Switch to SpeakEasy.net DSL

The Modular Manual Browser

Home Page
Manual: (OSF1-V5.1-alpha)
Apropos / Subsearch:
optional field

X(1X)									X(1X)
X11R6									X11R6


  X - a	portable, network-transparent window system


  The X	Window System is a network transparent window system which runs	on a
  wide range of	computing and graphics machines.  It should be relatively
  straightforward to build the X Consortium software distribution on most
  ANSI C and POSIX compliant systems.  Commercial implementations are also
  available for	a wide range of	platforms.

  The X	Consortium requests that the following names be	used when referring
  to this software:

			   X Window System
			    X Version 11
		     X Window System, Version 11

  X Window System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.


  Most X programs attempt to use the same names	for command line options and
  arguments.  All applications written with the	X Toolkit Intrinsics automat-
  ically accept	the following options:

  -display display
      This option specifies the	name of	the X server to	use.

  -geometry geometry
      This option specifies the	initial	size and location of the window.

  -bg color, -background color
      Either option specifies the color	to use for the window background.

  -bd color, -bordercolor color
      Either option specifies the color	to use for the window border.

  -bw number, -borderwidth number
      Either option specifies the width	in pixels of the window	border.

  -fg color, -foreground color
      Either option specifies the color	to use for text	or graphics.

  -fn font, -font font
      Either option specifies the font to use for displaying text.

      This option indicates that the user would	prefer that the	application's
      windows initially	not be visible as if the windows had be	immediately
      iconified	by the user.  Window managers may choose not to	honor the
      application's request.

      This option specifies the	name under which resources for the
      application should be found.  This option	is useful in shell aliases to
      distinguish between invocations of an application, without resorting to
      creating links to	alter the executable file name.

  -rv, -reverse
      Either option indicates that the program should simulate reverse video
      if possible, often by swapping the foreground and	background colors.
      Not all programs honor this or implement it correctly.  It is usually
      only used	on monochrome displays.

  +rv This option indicates that the program should not	simulate reverse
      video. This is used to override any defaults since reverse video does
      not always work properly.

      This option specifies the	timeout	in milliseconds	within which two com-
      municating applications must respond to one another for a	selection

      This option indicates that requests to the X server should be sent syn-
      chronously, instead of asynchronously.  Since Xlib normally buffers
      requests to the server, errors do	not necessarily	get reported immedi-
      ately after they occur.  This option turns off the buffering so that
      the application can be debugged.	It should never	be used	with a work-
      ing program.

  -title string
      This option specifies the	title to be used for this window.  This
      information is sometimes used by a window	manager	to provide some	sort
      of header	identifying the	window.

  -xnllanguage language[_territory][.codeset]
      This option specifies the	language, territory, and codeset for use in
      resolving	resource and other filenames.

  -xrm resourcestring
      This option specifies a resource name and	value to override any
      defaults.	 It is also very useful	for setting resources that do not
      have explicit command line arguments.


  X Window System servers run on computers with	bitmap displays. The server
  distributes user input to and	accepts	output requests	from various client
  programs through a variety of	different interprocess communication chan-
  nels.	 Although the most common case is for the client programs to be	run-
  ning on the same machine as the server, clients can be run transparently
  from other machines (including machines with different architectures and
  operating systems) as	well.

  X supports overlapping hierarchical subwindows and text and graphics opera-
  tions, on both monochrome and	color displays.	For a full explanation of the
  functions that are available,	see the	Xlib --	C Language X Interface
  manual, the X	Window System Protocol specification, the X Toolkit Intrin-
  sics -- C Language Interface manual, and various toolkit documents.

  The number of	programs that use X is quite large.  Programs provided in the
  core X Consortium distribution include: a terminal emulator (xterm), a win-
  dow manager (twm), a display manager (xdm), a	console	redirect program
  (xconsole), a	mail interface (xmh), a	bitmap editor (bitmap),	resource
  listing/manipulation tools (appres, editres),	access control programs
  (xauth, xhost, and iceauth), user preference setting programs	(xrdb,
  xcmsdb, xset,	xsetroot, xstdcmap, and	xmodmap), clocks (xclock and oclock),
  a font displayer (xfd), utilities for	listing	information about fonts, win-
  dows,	and displays (xlsfonts,	xwininfo, xlsclients, xdpyinfo,	xlsatoms, and
  xprop), screen image manipulation utilities (xwd, xwud, and xmag), a per-
  formance measurement utility (x11perf), a font compiler (bdftopcf), a	font
  server and related utilities (xfs, fsinfo, fslsfonts,	fstobdf), an X Image
  Extension exerciser (xieperf), a display server and related utilities
  (Xserver, rgb, mkfontdir), remote execution utilities	(rstart	and xon), a
  clipboard manager (xclipboard), a keyboard description compiler (xkbcomp),
  a utility to terminate clients (xkill), and a	utility	to cause part or all
  of the screen	to be redrawn (xrefresh).

