safe" fallbacks for most configuration informa-
       tion.  This maximises the likelihood that the Xorg server will start up
       in  some  usable configuration even when information about the specific
       hardware is not available.

       The automatic configuration support for Xorg is work in  progress.   It
       is  currently aimed at the most popular hardware and software platforms
       supported by Xorg.  Enhancements are planned for future releases.

FILES
       The Xorg server config file can be  found  in  a  range  of  locations.
       These  are  documented fully in the xorg.conf(5) manual page.  The most
       commonly used locations are shown here.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf            Server configuration file.

       /etc/X11/xorg.conf-4          Server configuration file.

       /etc/xorg.conf                Server configuration file.

       /usr/etc/xorg.conf            Server configuration file.

       /usr/lib/X11/xorg.conf        Server configuration file.

       /var/log/Xorg.n.log           Server log file for display n.

       /usr/bin/*                    Client binaries.

       /usr/include/*                Header files.

       /usr/lib/*                    Libraries.

       /usr/lib/X11/fonts/*          Fonts.

       /usr/share/X11/rgb.txt        Color names to RGB mapping.

       /usr/share/X11/XErrorDB       Client error message database.

       /usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/*   Client resource specifications.

       /usr/share/man/man?/*         Manual pages.

       /etc/Xn.hosts                 Initial access control list  for  display
                                     n.

SEE ALSO
       X(7),   Xserver(1),   xdm(1),  xinit(1),  xorg.conf(5),  xorgconfig(1),
       xorgcfg(1), xvidtune(1), apm(4), ati(4), chips(4), cirrus(4), cyrix(4),
       fbdev(4),  glide(4),  glint(4),  i128(4),  i740(4),  i810(4), imstt(4),
       mga(4), neomagic(4), nsc(4), nv(4), r128(4), rendition(4),  s3virge(4),
       siliconmotion(4),  sis(4), sunbw2(4), suncg14(4), suncg3(4), suncg6(4),
       sunffb(4), sunleo(4), suntcx(4), tdfx(4), tga(4), trident(4), tseng(4),
       v4l(4), vesa(4), vga(4), vmware(4),
       Web site <http://www.x.org>.


AUTHORS
       Xorg  has  many contributors world wide.  The names of most of them can
       be found in the documentation, CHANGELOG files in the source tree,  and
       in the actual source code.

       Xorg was originally based on XFree86 4.4rc2.  That was originally based
       on X386 1.2 by Thomas Roell, which was contributed to the then  X  Con-
       sortium's X11R5 distribution by SGCS.

       Xorg is released by the X.Org Foundation.

       The project that became XFree86 was originally founded in 1992 by David
       Dawes, Glenn Lai, Jim Tsillas and David Wexelblat.

       XFree86 was later integrated in the then X Consortium's  X11R6  release
       by a group of dedicated XFree86 developers, including the following:

           Stuart Anderson    anderson@metrolink.com
           Doug Anson         danson@lgc.com
           Gertjan Akkerman   akkerman@dutiba.twi.tudelft.nl
           Mike Bernson       mike@mbsun.mlb.org
           Robin Cutshaw      robin@XFree86.org
           David Dawes        dawes@XFree86.org
           Marc Evans         marc@XFree86.org
           Pascal Haible      haible@izfm.uni-stuttgart.de
           Matthieu Herrb     Matthieu.Herrb@laas.fr
           Dirk Hohndel       hohndel@XFree86.org
           David Holland      davidh@use.com
           Alan Hourihane     alanh@fairlite.demon.co.uk
           Jeffrey Hsu        hsu@soda.berkeley.edu
           Glenn Lai          glenn@cs.utexas.edu
           Ted Lemon          mellon@ncd.com
           Rich Murphey       rich@XFree86.org
           Hans Nasten        nasten@everyware.se
           Mark Snitily       mark@sgcs.com
           Randy Terbush      randyt@cse.unl.edu
           Jon Tombs          tombs@XFree86.org
           Kees Verstoep      versto@cs.vu.nl
           Paul Vixie         paul@vix.com
           Mark Weaver        Mark_Weaver@brown.edu
           David Wexelblat    dwex@XFree86.org
           Philip Wheatley    Philip.Wheatley@ColumbiaSC.NCR.COM
           Thomas Wolfram     wolf@prz.tu-berlin.de
           Orest Zborowski    orestz@eskimo.com

       Xorg  source  is  available from the FTP server <ftp://ftp.x.org/>, and
       from the X.Org server <http://gitweb.freedesktop.org/>.   Documentation
       and   other   information   can  be  found  from  the  X.Org  web  site
       <http://www.x.org/>.


LEGAL
       Xorg is copyright software, provided under licenses that permit modifi-
       cation  and redistribution in source and binary form without fee.  Xorg
       is copyright by numerous  authors  and  contributors  from  around  the
       world.   Licensing  information  can  be  found  at <http://www.x.org>.
       Refer to the source code for specific copyright notices.

       XFree86(TM) is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc.

       X11(TM) and X Window System(TM) are trademarks of The Open Group.



X Version 11                   xorg-server 1.4.2                       Xorg(1)