  Many other utilities,	window managers, games,	toolkits, and so forth.	 are
  included as user-contributed software	in the X Consortium distribution, or
  are available	using anonymous	ftp on the Internet. See your site adminis-
  trator for details.


  There	are two	main ways of getting the X server and an initial set of
  client applications started.	The particular method used depends on what
  operating system you are running and whether or not you use other window
  systems in addition to X.

  xdm (the X Display Manager)
      If you want to always have X running on your display, your site
      administrator can	set your machine up to use the X Display Manager xdm.
      This program is typically	started	by the system at boot time and takes
      care of keeping the server running and getting users logged in.  If you
      are running xdm, you will	see a window on	the screen welcoming you to
      the system and asking for	your username and password.  Simply type them
      in as you	would at a normal terminal, pressing the Return	key after
      each.  If	you make a mistake, xdm	will display an	error message and ask
      you to try again.	 After you have	successfully logged in,	xdm will
      start up your X environment.  By default,	if you have an executable
      file named .xsession in your home	directory, xdm will treat it as	a
      program (or shell	script)	to run to start	up your	initial	clients	(such
      as terminal emulators, clocks, a window manager, user settings for
      things like the background, the speed of the pointer, and	so forth.).
      Your site	administrator can provide details.


  From the user's prospective, every X server has a display name of the	form:


  This information is used by the application to determine how it should con-
  nect to the server and which screen it should	use by default (on displays
  with multiple	monitors):

      The hostname specifies the name of the machine to	which the display is
      physically connected.  If	the hostname is	not given, the most efficient
      way of communicating to a	server on the same machine will	be used.

      The phrase "display" is usually used to refer to collection of monitors
      that share a common keyboard and pointer (mouse, tablet, and so
      forth.).	Most workstations tend to only have one	keyboard, and there-
      fore, only one display.  Larger, multi-user systems, however, fre-
      quently have several displays so that more than one person can be	doing
      graphics work at once.  To avoid confusion, each display on a machine
      is assigned a display number (beginning at 0) when the X server for
      that display is started.	The display number must	always be given	in a
      display name.

      Some displays share a single keyboard and	pointer	among two or more
      monitors.	Since each monitor has its own set of windows, each screen is
      assigned a screen	number (beginning at 0)	when the X server for that
      display is started.  If the screen number	is not given, screen 0 will
      be used.

  On POSIX systems, the	default	display	name is	stored in your DISPLAY
  environment variable.	 This variable is set automatically by the xterm ter-
  minal	emulator.  However, when you log into another machine on a network,
  you will need	to set DISPLAY by hand to point	to your	display.  For exam-

	   % setenv DISPLAY myws:0
	   $ DISPLAY=myws:0; export DISPLAY

  The xon script can be	used to	start an X program on a	remote machine;	it
  automatically	sets the DISPLAY variable correctly.

  Finally, most	X programs accept a command line option	of -display display-
  name to temporarily override the contents of DISPLAY.	 This is most com-
  monly	used to	pop windows on another person's	screen or as part of a
  "remote shell" command to start an xterm pointing back to your display.
  For example,

	   % xeyes -display joesws:0 -geometry 1000x1000+0+0
	   % rsh big xterm -display myws:0 -ls </dev/null &

  X servers listen for connections on a	variety	of different communications
  channels (network byte streams, shared memory, and so	forth.). Since there
  can be more than one way of contacting a given server, the hostname part of
  the display name is used to determine	the type of channel (also called a
  transport layer) to be used.	X servers generally support the	following
  types	of connections:

      The hostname part	of the display name should be the empty	string.	For
      example: :0, :1, and :0.1.  The most efficient local transport will be

      The hostname part	of the display name should be the server machine's IP
      address name.  Full Internet names, abbreviated names, and IP addresses
      are all allowed.	For example: x.org:0, expo:0,, big-
      machine:1, and hydra:0.1.

      The hostname part	of the display name should be the server machine's
      nodename,	followed by two	colons instead of one. For example: myws::0,
      big::1, and hydra::0.1.


  An X server can use several types of access control.	Mechanisms provided
  in Release 6 are:

	   Host	Access	    Simple host-based access control.
	   MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1	   Shared plain-text "cookies".
	   MIT-KERBEROS-5   Kerberos Version 5 user-to-user.

  xdm initializes access control for the server	and also places	authorization
  information in a file	accessible to the user.	Normally, the list of hosts
  from which connections are always accepted should be empty, so that only
  clients with are explicitly authorized can connect to	the display.  When
  you add entries to the host list (with xhost), the server no longer per-
  forms	any authorization on connections from those machines.  Be careful
  with this.

  The file from	which Xlib extracts authorization data can be specified	with
  the environment variable XAUTHORITY, and defaults to the file	.Xauthority
  in the home directory.  xdm uses $HOME/.Xauthority and will create it	or
  merge	in authorization records if it already exists when a user logs in.

  If you use several machines and share	a common home directory	across all of
  the machines by means	of a network file system, you never really have	to
  worry	about authorization files, the system should work correctly by
  default.  Otherwise, as the authorization files are machine-independent,
  you can simply copy the files	to share them. To manage authorization files,
  use xauth. This program allows you to	extract	records	and insert them	into
  other	files.	Using this, you	can send authorization to remote machines
  when you login, if the remote	machine	does not share a common	home direc-
  tory with your local machine.	Note that authorization	information transmit-
  ted "in the clear" through a network file system or using ftp	or rcp can be
  "stolen" by a	network	eavesdropper, and as such may enable unauthorized
  access. In many environments,	this level of security is not a	concern, but
  if it	is, you	need to	know the exact semantics of the	particular authoriza-
  tion data to know if this is actually	a problem.

  For more information on access control, see the XSecurity(1X)	manual page.


  One of the advantages	of using window	systems	instead	of hardwired termi-
  nals is that applications do not have	to be restricted to a particular size
  or location on the screen. Although the layout of windows on a display is
  controlled by	the window manager that	the user is running (described
  below), most X programs accept a command line	argument of the	form
  numbers) for specifying a preferred size and location	for this
  application's	main window.

  The WIDTH and	HEIGHT parts of	the geometry specification are usually meas-
  ured in either pixels	or characters, depending on the	application. The XOFF
  and YOFF parts are measured in pixels	and are	used to	specify	the distance
  of the window	from the left or right and top and bottom edges	of the
  screen, respectively.	 Both types of offsets are measured from the indi-
  cated	edge of	the screen to the corresponding	edge of	the window.  The X
  offset may be	specified in the following ways:

      The left edge of the window is to	be placed XOFF pixels in from the
      left edge	of the screen (that is,	the X coordinate of the	window's ori-
      gin will be XOFF).  XOFF may be negative,	in which case the window's
      left edge	will be	off the	screen.

      The right	edge of	the window is to be placed XOFF	pixels in from the
      right edge of the	screen.	 XOFF may be negative, in which	case the
      window's right edge will be off the screen.

  The Y	offset has similar meanings:

      The top edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels below the	top edge of
      the screen (that is, the Y coordinate of the window's origin will	be
      YOFF).  YOFF may be negative, in which case the window's top edge	will
      be off the screen.

      The bottom edge of the window is to be YOFF pixels above the bottom
      edge of the screen.  YOFF	may be negative, in which case the window's
      bottom edge will be off the screen.

  Offsets must be given	as pairs; in other words, in order to specify either
  XOFF or YOFF both must be present.  Windows can be placed in the four
  corners of the screen	using the following specifications:

      upper left hand corner.

      upper right hand corner.

      lower right hand corner.

      lower left hand corner.

  In the following examples, a terminal	emulator is placed in roughly the
  center of the	screen and a load average monitor, mailbox, and	clock are
  placed in the	upper right hand corner:

	   xterm -fn 6x10 -geometry 80x24+30+200 &
	   xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 &
	   xload -geometry 48x48-96+0 &
	   xbiff -geometry 48x48-48+0 &


  The layout of	windows	on the screen is controlled by special programs
  called window	managers.  Although many window	managers will honor geometry
  specifications as given, others may choose to	ignore them (requiring the
  user to explicitly draw the window's region on the screen with the pointer,
  for example).

  Since	window managers	are regular (albeit complex) client programs, a
  variety of different user interfaces can be built.  The X Consortium dis-
  tribution comes with a window	manager	named twm which	supports overlapping
  windows, popup menus,	point-and-click	or click-to-type input models, title
  bars,	nice icons (and	an icon	manager	for those who do not like separate
  icon windows).

  See the user-contributed software in the X Consortium	distribution for
  other	popular	window managers.


  Collections of characters for	displaying text	and symbols in X are known as
  fonts.  A font typically contains images that	share a	common appearance and
  look nice together (for example, a single size, boldness, slant, and char-
  acter	set).  Similarly, collections of fonts that are	based on a common
  type face (the variations are	usually	called roman, bold, italic, bold
  italic, oblique, and bold oblique) are called	families.

  Fonts	come in	various	sizes.	The X server supports scalable fonts, meaning
  it is	possible to create a font of arbitrary size from a single source for
  the font.  The server	supports scaling from outline fonts and	bitmap fonts.
  Scaling from outline fonts usually produces significantly better results
  than scaling from bitmap fonts.

  An X server can obtain fonts from individual files stored in directories in
  the file system, or from one or more font servers, or	from a mixtures	of
  directories and font servers.	The list of places the server looks when try-
  ing to find a	font is	controlled by its font path.  Although most installa-
  tions	will choose to have the	server start up	with all of the	commonly used
  font directories in the font path, the font path can be changed at any time
  with the xset	program. However, it is	important to remember that the direc-
  tory names are on the	server's machine, not on the application's.

  Bitmap font files are	usually	created	by compiling a textual font descrip-
  tion into binary form, using bdftopcf. Font databases	are created by run-
  ning the mkfontdir program in	the directory containing the source or com-
  piled	versions of the	fonts. Whenever	fonts are added	to a directory,
  mkfontdir should be rerun so that the	server can find	the new	fonts.	To
  make the server reread the font database, reset the font path	with the xset
  program.  For	example, to add	a font to a private directory, the following
  commands could be used:

	   % cp	newfont.pcf ~/myfonts
	   % mkfontdir ~/myfonts
	   % xset fp rehash

  The xfontsel and xlsfonts programs can be used to browse through the fonts
  available on a server. Font names tend to be fairly long as they contain
  all of the information needed	to uniquely identify individual	fonts.	How-
  ever,	the X server supports wildcarding of font names, so the	full specifi-


  might	be abbreviated as:


  Because the shell also has special meanings for * and	?, wildcarded font
  names	should be quoted:

	   % xlsfonts -fn '-*-courier-medium-r-normal--*-100-*-*-*-*-*-*'

  The xlsfonts program can be used to list all of the fonts that match a
  given	pattern.  With no arguments, it	lists all available fonts. This	will
  usually list the same	font at	many different sizes.  To see just the base
  scalable font	names, try using one of	the following patterns:


  To convert one of the	resulting names	into a font at a specific size,
  replace one of the first two zeros with a nonzero value. The field contain-
  ing the first	zero is	for the	pixel size; replace it with a specific height
  in pixels to name a font at that size. Alternatively,	the field containing
  the second zero is for the point size; replace it with a specific size in
  decipoints (there are	722.7 decipoints to the	inch) to name a	font at	that
  size.	The last zero is an average width field, measured in tenths of pix-
  els; some servers will anamorphically	scale if this value is specified.


  One of the following forms can be used to name a font	server that accepts
  TCP connections:


  The hostname specifies the name (or decimal numeric address) of the machine
  on which the font server is running.	The port is the	decimal	TCP port on
  which	the font server	is listening for connections. The cataloguelist
  specifies a list of catalogue	names, with '+'	as a separator.

  Examples: tcp/x.org:7100, tcp/

  One of the following forms can be used to name a font	server that accepts
  DECnet connections:


  The nodename specifies the name (or decimal numeric address) of the machine
  on which the font server is running. The objname is a	normal,	case-
  insensitive DECnet object name. The cataloguelist specifies a	list of
  catalogue names, with	'+' as a separator.

  Examples: DECnet/SRVNOD::FONT$DEFAULT, decnet/44.70::font$special/symbols.


  Most applications provide ways of tailoring (usually through resources or
  command line arguments) the colors of	various	elements in the	text and
  graphics they	display. A color can be	specified either by an abstract	color
  name,	or by a	numerical color	specification. The numerical specification
  can identify a color in either device-dependent (RGB)	or device-independent
  terms.  Color	strings	are case-insensitive.

  X supports the use of	abstract color names, for example, "red", "blue".  A
  value	for this abstract name is obtained by searching	one or more color
  name databases.  Xlib	first searches zero or more client-side	databases;
  the number, location,	and content of these databases is implementation
  dependent. If	the name is not	found, the color is looked up in the X
  server's database. The text form of this database is commonly	stored in the
  file <&lt;XRoot>&gt;/lib/X11/rgb.txt,	where <&lt;XRoot>&gt; is replaced by the root of the
  X11 install tree.

  A numerical color specification consists of a	color space name and a set of
  values in the	following syntax:


  An RGB Device	specification is identified by the prefix "rgb:" and has the
  following syntax:


	       <red>, <green>, <blue> := h | hh	| hhh |	hhhh
	       h := single hexadecimal digits

  Note that h indicates	the value scaled in 4 bits, hh the value scaled	in 8
  bits,	hhh the	value scaled in	12 bits, and hhhh the value scaled in 16
  bits,	respectively. These values are passed directly to the X	server,	and
  are assumed to be gamma corrected.

  The eight primary colors can be represented as:

	   black			    rgb:0/0/0
	   red				    rgb:ffff/0/0
	   green			    rgb:0/ffff/0
	   blue				    rgb:0/0/ffff
	   yellow			    rgb:ffff/ffff/0
	   magenta			    rgb:ffff/0/ffff
	   cyan				    rgb:0/ffff/ffff
	   white			    rgb:ffff/ffff/ffff

  For backward compatibility, an older syntax for RGB Device is	supported,
  but its continued use	is not encouraged. The syntax is an initial sharp
  sign character followed by a numeric specification, in one of	the following

	   #RGB				    (4 bits each)
	   #RRGGBB			    (8 bits each)
	   #RRRGGGBBB			    (12	bits each)
	   #RRRRGGGGBBBB		    (16	bits each)

  The R, G, and	B represent single hexadecimal digits. When fewer than 16
  bits each are	specified, they	represent the most-significant bits of the
  value	(unlike	the "rgb:" syntax, in which values are scaled).	For example,
  #3a7 is the same as #3000a0007000.

  An RGB intensity specification is identified by the prefix "rgbi:" and has
  the following	syntax:


  The red, green, and blue are floating	point values between 0.0 and 1.0,
  inclusive. They represent linear intensity values, with 1.0 indicating full
  intensity, 0.5 half intensity, and so	on. These values will be gamma
  corrected by Xlib before being sent to the X server. The input format	for
  these	values is an optional sign, a string of	numbers	possibly containing a
  decimal point, and an	optional exponent field	containing an E	or e followed
  by a possibly	signed integer string.

  The standard device-independent string specifications	have the following

	   CIEXYZ:<X>/<Y>/<Z>(none, 1, none)
	 CIEuvY:<u>/<v>/<Y>(~.6, ~.6, 1)
	 CIExyY:<x>/<y>/<Y>(~.75, ~.85,	1)
	 CIELab:<L>/<a>/<b>(100, none, none)
	 CIELuv:<L>/<u>/<v>(100, none, none)
	 TekHVC:<H>/<V>/<C>(360, 100, 100)

  All of the values (C,	H, V, X, Y, Z, a, b, u,	v, y, x) are floating point
  values.  Some	of the values are constrained to be between zero and some
  upper	bound; the upper bounds	are given in parentheses above.	The syntax
  for these values is an optional '+' or '-' sign, a string of digits possi-
  bly containing a decimal point, and an optional exponent field consisting
  of an	'E' or 'e' followed by an optional '+' or '-' followed by a string of

  For more information on device independent color, see	the Xlib reference


  The X	keyboard model is broken into two layers:  server-specific codes
  (called keycodes) which represent the	physical keys, and server-independent
  symbols (called keysyms) which represent the letters or words	that appear
  on the keys. Two tables are kept in the server for converting	keycodes to

  modifier list
      Some keys	(such as Shift,	Control, and Caps Lock)	are known as modifier
      and are used to select different symbols that are	attached to a single
      key (such	as Shift-a generates a capital A, and Control-l	generates a
      control character	^L).  The server keeps a list of keycodes correspond-
      ing to the various modifier keys.	 Whenever a key	is pressed or
      released,	the server generates an	event that contains the	keycode	of
      the indicated key	as well	as a mask that specifies which of the modif-
      ier keys are currently pressed. Most servers set up this list to ini-
      tially contain the various shift,	control, and shift lock	keys on	the

  keymap table
      Applications translate event keycodes and	modifier masks into keysyms
      using a keysym table which contains one row for each keycode and one
      column for various modifier states.  This	table is initialized by	the
      server to	correspond to normal typewriter	conventions.  The exact
      semantics	of how the table is interpreted	to produce keysyms depends on
      the particular program, libraries, and language input method used, but
      the following conventions	for the	first four keysyms in each row are
      generally	adhered	to:

  The first four elements of the list are split	into two groups	of keysyms.
  Group	1 contains the first and second	keysyms; Group 2 contains the third
  and fourth keysyms. Within each group, if the	first element is alphabetic
  and the second element is the	special	keysym NoSymbol, then the group	is
  treated as equivalent	to a group in which the	first element is the lower-
  case letter and the second element is	the uppercase letter.

  Switching between groups is controlled by the	keysym named MODE SWITCH, by
  attaching that keysym	to some	key and	attaching that key to any one of the
  modifiers Mod1 through Mod5. This modifier is	called the "group modifier."
  Group	1 is used when the group modifier is off, and Group 2 is used when
  the group modifier is	on.

  Within a group, the modifier state determines	which keysym to	use. The
  first	keysym is used when the	Shift and Lock modifiers are off. The second
  keysym is used when the Shift	modifier is on,	when the Lock modifier is on
  and the second keysym	is uppercase alphabetic, or when the Lock modifier is
  on and is interpreted	as ShiftLock. Otherwise, when the Lock modifier	is on
  and is interpreted as	CapsLock, the state of the Shift modifier is applied
  first	to select a keysym; but	if that	keysym is lowercase alphabetic,	then
  the corresponding uppercase keysym is	used instead.


  To make the tailoring	of applications	to personal preferences	easier,	X
  provides a mechanism for storing default values for program resources	(for
  example, background color, window title, and so forth.) Resources are
  specified as strings that are	read in	from various places when an applica-
  tion is run.	Program	components are named in	a hierarchical fashion,	with
  each node in the hierarchy identified	by a class and an instance name. At
  the top level	is the class and instance name of the application itself. By
  convention, the class	name of	the application	is the same as the program
  name,	but with  the first letter capitalized (for example, Bitmap or Emacs)
  although some	programs that begin with the letter "x"	also capitalize	the
  second letter	for historical reasons.

  The precise syntax for resources is:



			 Comment | IncludeFile | ResourceSpec |
			 <empty	line>


			 "!" {<any character except null or new-


			 "#" WhiteSpace	"include" WhiteSpace
			 FileName WhiteSpace
  FileName		 <valid	filename for operating system>



			 WhiteSpace ResourceName WhiteSpace ":"
			 WhiteSpace Value


			 [Binding] {Component Binding} Com-
  Binding		 "." | "*"



			 {<space> | <horizontal	tab>}
  Component		 "?" | ComponentName

  ComponentName		 NameChar {NameChar}

  NameChar		 "a"-"z" | "A"-"Z" | "0"-"9" | "_" | "-"




			 {<any character except	null or	unescaped

  Elements separated by	vertical bar (|) are alternatives. Curly braces
  ({...}) indicate zero	or more	repetitions of the enclosed elements. Square
  brackets ([...]) indicate that the enclosed element is optional. Quotes
  ("...") are used around literal characters.

  IncludeFile lines are	interpreted by replacing the line with the contents
  of the specified file.  The word "include" must be in	lowercase. The
  filename is interpreted relative to the directory of the file	in which the
  line occurs (for example, if the filename contains no	directory or contains
  a relative directory specification).

  If a ResourceName contains a contiguous sequence of two or more Binding
  characters, the sequence will	be replaced with single	"." character if the
  sequence contains only "." characters, otherwise the sequence	will be
  replaced with	a single "*" character.

  A resource database never contains more than one entry for a given Resour-
  ceName.  If a	resource file contains multiple	lines with the same Resour-
  ceName, the last line	in the file is used.

  Any whitespace character before or after the name or colon in	a Resour-
  ceSpec are ignored. To allow a Value to begin	with whitespace, the two-
  character sequence "\space" (backslash followed by space) is recognized and
  replaced by a	space character, and the two-character sequence	"\tab"
  (backslash followed by horizontal tab) is recognized and replaced by a hor-
  izontal tab character. To allow a Value to contain embedded newline charac-
  ters,	the two-character sequence "\n"	is recognized and replaced by a	new-
  line character. To allow a Value to be broken	across multiple	lines in a
  text file, the two-character sequence	"\newline" (backslash followed by
  newline) is recognized and removed from the value. To	allow a	Value to con-
  tain arbitrary character codes, the four-character sequence "\nnn", where
  each n is a digit character in the range of "0"-"7", is recognized and
  replaced with	a single byte that contains the	octal value specified by the
  sequence. Finally, the two-character sequence	"\\" is	recognized and
  replaced with	a single backslash.

  When an application looks for	the value of a resource, it specifies a	com-
  plete	path in	the hierarchy, with both class and instance names. However,
  resource values are usually given with only partially	specified names	and
  classes, using pattern matching constructs. An asterisk (*) is a loose
  binding and is used to represent any number of intervening components,
  including none.  A period (.)	is a tight binding and is used to separate
  immediately adjacent components. A question mark (?) is used to match	any
  single component name	or class. A database entry cannot end in a loose
  binding; the final component (which cannot be	"?") must be specified.	The
  lookup algorithm searches the	resource database for the entry	that most
  closely matches (is most specific for) the full name and class being
  queried. When	more than one database entry matches the full name and class,
  precedence rules are used to select just one.

  The full name	and class are scanned from left	to right (from highest level
  in the hierarchy to lowest), one component at	a time.	At each	level, the
  corresponding	component and/or binding of each matching entry	is deter-
  mined, and these matching components and bindings are	compared according to
  precedence rules. Each of the	rules is applied at each level,	before moving
  to the next level, until a rule selects a single entry over all others. The
  rules	(in order of precedence) are:

   1.  An entry	that contains a	matching component (whether name, class, or
       "?") takes precedence over entries that elide the level (that is,
       entries that match the level in a loose binding).

   2.  An entry	with a matching	name takes precedence over both	entries	with
       a matching class	and entries that match using "?". An entry with	a
       matching	class takes precedence over entries that match using "?".

   3.  An entry	preceded by a tight binding takes precedence over entries
       preceded	by a loose binding.

  Programs based on the	X Tookit Intrinsics obtain resources from the follow-
  ing sources (other programs usually support some subset of these sources):

  RESOURCE_MANAGER root	window property
      Any global resources that	should be available to clients on all
      machines should be stored	in the RESOURCE_MANAGER	property on the	root
      window of	the first screen using the xrdb	program. This is frequently
      taken care of when the user starts up X through the display manager.

  SCREEN_RESOURCES root	window property
      Any resources specific to	a given	screen (for example, colors) that
      should be	available to clients on	all machines should be stored in the
      SCREEN_RESOURCES property	on the root window of that screen. The xrdb
      program will sort	resources automatically	and place them in

  application-specific files
      Directories named	by the environment variable XUSERFILESEARCHPATH	or
      the environment variable XAPPLRESDIR (which names	a single directory
      and should end with a '/'	on POSIX systems), plus	directories in a
      standard place (usually under <&lt;XRoot>&gt;/lib/X11/, but this can be over-
      ridden with the XFILESEARCHPATH environment variable) are	searched for
      application-specific resources. For example, application default
      resources	are usually kept in <&lt;XRoot>&gt;/lib/X11/app-defaults/. See the X
      Toolkit Intrinsics -- C Language Interface manual	for details.

      Any user-	and machine-specific resources may be specified	by setting
      the XENVIRONMENT environment variable to the name	of a resource file to
      be loaded	by all applications.  If this variable is not defined, a file
      named $HOME/.Xdefaults-hostname is looked	for instead, where hostname
      is the name of the host where the	application is executing.

  -xrm resourcestring
      Resources	can also be specified from the command line.  The resource-
      string is	a single resource name and value as shown above.  Note that
      if the string contains characters	interpreted by the shell (for exam-
      ple, asterisk), they must	be quoted. Any number of -xrm arguments	may
      be given on the command line.

  Program resources are	organized into groups called classes, so that collec-
  tions	of individual resources	(each of which are called instances) can be
  set all at once.  By convention, the instance	name of	a resource begins
  with a lowercase letter and class name with an upper case letter. Multiple
  word resources are concatenated with the first letter	of the succeeding
  words	capitalized.  Applications written with	the X Toolkit Intrinsics will
  have at least	the following resources:

  background (class Background)
      This resource specifies the color	to use for the window background.

  borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
      This resource specifies the width	in pixels of the window	border.

  borderColor (class BorderColor)
      This resource specifies the color	to use for the window border.

  Most applications using the X	Toolkit	Intrinsics also	have the resource
  foreground (class Foreground), specifying the	color to use for text and
  graphics within the window.

  By combining class and instance specifications, application preferences can
  be set quickly and easily.  Users of color displays will frequently want to
  set Background and Foreground	classes	to particular defaults.	Specific
  color	instances such as text cursors can then	be overridden without having
  to define all	of the related resources.  For example,

	   bitmap*Dashed:  off
	   XTerm*cursorColor:  gold
	   XTerm*multiScroll:  on
	   XTerm*jumpScroll:  on
	   XTerm*reverseWrap:  on
	   XTerm*curses:  on
	   XTerm*Font:	6x10
	   XTerm*scrollBar: on
	   XTerm*scrollbar*thickness: 5
	   XTerm*multiClickTime: 500
	   XTerm*charClass:  33:48,37:48,45-47:48,64:48
	   XTerm*cutNewline: off
	   XTerm*cutToBeginningOfLine: off
	   XTerm*titeInhibit:  on
	   XTerm*ttyModes:  intr ^c erase ^? kill ^u
	   XLoad*Background: gold
	   XLoad*Foreground: red
	   XLoad*highlight: black
	   XLoad*borderWidth: 0
	   emacs*Geometry:  80x65-0-0
	   emacs*Background:  rgb:5b/76/86
	   emacs*Foreground:  white
	   emacs*Cursor:  white
	   emacs*BorderColor:  white
	   emacs*Font:	6x10
	   xmag*geometry: -0-0
	   xmag*borderColor:  white

  If these resources were stored in a file called .Xresources in your home
  directory, they could	be added to any	existing resources in the server with
  the following	command:

	   % xrdb -merge $HOME/.Xresources

  This is frequently how user-friendly startup scripts merge user-specific
  defaults into	any site-wide defaults.	 All sites are encouraged to set up
  convenient ways of automatically loading resources. See the Xlib manual
  section Resource Manager Functions for more information.


  The following	is a collection	of sample command lines	for some of the	more
  frequently used commands.  For more information on a particular command,
  please refer to that command's manual	page.

	   %  xrdb $HOME/.Xresources
	   %  xmodmap -e "keysym BackSpace = Delete"
	   %  mkfontdir	/usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xset fp+ /usr/local/lib/X11/otherfonts
	   %  xmodmap $HOME/.keymap.km
	   %  xsetroot -solid 'rgbi:.8/.8/.8'
	   %  xset b 100 400 c 50 s 1800 r on
	   %  xset q
	   %  twm
	   %  xmag
	   %  xclock -geometry 48x48-0+0 -bg blue -fg white
	   %  xeyes -geometry 48x48-48+0
	   %  xbiff -update 20
	   %  xlsfonts '*helvetica*'
	   %  xwininfo -root
	   %  xdpyinfo -display	joesworkstation:0
	   %  xhost -joesworkstation
	   %  xrefresh
	   %  xwd | xwud
	   %  bitmap companylogo.bm 32x32
	   %  xcalc -bg	blue -fg magenta
	   %  xterm -geometry 80x66-0-0	-name myxterm $*
	   %  xon filesysmachine xload


  A wide variety of error messages are generated from various programs.	 The
  default error	handler	in Xlib	(also used by many toolkits) uses standard
  resources to construct diagnostic messages when errors occur.	 The defaults
  for these messages are usually stored	in <&lt;XRoot>&gt;/lib/X11/XErrorDB. If	this
  file is not present, error messages will be rather terse and cryptic.

  When the X Toolkit Intrinsics	encounter errors converting resource strings
  to the appropriate internal format, no error messages	are usually printed.
  This is convenient when it is	desirable to have one set of resources across
  a variety of displays	(for example, color vs.	monochrome, lots of fonts vs.
  very few, and	so forth.), although it	can pose problems for trying to
  determine why	an application might be	failing.  This behavior	can be over-
  ridden by the	setting	the StringConversionsWarning resource.

  To force the X Toolkit Intrinsics to always print string conversion error
  messages, the	following resource should be placed in the file	that gets
  loaded onto the RESOURCE_MANAGER property using the xrdb program (fre-
  quently called .Xresources or	.Xres in the user's home directory):

	   *StringConversionWarnings: on

  To have conversion messages printed for just a particular application, the
  appropriate instance name can	be placed before the asterisk:

	   xterm*StringConversionWarnings: on


  X Window System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc. Fresco is a registered
  trademark of X Consortium, Inc.


  XConsortium(1X), XStandards(1X), XSecurity(1X), appres(1X), bdftopcf(1X),
  bitmap(1X), editres(1X), fsinfo(1X), fslsfonts(1X), fstobdf(1X), ico(1X),
  imake(1X), makedepend(1X), maze(1X), mkdirhier(1X), mkfontdir(1X),
  oclock(1X), puzzle(1X), resize(1X), rstart(1X), showfont(1X),	showrgb(1X),
  twm(1X), viewres(1X),	x11perf(1X), x11perfcomp(1X), xauth(1X), xbiff(1X),
  xcalc(1X), xclipboard(1X), xclock(1X), xcmsdb(1X), xconsole(1X),
  xcutsel(1X), xdm(1X),	xdpr(1X), xdpyinfo(1X),	xedit(1X), xev(1X),
  xeyes(1X), xfd(1X), xfs(1X), xfontsel(1X), xgc(1X), xhost(1X), xieperf(1X),
  xkbcomp(1X), xkill(1X), xlogo(1X), xlsatoms(1X), xlsclients(1X),
  xlsfonts(1X),	xmag(1X), xmh(1X), xmkmf(1X), xmodmap(1X), xon(1X), xpr(1X),
  xprop(1X), xrdb(1X), xrefresh(1X), xset(1X), xsetroot(1X), xstdcmap(1X),
  xterm(1X), xwd(1X), xwininfo(1X), xwud(1X), Xserver(1X), Xdec(1X), Xlib --
  C Language X Interface, and X	Toolkit	Intrinsics -- C	Language Interface


  A cast of thousands, literally.  The Release 6 distribution is brought to
  you by X Consortium, Inc.  The names of all people who made it a reality
  will be found	in the individual documents and	source files.  The staff
  members at the X Consortium responsible for this release are:	Donna Con-
  verse, Gary Cutbill, Stephen Gildea, Jay Hersh, Kaleb	Keithley, Matt Lan-
  dau, Ralph Mor, Janet	O'Halloran, Bob	Scheifler, Ralph Swick,	and Dave Wig-

  The X	Window System standard was originally developed	at the Laboratory for
  Computer Science at the Massachusetts	Institute of Technology, and all
  rights thereto were assigned to the X	Consortium on January 1, 1994.